Serer (Serer: Seereer, pronuncation: [seːreːr]) is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal and 30,000 in the Gambia. It is the principal language of the Serer people.
|Native to||Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania|
|Regulated by||CLAD (Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar)|
Serer is one of the Senegambian languages, which are characterized by consonant mutation. The traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani. However, a widely-cited misreading of the data by Wilson (1989) inadvertently exchanged Serer for Wolof. Dialects of Serer are Serer Sine (the prestige dialect), Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Dyegueme (Gyegem), and Niominka. They are mutually intelligible except for the Sereer spoken in some of the areas surrounding the city of Thiès.
Not all Serer people speak Serer. About 200,000 speak Cangin languages. Because the speakers are ethnically Serer, they are commonly thought to be Serer dialects. However, they are not closely related, and Serer is significantly closer to Fulani (also called Pulbe, Pulaar, or Fulbe) than it is to Cangin.
|implosive||ƥ /ɓ̥/||ƭ /ɗ̥/||ƈ /ʄ̊/|
|voiced||plosive||b||mb /ᵐb/||d||nd /ⁿd/||j /ɟ/||nj /ᶮɟ/||g||ng /ᵑɡ/||nq /ᶰɢ/|
|Close||i iː||u uː|
|Mid||e eː||o oː|
Sample text in Serer
Ween’naƥa ñoot’ o’ƈaŋ moƴ. Allnaƥa’ ñoow ƈoowaa fot ɓoowaa, ƭooñ’ mexe’ƭ ƭooñ’ ŋaxa mbexa. Ƭaƭapa’ ñoot’ xeɗe ñoot’ ƥeƭo’ch pu’kash’mo. Allemƭonaƥa’ ñoot’ saƥexee moƴ ƈeenjoow aƥƥo’ch ƥaxa ƭoow.
The girl then went to look for leaf litter. Then he saw then two flowers: one red and one orange. She took them then and put them in her cushma. She then took the litter back to the dam where she would put it in the holes.
The following greetings and responses are spoken in most regions of Senegal that have Serer speakers.
- Nam fi'o? (pronounced nam feeyoh) = How are you doing?
- Mexe meen. (pronounced may hay men) = I am here.
- Ta mbind na? (pronounced, tah mbind nah) = How is the family (or more literally house)?
- Awa maa. (pronounced Awa maa) = They are good (or more literally They are there).
Spatial awareness is very important in Sereer. For example, this exchange is only for the household in question is not nearby. Certain grammatical changes would occur if it were said in a home the greeter has just entered:
- Ta mbind ne? (pronounced tah mbind neh) = How is the family/house (which is here)?
- Awa meen (pronounced Awa men) = they are good (or more literally They are here).
In Senegalese culture, greetings are very important. Sometimes, people will spend several minutes greeting each other.
- "Serer-Sine". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sereer". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International, Ethnologue.com. Figures for (2006) The Gambia only.
- Sapir, David, 1971. "West Atlantic: an inventory of the languages, their noun-class systems and consonant alternation". In Sebeok, ed, Current trends in linguistics, 7: linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa. Mouton, 45–112
- Mc Laughlin (2005:203)
- Fall, Papa Oumar (2013). "The ethnolinguistic classification of Seereer in question". in Africa: Challenges of Multilingualism, ds Altmayer, Claus / Wolff, H. Ekkehard, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford: 47–60.
- McLaughlin, Fiona (1994). "Consonant mutation in Seereer-Siin". Studies in African Languages. 23: 279–313.
- McLaughlin, Fiona (2000). "Consonant mutation and reduplication in Seereer-Siin". Phonology. 17: 333–363. doi:10.1017/S0952675701003955.
- Mc Laughlin, Fiona (2005), "Voiceless implosives in Seereer-Siin", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 201–214, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002215
- Crétois, L. (1972). Dictionnaire sereer-français (différents dialects) (in French). Dakar: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de Dakar.
- Fal, A. (1980). Les nominaux en sereer-siin: Parler de Jaxaaw (in French). Dakar: Nouvelles Editions Africaines.
- Senghor, L. S. (1994). "L'harmonie vocalique en sérère (dialecte du Dyéguème)". Journal de la Société des Linguistes (in French). 14: 17–23.