Seongjong of Joseon

Seongjong of Joseon (19 August 1457 – 20 January 1495), personal name Yi Hyeol (Korean: 이혈; Hanja: 李娎), was the ninth ruler of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. Before succeeding his uncle, King Yejong, he was known as Grand Prince Jalsan (Korean: 잘산대군; Hanja: 乽山大君).

Seongjong of Joseon
朝鮮成宗
조선 성종
King of Joseon
Reign31 December 1469 – 20 January 1495
CoronationGeunjeongjeon Hall, Gyeongbok Palace, Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
PredecessorYejong of Joseon
SuccessorYeonsangun of Joseon
RegentGrand Royal Queen Dowager Jaseong (1469 – 1476)
BornYi Hyeol (이혈, 李娎)
(1457-08-19)19 August 1457
Jaseondang Hall,[1] Gyeongbok Palace, Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
Died20 January 1495(1495-01-20) (aged 37)
Daejojeon Hall, Changdeok Palace, Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
Burial
Spouse(s)
IssueYeonsangun of Joseon
Jungjong of Joseon
Posthumous name
  • Joseon dynasty: King Inmun Heonmu Heumseong Gonghyo the Great
    • 인문헌무흠성공효대왕
    • 仁文憲武欽聖恭孝大王
  • Ming dynasty: Gangjeong (강정, 康靖)
Temple name
Seongjong (성종, 成宗)
ClanJeonju Yi clan
DynastyHouse of Yi
Father
Mother
ReligionKorean Confucianism (Neo-Confucianism)
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationSeongjong
McCune–ReischauerSŏngjong
Birth name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationI Hyeol
McCune–ReischauerYi Hyŏl
Courtesy name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationMyeongjo / Pyeongnam
McCune–ReischauerMyŏngcho / Pyŏngnam
Art name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationGyeongsin
McCune–ReischauerKyŏngsin

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Yi Hyeol was born as the second son of Crown Prince Yi Jang and Crown Princess Su of the Cheongju Han clan. His father however died few months after his birth.[2] In 1461, he was named Prince Jasan (자산군) which was changed to Prince Jalsan (잘산군) in 1468.[3]

In 1467, he married Han Song-yi, the youngest daughter of Han Myeong-hoe.[2] One of Lady Han's older sisters was the late Crown Princess Jangsun, the first wife of King Yejong.

Despite having an older brother and his uncle leaving behind a biological son, Jalsan was chosen as successor and was made the adopted son of King Yejong and his second, Queen Han (posthumously known as Queen Ansun).[2]

After he ascended to the throne, his biological father was honored with the temple name "Deokjong" (덕종, 德宗), while his mother became queen and was given the honorary name "Insu" (인수, 仁粹).

ReignEdit

Since Seongjong was only 12 when he was crowned, his grandmother Grand Royal Queen Dowager Jaseong, ruled the nation, along with his biological mother Queen Insu, and his aunt/adoptive mother Queen Dowager Inhye. In 1476, at the age of 19, he began to govern the country in his own name.[2]

After the death of his first wife in 1474, Seongjong decided to promote one of his concubines, Lady Yun, to the status of primary wife and queen.

His reign was marked by the prosperity and growth of the economy, based on the laws laid down by Taejong, Sejong, and Sejo. He himself was a gifted ruler. In 1474, the Grand Code for State Administration, started by his grandfather, was completed and put into effect. Seongjong also ordered revisions and improvements to the code.

He greatly expanded the Office of Special Advisors (Hongmungwan; 홍문관, 弘文館), an advisory council to the king, which also served as royal library and research institute; and also strengthened the Three Offices (Samsa; 삼사, 三司) – Office of the Inspector General (Saheonbu), Office of Censors (Saganwon) and Office of Special Advisors (Hongmungwan)– as a check and balance on the royal court. For the first time since Sejong the Great, Confucian scholars whose political views clashed with those of the conservative officials (members of the nobility who had helped Taejong and Sejo in their rise to power), were brought to court. By appointing able administrators regardless of their political views, Seongjong made his rule more effective and his policies resulted in many positive innovations, increasing his number of supporters.

The king himself was an artist and intellectual, and liked to argue about the finer points of politics with the more liberal scholars. He encouraged the publication of numerous books about geography and social etiquette, as well as areas of knowledge that benefited the common people.

It was under Seongjong's reign that the "Widow Remarriage Ban" (1477) was enacted, which strengthened pre-existing social stigma against women who remarried by barring their sons from public office.[4] In 1489, Yi Gu-ji, a woman from the royal clan, commited suicide at his order and was erased from family records, when it was discovered that she had cohabited with her slave after being widowed.[5]

In 1491, Seongjong started a military campaign against the Jurchens on the northern border, like many of his predecessors. Led by General Heo Jong (허종, 許琮), the campaign was successful, and the defeated Jurchens commanded by Udige (兀狄哈) retreated to the north of Amrok River.

DeathEdit

He died in January 1495 and is buried in the south of Seoul. The tomb is known as Seonneung (선릉) and his third wife, Queen Jeonghyeon, was also interred here, 35 years after his death. Seongjong was succeeded by his son, Crown Prince Yi Yung.

FamilyEdit

Consorts and their respective issue(s):

  1. Queen Gonghye of the Cheongju Han clan (공혜왕후 한씨) (8 November 1456 – 30 April 1474)[13][14][15][16][17] — No issue.
  2. Deposed Queen Yun of the Haman Yun clan (폐비 윤씨) (15 July 1455 – 29 August 1482)[18][19][20][21]
    1. Yi Hyo-shin (이효신) (1474 – 1475), first son[22]
    2. Crown Prince Yi Yung (왕세자 이융) (23 November 1476 – 20 November 1506), second son[23]
    3. Third son (? – 1479)
  3. Queen Jeonghyeon of the Papyeong Yun clan (정현왕후 윤씨) (21 July 1462 – 13 September 1530)[24][25][26][27]
    1. Princess Sunsuk (순숙공주) (1478 – 14 July 1488), first daughter[28][29]
    2. Eighth daughter (1485 – 1486)
    3. Yi Yeok, Grand Prince Jinseong (진성대군 이역) (16 April 1488 – 29 November 1544), twelfth son
    4. Fourteenth daughter (1490 – 1490)
  4. Royal Noble Consort Myeong of the Andong Kim clan (명빈 김씨)[30][31][32]
    1. Princess Hwisuk (휘숙옹주), fourth daughter[33][34]
    2. Princess Gyeongsuk (경숙옹주) (1483 – ?), seventh daughter[35][36]
    3. Eleventh son[37]
    4. Yi Jong, Prince Musan (무산군 이종) (1490 – 1525), seventeenth son[38]
    5. Princess Hwijeong (휘정옹주), twelfth daughter[39][40][41]
    6. Twentieth son
  5. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Chogye Jeong clan (귀인 정씨) (? – 1504)[42][43][44][45]
    1. Yi Hang, Prince Anyang (안양군 이항) (1480 – 1505), fifth son[46][47][48]
    2. Princess Sukshin (숙신옹주) (? – 1487/1489), third daughter[49][50]
    3. Yi Bong, Prince Bongan (봉안군 이봉) (1482 – 1505), eighth son[51][52]
    4. Princess Jeonghye (정혜옹주) (1490 – 6 August 1507), thirteenth daughter[53]
  6. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Yeongwol Eom clan (귀인 엄씨) (? – 1504)[54][55][56][45]
    1. Princess Gongsin (공신옹주) (1481 – 1549), fifth daughter[57]
  7. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Andong Gwon clan (귀인 권씨) (1471 – 1500)[58]
    1. Yi Byeon, Prince Jeonseong (전성군 이변) (1490 – 1505), sixteenth son[59][60]
  8. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Uiryeong Nam clan (귀인 남씨)[58][61][62]
  9. Royal Consort So-ui of the Yi clan (소의 이씨)[63]
  10. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Jinju Ha clan (숙의 하씨)[64][65]
    1. Yi Sun, the Prince Gyeseong (계성군 이순) (1478 – 1504), fourth son[66][67]
  11. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Namyang Hong clan (숙의 홍씨) (1457 – 1510)[68][69]
    1. Princess Hyesuk (혜숙옹주) (1478 – ?), second daughter[70][71][72]
    2. Yi Su, Prince Wanwon (완원군 이수) (1480 – 1509), sixth son[73][74]
    3. Yi Yeom, Prince Hoesan (회산군 이염) (1481 – 1512), seventh son[75][76]
    4. Yi Don, Prince Gyeonseong (견성군 이돈) (1482 – 1507), ninth son[77]
    5. Princess Jeongsun (정순옹주) (1486 – ?), ninth daughter[78][79]
    6. Yi Hoe, Prince Ikyang (익양군 이회) (1 July 1488 – 21 January 1552), thirteeth son[80][81][82][83]
    7. Yi Chim, Prince Gyeongmyeong (경명군 이침) (1489 – 1526), fifteenth son[84][85][86]
    8. Yi In, Prince Uncheon (운천군 이인) (1490 – 1524), nineteenth son[87][88]
    9. Yi Hui, Prince Yangwon (양원군 이희) (1492 – 1551), twenty-first son[89][90][91][92]
    10. Princess Jeongsuk (정숙옹주) (1493 – 8 February 1573), fifteenth daughter[93][94][95]
  12. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Jeong clan (숙의 정씨)[96]
  13. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Kim clan (숙의 김씨)[96]
  14. Royal Consort Sug-yong of the Cheongsong Shim clan (숙용 심씨) (1465 – 1515)[97][98]
    1. Princess Gyeongsun (경순옹주) (1482 – ?), sixth daughter[99][100][101]
    2. Princess Sukhye (숙혜옹주) (1486 – 1525), tenth daughter[102]
    3. Yi Gwan, Prince Iseong (이성군 이관) (1489 – 1552), fourteenth son[103][104]
    4. Yi Jeon, Prince Yeongsan (영산군 이전) (1490 – 11 June 1538), eighteenth son
  15. Royal Consort Sug-yong of the Gwon clan (숙용 권씨)[97]
    1. Yi Gyeong-seok (이견석) (1486 – ?), tenth son[105]
    2. Princess Gyeonghwi (경휘옹주) (1489 – 1525), eleventh daughter[106][107][108]
  16. Royal Consort Sug-won of the Yun clan (숙원 윤씨) (? – 1533)[109]

