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Serra da Capivara National Park

Serra da Capivara National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, IPA: [ˈpaʁki nɐsjoˈnaw ˈsɛʁɐ ðɐ kɐpiˈvaɾɐ], locally [ˈsɛɦɐ da kapiˈvaɾɐ]) is a national park in the Northeastern region of Brazil. The area has many prehistoric paintings.

Serra da Capivara National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Pedra Furada - Serra da Capivara I.jpg
Map showing the location of Serra da Capivara National Park
Map showing the location of Serra da Capivara National Park
Location of Serra da Capivara National Park
Location Piauí, Brazil
Coordinates 8°40′S 42°33′W / 8.667°S 42.550°W / -8.667; -42.550Coordinates: 8°40′S 42°33′W / 8.667°S 42.550°W / -8.667; -42.550
Area 1,291.4 km2 (498.6 sq mi)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Criteria Cultural: (iii) Edit this on Wikidata[1]
Reference 606
Inscription 1991 (15th Session)

Contents

LocationEdit

It is located in northeast state of Piauí, between latitudes 8° 26' 50" and 8° 54' 23" south and longitudes 42° 19' 47" and 42° 45' 51" west. It falls within the municipal areas of São Raimundo Nonato, São João do Piauí, Coronel José Dias and Canto do Buriti. It has an area of 1291.4 square kilometres (319,000 acres).

The Capivara-Confusões Ecological Corridor, created in 2006, links the park to the Serra das Confusões National Park.[2]

HistoryEdit

The park was created to protect the prehistoric artifacts and paintings found there. It became a World Heritage Site in 1991. Its head archaeologist is Niède Guidon. Its best known archaeological site is Pedra Furada.

This area has the largest concentration of prehistoric sites in the Americas. Scientific studies confirm that the Capivara mountain range was densely populated in the pre-Columbian Era.[3]

A newer site is Toca da Tira Peia, where the stone tools found may date to as early as 22,000 years ago. The site has been dated through optically stimulated luminescence.[4]

Other important archaeological sites in the area are Toca da Pena, Baxao da Esperanca, and Sitio do Meio. Lapa do Boquete site is located directly south.[5]

Sitio do MeioEdit

Sitio do Meio is the second most important rock shelter in the area after Pedra Furada. It features fully Pleistocene dates and artefacts. The stone artefacts are better preserved because of the absence of waterfalls here. At least 98 stone tools seem older than 12,500 BP. They belong to the Upper Pleistocenic phase of Pedra Furada 3.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/606.
  2. ^ Serras da Capivara e das Confusões serão unidas por corredor ecológico (in Portuguese), MMA, 11 March 2005, retrieved 2016-11-04 
  3. ^ Romero, Simon (March 27, 2014). "Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans’ Arrival in the Americas". New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2014. 
  4. ^ Lahaye, Christelle; Hernandez, Marion; Boëda, Eric; Felice, Gisele D.; Guidon, Niède; Hoeltz, Sirlei; Lourdeau, Antoine; Pagli, Marina; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Rasse, Michel; Viana, Sibeli (2013). "Human occupation in South America by 20,000 BC: the Toca da Tira Peia site, Piauí, Brazil". Journal of Archaeological Science. 40 (6): 2840–2847. ISSN 0305-4403. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2013.02.019. 
  5. ^ German Dziebel, THE TOCA DA TIRA PEIA SITE AND THE END OF AN ICE AGE IN AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY. Anthropogenesis, April 24, 2013 (see map)
  6. ^ AIMOLA, Giulia et al. Final Pleistocene and Early Holocene at Sitio do Meio, Piauí, Brazil: Stratigraphy and comparison with Pedra Furada. Journal of Lithic Studies, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 5-24, sep. 2014. ISSN 2055-0472. Available at: <http://journals.ed.ac.uk/lithicstudies/article/view/1125/1631>. Date accessed: 16 Apr. 2016 doi:10.2218/jls.v1i2.1125

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit