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Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Argentina)

The Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) is Argentina's national weather service under the Ministry of Defense that is tasked with observing, understanding, and predicting the weather and climate in Argentina and its surrounding waters.[2] It provides weather forecasts, radar images, ozone, temperature and rainfall graphs, and satellite images.[3] The purpose of these tasks is to contribute to protection of its inhabitants, sustainable economic development and to provide representation of Argentina to international meteorological organizations.[2] Founded on 4 October 1872 by Federal law Nº559 during the presidency of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, the organisation was the first meteorological organisation in South America and the third one in the world, after Hungary and the United States which were created in 1870 and 1871 respectively.[1] It became a member of the World Meteorological Organization on 2 January 1951. Throughout its history, the organisation was dependent under different government ministries until in 2007 when it is currently under the Ministry of Defense.[1][2]

Servicio Meteorológico Nacional
SMN
SMN Logo Alta.png
Agency overview
FormedOctober 4, 1872; 147 years ago (1872-10-04)
Jurisdiction Argentina
HeadquartersAvenida Dorrego 4019, Buenos Aires
Agency executive
  • Celeste Saulo, Director
Parent agencyMinistry of Defense
Websitesmn.gob.ar
Footnotes
[1]

HistoryEdit

The organisation was founded on 4 October 1872 by Federal law Nº559 during the presidency of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento under the name (Spanish: Oficina Meteorológica Argentina) or OMA for short with Dr. Benjamin Apthorp Gould as its first director.[1][4] This made it the first meteorological organisation in South America and the third one in the world, after Hungary and the United States which were created in 1870 and 1871 respectively.[1] The OMA was under the Ministry of Justice, Cult and Public Instruction (Spanish: Ministerio de Justicia, Culto e Instrucción Pública).[1] The first national network of meteorological stations and geomagnetic observations was established in 1873.[4] Later on that year from 2 September to 16 September, the OMA attended the International Meteorological Congress in Vienna, Austria-Hungary.[4] The International Meteorological Congress in 1873 agreeded for the establishment of the International Meteorological Organization.[5] The first solar radiation observations were made in 1874 in Córdoba.[4] In 1875, Argentina made the first international exchange of meteorological data with neighbouring Chile.[4] In 1898, Federal law Nº3727 was passed by the Argentine National Congress which transferred the OMA to Ministry of Agriculture (Spanish: Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación).[1][6] In June 1924, the OMA was renamed to Spanish: Dirección Meteorológica until September 1927 when it was changed to Spanish: Dirección de Meteorología.[1] Law Nº12252 was passed on 28 September 1935 kept the organisation still under the agriculture ministry but it was renamed to Spanish: Dirección de Meteorología,, Geofísica e Hidrología.[1] The current name of the organization, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) was created on 5 May 1945 when Decree Nº10131 was passed, placing SMN under the Secretary of Aeronautics Spanish: Secretaría de Aeronáutica.[1] This was later reinforced by law when the Argentine Congress passed Law Nº12945 on 29 January 1947 that officially established the name and creation of it.[1] On 9 March 1950, SMN was transferred to the Ministerio de Asuntos Técnicos de la Nación according to Decree Nº5197 until in 22 June 1954 when Decree Nº12248 reverted SMN to being back under the Ministry of Agriculture, under the new name Spanish: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería de la Nación.[1] SMN became a member of the World Meteorological Organization on 2 January 1951.[7] From 7 May 1957 until October 1966, SMN was under the Ministry of Aeronuatics Spanish: Ministerio de Aeronáutica de la Nación.[1] Later on, during the coup by Juan Carlos Onganía, SMN was directly under the Argentine Air Force for 40 years until 1 January 2007 when Decree Nº1689 finally transferred it back into civilian hands.[1] Finally, Decree Nº1432 in 2007 made the organisation a decentralised one that was under the Ministry of Defense, giving it the ability to have its own control over its finances, its own legal status, and ability to act in both the private and public fields.[1]