AncestryEdit

In popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ In the Eastern Palace (residence of the crown prince).
  2. ^ a b c d "우리역사넷". contents.history.go.kr. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  3. ^ "성종(成宗) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  4. ^ Uhn, Cho (1999). "The Invention of Chaste Motherhood: A Feminist Reading of the Remarriage Ban in the Chosun Era". Asian Journal of Women's Studies. 5 (3): 45–63. doi:10.1080/12259276.1999.11665854.. Issue Purchase: 30 days to view or download: EUR 127.00.
  5. ^ 성종실록 (成宗實錄) [Veritable Records of Seongjong] (in Korean and Literary Chinese). Vol. 226. 1499.
  6. ^ Widely known as "Crown Prince Uigyeong" (Uigyeong Seja; 의경세자, 懿敬世子), he was given the temple name "Deokjong" (덕종, 德宗) during his son's reign.
  7. ^ Sixth daughter of Han Hwak, Internal Prince Seowon & Duke Yangjeol (서원부원군 양절공 한확), and later Left State Councillor (좌의정); and Lady Hong of the Namyang Hong clan (남양 홍씨).
  8. ^ Her eldest sister was Princess Consort Jeongseon (정선군부인) (1426 – 1480), the wife of Yi Jeung, Prince Gyeyang (계양군 이증) (1427 – 1467), and daughter-in-law of King Sejong.
  9. ^ Her two paternal aunts were Consort Kanghuizhuangshuli (강혜장숙여비, 康惠莊淑麗妃), a concubine of the Yongle Emperor, and Madam Gongshen (공신부인, 恭愼夫人), one of the Xuande Emperor's lesser-known concubines.
  10. ^ Married Prince Dowon in 1450. She was confirmed as main consort of the crown prince in 1455 and was known as "Crown Princess Consort Jeong" (Jeongbin; 정빈, 貞嬪). After the death of her husband, she was given the title "Crown Princess Consort Su" (Subin; 수빈, 粹嬪).
  11. ^ She was never a Queen Consort due to her husband's early death.
  12. ^ Known as "Royal Queen Dowager Insu" (인수왕대비) and as "Grand Royal Queen Dowager Insu" (인수대왕대비) during the reigns of her son and grandson, respectively.
  13. ^ Her personal name was Han Song-yi (한송이, 韓松伊).
  14. ^ Youngest daughter of Han Myeong-hoe, Internal Prince Sangdang & Duke Chungseong (상당부원군 충성공 한명회); and Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨), also known as Internal Princess Consort Hwangryeo (황려부부인).
  15. ^ Her older sister, Han Naeng-yi (한냉이), became the first wife of Crown Prince Yi Hwang, her husband's uncle and predecessor (today known as King Yejong). Lady Han died before Yi Hwang's ascension to the throne and was posthumously elevated to Queen Jangsun.
  16. ^ In 1467, she married Prince Jasan (자산군) and received the title "Princess Consort Cheonan" (천안군부인).
  17. ^ Died in Guhyeonjeon Hall (구현전), at Changdeok Palace (창덕궁).
  18. ^ Daughter of Yun Gi-gyeon, Internal Prince Haman (함안부원군 윤기견); and Lady Shin of the Goryeong Shin clan (고령 신씨).
  19. ^ By her infamous son, she was granted the posthumous name "Queen Jeheon" (Jeheon Wanghu; 제헌왕후, 齊獻王后).
  20. ^ Originally, she was a concubine of the second junior rank (Sug-ui; 숙의, 淑儀).
  21. ^ According to the Annals, she was said to resemble Princess Noguk [Yeonsangun Sillok, year 3].
  22. ^ His birth mother is still not certain.
  23. ^ After his deposition on 18 September 1506, he was titled "Prince Yeonsan" (Yeonsan Gun; 연산군, 燕山君).
  24. ^ Her personal name was Yun Chang-nyeon (윤창년, 尹昌年).
  25. ^ Daughter of Yun Ho, Internal Prince Yeongwon & Duke Pyeongjeong (영원부원군 평정공 윤호) (1424 – 1496); and Lady Jeon of the Damyang Jeon clan (담양 전씨) (1421 – 1496), also known as Internal Princess Consort Yeonan (연안부부인). Older cousin of Yun Pil-sang (윤필상) (1427 – 14 April 1504).
  26. ^ Another former concubine of Seongjong; also of the second junior rank (Sug-ui; 숙의, 淑儀). Became Queen in 1479, soon after Lady Yun had been deposed.
  27. ^ Entered the palace in 1473.
  28. ^ Also known as Princess Shinsuk (신숙공주).
  29. ^ As a legitimate daughter of the king, her title properly translates to "Royal Princess" (Gongju; 공주, 公主).
  30. ^ Daughter of Kim Jak (김작, 金碏) and Lady Jeong of the Dongnae Jong clan (동래 정씨, 東萊鄭氏).
  31. ^ Not to be confused with King Taejong's concubine, who came from the same clan and had the same rank.
  32. ^ Firstly known as Sug-won (fourth junior rank; 숙원, 淑媛), then promoted to Sug-yong (third junior rank; 숙용, 淑容), Sug-ui (second junior rank; 숙의, 淑儀) and finally to Bin (first senior rank; 빈, 嬪).
  33. ^ Also known as Princess Hyeshin (혜신옹주).
  34. ^ Married Im Sung-jae (임숭재), created Prince Consort Pungwon (풍원위); second son of Im Sa-hong (임사홍). His older brother, Im Gwang-jae (임광재), was the husband of Princess Hyeonsuk, eldest daughter of King Yejong and Queen Ansun.
  35. ^ Her personal name was Yi Hab-hwan (이합환, 李合歡).
  36. ^ Married Min Ja-bang (민자방, 閔子芳), and had issue (1 son and 1 daughter). Through her son, she became the great-grandmother of King Seongjo's concubine, Royal Noble Consort Jeong of the Yeoheung Min clan (정빈 민씨).
  37. ^ Speculated to be Yi Gyeong-seok.
  38. ^ Married Lady Shin of the Pyeongsan Shin clan (평산 신씨, 平山申氏), and had issue (8 sons and 4 daughters).
  39. ^ Her personal name was Yi Bok (이복, 李福).
  40. ^ Married Nam Seob-won (남섭원, 南燮元), from the Uiryeong Nam clan (의령 남씨, 宜寧 南氏). They had one daughter, Nam Nan-hyang (남난향, 南蘭香).
  41. ^ Her husband's younger sister was Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Uiryeong Nam clan (귀인 남씨), another one of Seongjong's concubines.
  42. ^ Her personal name was Jeong Geum-yi (정금이, 鄭金伊).
  43. ^ Daughter of Jeong In-seok (정인석) (1424 – 1504).
  44. ^ Concubine of the first junior rank (Gwi-in; 귀인, 貴人).
  45. ^ a b At the orders of Yeonsangun, Lady Jeong and Lady Eom were beaten to death in Changgyeong Palace (창경궁), during Gapja Sahwa (갑자사화, 甲子士禍).
  46. ^ Married Lady Gu of the Neungseong Gu clan (능성 구씨, 綾城具氏), also known as Princess Consort Myeoncheon (면천군부인, 沔川郡夫人), and had issue (1 son). She was the daughter of Gu Su-yeong (구수영, 具壽永).
  47. ^ His wife was a great-granddaughter of King Sejong (through his youngest legitimate son, Grand Prince Yeongeung), a second cousin of Queen Jeongsun, and the sister-in-law of Princess Hwisin (eldest daughter of Yeonsangun and Queen Shin).
  48. ^ Had an unnamed concubine.
  49. ^ Born before 1483.
  50. ^ Her birth mother might have been Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Kim clan.
  51. ^ Married Lady Jo of the Pungyang Jo clan (평양 조씨, 平壤趙氏), also known as Princess Consort Uichun (의춘군부인, 宜春郡夫人). They had 1 son, Yi Gyeong, Prince Heungwon (흥원군 이경, 興原君 李瓊).
  52. ^ His adoptive grandson, Yi Hyeon, Prince Giseong (기성군 이현, 箕城君 李俔), was the grandson of his half-brother, Prince Ikyang.
  53. ^ Married Han Gi (한기, 韓紀) (1490 – 1558), from the Cheongju Han clan. They had no issue.
  54. ^ Her personal name was Eom Eun-so-yi (엄은소이).
  55. ^ Daughter of Eom San-su (엄산수).
  56. ^ Firstly known as So-yong (third senior rank; 소용, 昭容), then as Sug-ui (second junior rank; 숙의, 淑儀), and finally promoted to Gwi-in (first junior rank; 귀인, 貴人).
