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Sheryl Kara Sandberg (born August 28, 1969)[4] is an American technology executive, activist, author, and billionaire. She is the chief operating officer (COO) of Facebook and founder of Leanin.org. In June 2012, she was elected to Facebook's board of directors by the existing board members,[5] becoming the first woman to serve on its board. Before she joined Facebook as its COO, Sandberg was vice president of global online sales and operations at Google, and was involved in launching Google's philanthropic arm Google.org. Before Google, Sandberg served as chief of staff for United States Secretary of the Treasury Lawrence Summers.

Sheryl Sandberg
Sheryl Sandberg 2013.jpg
Sandberg at Facebook London, April 2013
BornSheryl Kara Sandberg
(1969-08-28) August 28, 1969 (age 49)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
ResidenceMenlo Park, California, U.S.[1]
Alma materHarvard College (A.B.)
Harvard Business School (M.B.A.)
OccupationCOO of Facebook
Years active1991–present
SalaryUS$25.2 million[2] (2017)
Net worthUS$1.60 billion[3] (2018)
Political partyDemocratic
Board member ofFacebook
The Walt Disney Company
Women for Women International
Center for Global Development
V-Day
SurveyMonkey
Spouse(s)
Brian Kraff
(m. 1993; div. 1994)

Dave Goldberg
(m. 2004; died 2015)
Children2 (with Goldberg)

In 2012, she was named in the Time 100, an annual list of the most influential people in the world according to Time magazine.[6] As of June 2015, Sandberg is reported to be worth over US$1 billion, due to her stock holdings in Facebook and other companies.[7][8]

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

Sandberg was born in 1969 in Washington, D.C. to a Jewish family,[9][10] the daughter of Adele (née Einhorn) and Joel Sandberg, and the oldest of three children.[4][11] Her father is an ophthalmologist, and her mother was a college teacher of French language.[9]

Her family moved to North Miami Beach, Florida, when she was two years old.[9] She attended North Miami Beach High School, where she was "always at the top of her class", and graduated ninth in her class with a 4.646 grade point average.[9][12] She was sophomore class president, became a member of the National Honor Society, and was on the senior class executive board.[12] Sandberg taught aerobics in the 1980s while in high school.[13]

In 1987, Sandberg enrolled at Harvard College. She graduated in 1991 summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa[14] with a bachelor's degree in economics and was awarded the John H. Williams Prize for the top graduating student in economics.[15] While at Harvard, she co-founded an organization called Women in Economics and Government.[12] She met then-professor Larry Summers, who became her mentor and thesis adviser.[16] Summers recruited her to be his research assistant at the World Bank,[9] where she worked for approximately one year on health projects in India dealing with leprosy, AIDS, and blindness.[17]

In 1993, she enrolled at Harvard Business School and in 1995 she earned her MBA with highest distinction.[15] In her first year of business school, she earned a fellowship.[18]

CareerEdit

Early careerEdit

After graduating from business school in the spring of 1995, Sandberg worked as a management consultant for McKinsey & Company for approximately one year (1995-1996). From 1996 to 2001 she again worked for Larry Summers, who was then serving as the United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Bill Clinton. Sandberg assisted in the Treasury's work on forgiving debt in the developing world during the Asian financial crisis.[17]

She later joined Google, where she was responsible for online sales of Google's advertising and publishing products as well as for sales operations of Google's consumer products and Google Book Search.[19] During her time at Google, she grew the ad and sales team from four people to 4,000.[20]

FacebookEdit

In late 2007, Mark Zuckerberg, co-founder and chief executive of Facebook, met Sandberg at a Christmas party held by Dan Rosensweig.[9] Zuckerberg had no formal search for a Chief Operating Officer (COO), but thought of Sandberg as "a perfect fit" for this role.[9] In March 2008, Facebook announced the hiring of Sandberg for the role of COO and her leaving Google.[21]

After joining the company, Sandberg quickly began trying to figure out how to make Facebook profitable. Before she joined, the company was "primarily interested in building a really cool site; profits, they assumed, would follow."[9] By late spring,[when?] Facebook's leadership had agreed to rely on advertising, "with the ads discreetly presented"; by 2010, Facebook became profitable.[9] According to Facebook, she oversees the firm's business operations including sales, marketing, business development, human resources, public policy, and communications.[22]