List of directorsEdit

Name[1] Period[1]
Benjamin A. Gould 1872–1884
Gualterio Davis 1885–1915
Jorge Otis Wiggin 1915–1924
Federico Burmeister 1924–1926
Enrique G. Plate 1926–1929
Roberto C. Mossman 1929–1930
Martín Gil 1930–1932
Alfredo G. Galmarini 1932–1949
Hugo Civati Bernasconi 1949–1950
Carlos Nuñez Monasterio 1950–1956
Rolando V. García 1956–1958
Francisco Lucio Fernández 1958–1966
Torcuato de Alvear 1966–1967
Benigno Hector Andrada 1967–1970
Caros A. Natalio Grasselli 1971–1972
Reynaldo A. Bertinotti 1972–1973
José E. Echeveste 1974–1982
Salvador Alaimo 1983–1993
Ramón A. Sonzini 1993–2000
Ricardo A. Grünert 2001–2004
Miguel Ángel Rabiolo 2004–2007
Héctor H. Ciappesoni 2007–2014
Andrea Celeste Saulo 2014–present

Weather StationsEdit

Currently, SMN has 125 weather stations that extended across both Argentina and Antarctica.[8] They also incude a network of observatories that measure atmospheric parameters in addition to the meteorological parameters such as ultraviolet radiation, solar radiation, and ozone levels.[8]

The first weather station in Antartica was in 1904 when an obseratory that both measured meteorological and geomagnetic parameters was open on Orcadas Base on Laurie Island in the South Orkney Islands (Spanish: Orcadas del Sur).[8] Currently, SMN maintains 6 synpotic weather stations in Antartica on the Antartic bases operated by Argentina (Carlini Base, San Martín Base, Belgrano II Base, Esperanza Base, Marambio Base, and Orcadas Base).[8]

Volcanic Ash Advisory CentreEdit

 
Coverage of the nine VAAC around the world

There are 9 Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres (VAAC for short) around the world that are responsible for monitoring volcanic ash to provide critical information and maintain aviation safety.[9] SMN is responsible for the Buenos Aires VAAC, which covers all areas from longitudes 90oW to 10oW and latitudes 10oS to 90oS.[10] VAACs are desginated regional meteorological centres that are tasked with observing the movement of volcanic ash into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions.[11] The functions and responsibilities of the Buneos Aires VAAC are listed below:[11]

  • To examine data coming from geostationary and polar orbit satelites to detect the existence and extent of any volanic ash in the amtosphere in the area of interest.[11]
  • Activate computer simulations to model the trajectory of volcanic ash in order to predict the movement of ash clouds when the volcanic ash has been detected.[11]
  • Issue advisory information with respect to the extent and forecasted movement of volcanic ash clouds to Meteorological Watch Offices (MWO),[12], Area control centres, and Flight information service centres that are service Flight information regions affected by the volcanic ash.[11]
  • Issue advisory information with respect to the extent and forcasted movement of volcanic ash clouds to other VAACs under their areas that they cover.[11]
  • Issue advisory information with respect to the extent and forcasted movement of volcanic ash clouds to World Area Forecast Centres (WAFC), the relevant regional forecast centres, and international data banks OPMET.[11][13]
  • Issue advisory information to meteorological offices, area control centres, flight information regions, and other VAACs when necessary every 6 hours at a minimum until no more volcanic ash clouds can be detected based on sateilite data or when no more new notices about volcanic eruptions or when the VAAC does not receive any more new information regarding volcanic ash clouds in the area.[11]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Cronología Institucional" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "Información Institucional" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Geography and Climate of Argentina". Government of Argentina. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Cronología de los hechos más relevantes" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  5. ^ E. I. Sarukhanian; J.M. Walker. "The International Meteorological Organization (IMO) 1879-1950" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  6. ^ "Ley 3727 HONORABLE CONGRESO DE LA NACION ARGENTINA" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  7. ^ "Members". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d "Presencia Territorial" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  9. ^ "Presencia Regional e Internacional" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  10. ^ "Current Status of ICAO Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres (VAAC) - Areas of Responsibility" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Introducción" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  12. ^ "Oficina Vigilancia Meteorológica". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  13. ^ "pronosticado". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2019.

External LinksEdit