  57. ^ Married Han Gyeong-chim (한경침), created Prince Consort Cheongryeong (청령위); son of Han Bo, Duke Yangho (양호공 한보) and grandson of Han Myeong-hoe (한명회). He was also the nephew of Queen Jangsun and Queen Gonghye.
  58. ^ a b Firstly known as Sug-ui (second junior rank; 숙의, 淑儀), and later promoted to Gwi-in (first junior rank; 귀인, 貴人).
  59. ^ Married Lady Gwon of the Andong Gwon clan (안동 권씨, 安東權氏), also known as Princess Consort Danyang (단양군부인, 丹陽郡夫人). They had no biological issue.
  60. ^ Adopted the second son of his half-brother, Prince Ikyang.
  61. ^ Her older brother, Nam Seob-won (남섭원), married Princess Hwijeong, one of Seongjong's daughters by Royal Noble Consort Myeong.
  62. ^ Her sister's son, Yun Nae (윤내, 尹鼐), married Princess Gyeonghwi, Seongjong's only daughter by Royal Consort Sug-yong of the Gwon clan.
  63. ^ Concubine of the second senior rank (So-ui; 소의, 昭儀).
  64. ^ Daughter of Ha Yeon (하연).
  65. ^ Originally a palace lady (궁인). Firstly promoted to Sug-won (fourth junior rank; 숙원, 淑媛), and later to Sug-ui (second junior rank; 숙의, 淑儀).
  66. ^ Married Lady Won of the Wonju Won clan (원주 원씨, 原州元氏), also known as Princess Consort Ahnseong (안성군부인, 安城郡夫人). They had no biological issue.
  67. ^ Adopted Yi Yu, Prince Gyerim (계림군 이유), the second son of his first cousin, Yi I, Prince Deokpung (덕풍군 이이). Prince Deokpung was the only son Grand Prince Wolsan (eldest son of Crown Prince Uigyeong and Queen Insu) and one of King Seongjong's nephews.
  68. ^ Daughter of Hong Il-dong (홍일동), and his concubine.
  69. ^ Firstly known as So-yong (third senior rank; 소용, 昭容), then downgraded to Sug-yong (third junior rank; 숙용, 淑容) during Yeonsangun's rule, and promoted to Sug-ui (second junior rank; 숙의, 淑儀) after Grand Prince Jinseong's coup. Her other title was "Lady Jasu" (Jasugung; literally "Palace of Motherly Kindness and of Long Life"; 자수궁, 慈壽宮).
  70. ^ Her personal name was Yi Su-ran (이수란, 李秀蘭).
  71. ^ Married in 1490 to Shin Hang (신항) (1477 – 1507), from the Goryeong Shin clan (고령 신씨, 高靈申氏), created Prince Consort Gowon (고원위); son of Shin Jong-ho (신종호).
  72. ^ Her adoptive son was Shin Su-gyeong (신수경, 申秀涇).
  73. ^ Married Lady Choe of the Jeonju Choe clan (전주 최씨, 全州崔氏), also known as Princess Consort Myeoncheon (면천군부인, 沔川郡夫人), and had issue (1 daughter).
  74. ^ Remarried to Lady Heo of the Yangcheon Heo clan (양천 허씨, 陽川許氏), also known as Princess Consort Jeongseon (정선군부인, 旌善郡夫人), and had issue (2 sons and 2 daughters).
  75. ^ Married Lady Ahn of the Juksan Ahn clan (죽산 안씨, 竹山安氏), also known as Princess Consort Yeongwon (영원군부인, 寧原郡夫人), and had issue (1 daughter).
  76. ^ Adopted one of the sons of his younger brother, Prince Gyeongseong.
  77. ^ Married Lady Shin of the Pyeongsan Shin clan (평산 신씨, 平山申氏), also known as Princess Consort Yeongyang (영양군부인, 永陽郡夫人), and had issue (2 sons and 1 daughter).
  78. ^ Her personal name was Yi Bok-ran (이복란, 李福蘭).
  79. ^ Married Jeong Won-jun (정원준, 鄭元俊), from the Bonghwa Jeong clan (봉화 정씨, 奉化鄭氏). They had one son, Jeong Eung (정응, 鄭譍) (1504 – ?).
  80. ^ Married Lady Jeong of the Yeonil Jeong clan (영일 정씨, 迎日鄭氏), also known as Princess Consort Suncheon (순천군부인, 順川郡夫人), and had issue (4 sons and 3 daughters).
  81. ^ His second son, Yi Su-gi, Prince Gwangcheon (광천군 이수기, 廣川君 李壽麒), became the adoptive son of his half-brother, Prince Jeonseong.
  82. ^ His third son, Yi Su-rin, Prince Hwangyang (황양군 이수린, 荒壤君 李壽麟), married Lady Shim of the Cheongsong Shim clan (청송 심씨), one of Queen Insun's cousins.