In 2012 she became the eighth member (and the first woman) of Facebook's board of directors.[23]

In April 2014, it was reported that Sandberg had sold over half of her shares in Facebook since the company went public. At the time of Facebook's IPO she held approximately 41 million shares in the company; after several rounds of sales she is left with around 17.2 million shares, amounting to a stake of 0.5% in the company, worth about $1 billion.[24]

According to The New York Times in November 2018, Sandberg "has overseen an aggressive lobbying campaign to combat Facebook’s critics, shift public anger toward rival companies and ward off damaging regulation. Facebook employed a Republican opposition-research firm to discredit activist protesters, in part by linking them to the liberal financier George Soros. It also tapped its business relationships, lobbying a Jewish civil rights group to cast some criticism of the company as anti-Semitic."[25]

BoardsEdit

In 2009 Sandberg was named to the board of The Walt Disney Company.[26] She also serves on the boards of Women for Women International, the Center for Global Development and V-Day.[22] She was previously a board member of Starbucks,[27] Brookings Institution and Ad Council.

Other work and venturesEdit

In 2008 Sandberg wrote an article for The Huffington Post in support of her mentor, Larry Summers, who was under fire for his comments about women.[28] She was a keynote speaker at the Jewish Community Federation's Business Leadership Council in 2010.[29] In December 2010, she gave a TED speech titled "Why we have too few women leaders."[30] In May 2011 she gave the Commencement Address at the Barnard College graduation ceremony.[31] She spoke as the keynote speaker at the Class Day ceremony at the Harvard Business School in May 2012.[32] In April 2013, she was the keynote speaker during the second annual Entrepreneur Weekend at Colgate University, in Hamilton, NY.[33] In 2015 she signed an open letter which the ONE Campaign had been collecting signatures for; the letter was addressed to Angela Merkel and Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, urging them to focus on women as they serve as the head of the G7 in Germany and the AU in South Africa respectively, which will start to set the priorities in development funding before a main UN summit in September 2015 that will establish new development goals for the generation.[34] In 2016, she delivered the Commencement Address at the University of California, Berkeley graduation ceremony. It was the first time she spoke publicly about her husband's death, and stressed the importance of resilience.[35] The following year she delivered the Commencement Address to Virginia Tech's Class of 2017. On June 8, 2018 she gave the Commencement Address for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA.[36]

Lean InEdit

Sandberg released her first book, Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead, co-authored by Nell Scovell and published by Knopf on March 11, 2013.

The book concerns business leadership and development, issues with the lack of women in government and business leadership positions, and feminism.[37][38][39][40][41][42] As of the fall of 2013, the book had sold more than one million copies and was on top of the bestseller lists since its launch.[43]

Lean In is intended for professional women to help them achieve their career goals and for men who want to contribute to a more equitable society. The book argues that barriers are still preventing women from taking leadership roles in the workplace, barriers such as discrimination, blatant and subtle sexism, and sexual harassment.[44] Sandberg claims there are also barriers that women create for themselves through internalizing systematic discrimination and societal gender roles. Sandberg argues that in order for change to happen women need to break down these societal and personal barriers by striving for and achieving leadership roles. The ultimate goal is to encourage women to lean in to positions of leadership because she believes that by having more female voices in positions of power there will be more equitable opportunities created for everyone.

A truly equal world would be one where women ran half our countries and companies and men ran half our homes.[45]

Criticism of the book include claims that Sandberg is "too elitist" and another that she is "tone-deaf" to the struggles faced by the average woman in the workplace.[46][47] Sandberg mentions both of these issues in the introduction of her book, stating that she is "acutely aware that the vast majority of women are struggling to make ends meet and take care of their families"[48] and that her intention was to "offer advice that would have been useful long before I had heard of Google or Facebook.".[49] Furthermore, following the Facebook and Cambridge Analytica data breach scandal, it has been put into question Sandberg's willingness to actually lean in. " 'She's not leaning in at all," McNamee said, in a reference Sandberg's widely read book published five years ago. "If ever there was a time for her to lean in, this is it.' " [50]

In her book, she does suggest other women to lean in during challenges.

