|Place of origin||England|
|Region or state||Western Europe|
|Main ingredients||Mashed potato crust and meat filling|
The recipe has many variations, but the defining ingredients are ground red meat cooked in a gravy or sauce with onions, and topped with a layer of mashed potato before it is baked. Sometimes other vegetables are added to the filling, such as peas, sweetcorn, celery or carrots. The pie is sometimes also gratineed with grated cheese to create a layer of melted cheese on top.
The term shepherd's pie did not appear until 1854, and was initially used synonymously with cottage pie, regardless of whether the meat was beef or mutton.[pages needed][excessive citations] However, in the UK since the 21st century, the term shepherd's pie is used more commonly when the meat is lamb.
The French name hachis Parmentier is documented in French in 1900, and in English in 1898. A hachis is anything finely chopped; the English word 'hash' is borrowed from it. 'Parmentier' is Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, after whom many potato dishes were named, as he was instrumental in the promotion of the potato in France in the 18th century.
In early cookery books, the dish is given as a way of using leftover roasted meat of any kind, and the pie dish was lined on the sides and bottom with mashed potato, as well as having a mashed potato crust on top.
Hachis parmentier is an economical way of using leftover meat, especially from pot-au-feu. Henri-Paul Pellaprat lists it in his section on leftovers, as does the "bible" of bourgeois cuisine, Mme. St-Ange, under the name hachis de bœuf au gratin.
A more elaborate version in 1921 by Auguste Escoffier consisted of a baked potato whose contents were emptied, mixed with diced meat and sauce lyonnaise, and returned to the potato shells or skins to be baked. This version is not found in standard cookbooks.
Variations and similar dishesEdit
Other potato-topped pies include:
- Potato pie is a ground red meat pie topped with mashed potato; the difference is that the potato pie does not include any other vegetables.
- The modern Cumberland pie is a version with either beef or lamb and a layer of breadcrumbs and cheese on top. In medieval times, and modern-day Cumbria, the pastry crust had a filling of meat with fruits and spices.
- In Canada, pâté chinois (French) or shepherd's pie (English) is made in a casserole dish with ground beef on the bottom layer, canned (creamed) sweetcorn in the middle, and mashed potato on top.
- Shepherdess pie or shepherdless pie is a vegetarian version made without meat, or a vegan version made without meat and dairy.
- In the Netherlands, a very similar dish called philosopher's stew (Dutch: filosoof) often adds ingredients like beans, apples, prunes, or apple sauce.
- In Brazil, the name escondidinho 'hidden' describes the way sun-dried meat is hidden under a layer of manioc purée. The dish often includes cheese and chicken; cod is sometimes used instead of beef.
- A St. Stephen's Day pie is made with turkey and ham.
- Fish pie is another part of English cuisine, made of fish and seafood in a béchamel sauce all topped with mashed potato.
- In Irish this dish is known as pióg an aoire.
- Similar dishes are the Argentinian pastel de papa 'potato pie' and the Uruguayan pastel de carne 'meat pie'.
- In Indonesia, pastel tutup 'closed pie' is usually made with chicken and several vegetables such as carrot, green peas and boiled eggs, all topped with mashed potatoes.
- In Portugal, empadão includes meat that is usually stewed in a tomato-based gravy and layered several times between the mashed potatoes. Poultry or fish are also sometimes used instead of meat.
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- Diat, Louis (1946). French Cooking for Americans. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. p. 85. OCLC 1036371103.
- The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 1933
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- "The Chambers Dictionary", Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, 1999
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- Trésor de la langue française informatisé, s.v.
- Oxford English Dictionary s.v.
- Henri-Paul Pellaprat, "L'art d'accommoder les restes", Le Nouveau Guide Culinaire, Éditions René Kramer S.A. Lausanne, 1968, p. 189
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- Auguste Escoffier, Le Guide Culinaire, Flammarion, 1921, p. 460
- "What is Cumberland Pie?". Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "10 Things you didn't know about Shepherd's Pie - Jamie Oliver". jamieoliver.com. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Filosoof - Mycitycuisine.org". www.mycitycuisine.org. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
- "Escondidinho recipe — Brazilian Wave". Brazilian Wave. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
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- "cottage pie - Aistriúchán Gaeilge ar cottage pie (An Foclóir Nua Béarla-Gaeilge)". www.focloir.ie (in Irish). Retrieved 29 August 2018.