  83. ^ With his concubine, Lady Choe of the Hwasun Choe clan (화순 최씨), he had 2 sons.
  84. ^ Married Lady Yun of the Papyeong Yun clan (파평 윤씨, 坡平尹氏), also known as Princess Consort Gangyang (강양군부인, 江陽郡夫人), and had issue (2 sons and 2 daughters).
  85. ^ Yi Jeong, Prince Yeongcheon (영천군 이정, 靈川君 李侹), the third son of his second son, Yi Su-ryeon, Prince Annam (안남군 이수련, 安南君 李壽鍊), was adopted by Prince Hamnyeong (the son of his younger brother, Prince Yangwon).
  86. ^ Yi Geon, Prince Munseong (문성군 이건, 文城君 李健) (1560 – 1623), the fourth son of Prince Annam (his second son), was adopted by Prince Bongseong (King Jungjong's son by his concubine, Royal Noble Consort Hui of the Namyang Hong clan).
  87. ^ Married Lady Gwon of the Andong Gwon clan (안동 권씨, 安東權氏) (1489 – 1565), also known as Princess Consort Hakseong (학성군부인, 鶴城郡夫人), and had issue (4 daughters).
  88. ^ Adopted the second son of his older brother, Prince Wanwon.
  89. ^ Married Lady Jo of the Pungyang Jo clan (풍양 조씨, 豊壤趙氏) (? – 1517), also known as Princess Consort Muncheon (문천군부인, 文川郡夫人).
  90. ^ Remarried to Lady Yu of the Munhwa Yu clan (문화 유씨, 文化柳氏) (? – 1527), also known as Princess Consort Yanggeun (양근군부인, 楊根郡夫人). They had one son, Yi Su-seon, Prince Hamnyeong (함녕군 이수선, 咸寧君 李壽璿) (1524 – 1579).
  91. ^ With three concubines, he had 11 children (3 sons and 8 daughters).
  92. ^ His adoptive grandson was Yi Jeong, Prince Yeongcheon (영천군 이정, 靈川君 李侹), the third son of his nephew, Prince Annam (second son of his older brother, Prince Gyeongmyeong).
  93. ^ Her personal name was Yi Yeo-ran (이여란, 李如蘭).
  94. ^ Married Yun Seob (윤섭, 尹燮) (1492 – 1516). They had no biological issue.
  95. ^ Adopted Yun Ji-ham (윤지함, 尹之諴) (1518 – 1547), the son of Yun Yeob (윤엽).
  96. ^ a b Concubine of the second junior rank (Sug-ui; 숙의, 淑儀).
  97. ^ a b Firstly known as Sug-won (fourth junior rank; 숙원, 淑媛), and later promoted to Sug-yong (third junior rank; 숙용, 淑容).
  98. ^ Relative of Queen Soheon and Royal Noble Consort Yeong (a concubine of King Sejong).
  99. ^ Her personal name was Yi Ok-hwan (이옥환, 李玉環).
  100. ^ Married Nam Chi-won (남치원, 南致元). They had one son, Nam Gi (남기, 南沂).
  101. ^ Upon marriage, she became the niece-in-law of Queen Shin and the cousin-in-law of Queen Dangyeong.
  102. ^ Married Jo Mu-gang (조무강, 趙無疆) (1488 – 1541), from the Pungyang Jo clan. They had one son, Jo Yeon-son (조연손, 趙連孫).
  103. ^ Married Lady Mun of Nampyeong Mun clan (남평 문씨, 南平文氏), also known as Princess Consort Gonsan (곤산군부인, 昆山郡夫人). They had no issue.
  104. ^ Remarried to Lady Gwon of the Andong Gwon clan (안동 권씨, 安東權氏), also known as Princess Consort Pungsan (풍산군부인, 豊山郡夫印), and had issue (5 sons & 1 daughter).
  105. ^ While official records prove that Lady Gwon did have a son before giving birth to Princess Gyeonhwi, historians are unsure if he was truly Yi Gyeong-seok, as he is also speculated to be the son of Royal Noble Consort Myeong.
  106. ^ Her personal name was Yi Jeong-bok (이정복, 李貞福).
  107. ^ Married Yun Nae (윤내, 尹鼐) (? – 1552), from the Papyeong Yun clan. They had one son, Yun Hwi-ro (윤희로, 尹希老).
  108. ^ Her husband's maternal aunt was Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Uiryeong Nam clan (귀인 남씨), another one of Seongjong's concubines.
  109. ^ Concubine of the fourth junior rank (Sug-won; 숙원, 淑媛).

NotesEdit

Seongjong of Joseon
Born: 19 August 1457 Died: 20 January 1495
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Joseon
31 December 1469 – 20 January 1495
Succeeded by