...we're failing to encourage women to aspire to leadership. It is time to cheer on girls and women who want to sit at the table, seek challenges, and lean in to their careers.[51]

Instead, she has been perceived as a COO who avoids engaging in this crisis. "Sandberg, the architect of the business model that is now the subject of so much scrutiny, has remained silent in public." [50] In her book she recognizes those who do tackle crises:

I have the deepest respect for people who provide hands-on help to those in crises. It is the most difficult work in the world.[52]

Option BEdit

Sandberg released her second book, Option B, in April 2017. Option B is co-authored with Adam Grant, a professor at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. The book puts emphasis on grief and resilience in challenges within life.[53] It offers practical tips for creating resilience in the family and community. 2.75 million copies have been sold since publication.[54]

Ban BossyEdit

In March 2014, Sandberg and Lean In sponsored the Ban Bossy campaign, a television and social media censorship advocacy campaign designed to ban the word bossy from general use due to its perceived harmful effect on young girls. Several video spots with spokespersons including Beyoncé, Jennifer Garner, and Condoleezza Rice among others were produced along with a web site providing school training material, leadership tips, and an online pledge form to which visitors can promise not to use the word.[55][56][57]

Sheryl Sandberg & Dave Goldberg Family FoundationEdit

In November 2016, Sandberg renamed her Lean In Foundation to the Sheryl Sandberg & Dave Goldberg Family Foundation. This new foundation will serve as an umbrella for LeanIn.Org and a new organization around her book, Option B. Sandberg also transferred roughly $100,000,000 in Facebook stock to fund the foundation and other charitable endeavors.[58]

Personal lifeEdit

Sandberg married Brian Kraff in 1993, and divorced a year later.[59] In 2004, she married Dave Goldberg, then an executive with Yahoo! and later CEO of SurveyMonkey.[4][43][60] The couple has a son and a daughter.[61] Sandberg and Goldberg frequently discussed being in a shared earning/shared parenting marriage.[62] Sandberg also raised the issue of single parenting conflicting strongly with professional and economic development in America.[63]

On May 1, 2015, Dave Goldberg died unexpectedly, and his death was originally reported as resulting from sustaining a head trauma falling from a treadmill, while the couple was vacationing in Mexico.[64][65] Sandberg has subsequently said that her husband's cause of death was due to an arrhythmia, and not due to falling from a treadmill.[66]

Sandberg lives in Menlo Park, California.[1][67]

PoliticsEdit

Sandberg supported Hillary Clinton for President of the United States in the 2016 presidential election.[68]

HonorsEdit

External video
 
  Sheryl Sandberg: Why we have too few women leaders, TED[69]
  Barnard College Commencement Speech, Barnard College[70]
  • Sandberg has been ranked one of the 50 "Most Powerful Women in Business" by Fortune Magazine:
    • In 2007 she was ranked #29 and was the youngest woman on the list.[71]
    • In 2008 she was ranked #34.[72]
    • In 2009 she was ranked #22.[73]
    • In 2010 she was ranked #16.[74]
    • In 2014 she was ranked #10.[75]
    • In 2016 she was ranked #6.[76]
    • In 2017 she was ranked #5.[77]
    • In 2018 she was ranked #6.[78]
  • On the list of 50 "Women to Watch" by The Wall Street Journal.
    • She was ranked #19 on that list in 2007.[79]
    • She was ranked #21 on that list in 2008.[80]
  • Sandberg was named one of the "25 Most Influential People on the Web" by Business Week in 2009.[81]
  • She has been listed as one of the world's 100 most powerful women by Forbes.[82] In 2014, Sandberg was listed as ninth, just behind Michelle Obama,[83] and in 2017 Number 4.[84]
  • In 2012, Newsweek and The Daily Beast released their first "Digital Power Index", a list of the 100 most significant people in the digital world that year (plus 10 additional "Lifetime Achievement" winners), and she was ranked #3 in the "Evangelists" category.[85]
  • In 2012, she was named in Time 100, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by Time.[6]
  • Lean In was shortlisted for the Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award (2013).[86]
  • In 2013, she was ranked #8 on "The World's 50 Most Influential Jews" conducted by The Jerusalem Post.[87]

BibliographyEdit

  • Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead. Knopf. 2013. ISBN 978-0385349949
  • Written with Adam Grant: Option B: Facing Adversity, Building Resilience and Finding Joy. Knopf. 2017. ISBN 978-1524732684[88]

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

Business positions
Preceded by
Owen Van Natta
Chief Operating Officer of Facebook
2008-present
Incumbent