Sentinum was an ancient town located in the Marche region of Italy. It was situated at low elevation about a kilometre south of the present-day town of Sassoferrato. The ruins of Sentinum were partially excavated in 1890 and the results of the archeological investigation were published by T. Buccolini.[1]

Sentinum
Sentinum.jpg
Sentinum is located in Italy
Sentinum
Shown within Italy
LocationSassoferrato, Province of Ancona, Marche, Italy
Coordinates43°25′6.56″N 12°51′8.1″E / 43.4184889°N 12.852250°E / 43.4184889; 12.852250Coordinates: 43°25′6.56″N 12°51′8.1″E / 43.4184889°N 12.852250°E / 43.4184889; 12.852250
TypeSettlement
History
CulturesAncient Rome
Site notes
ConditionRuined
OwnershipPublic
ManagementSoprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici delle Marche
Public accessYes
Mosaic floor depicting Aion and Tellus in richly-patterned framing from Sentinum (Glyptothek, Munich)

HistoryEdit

The town is best known for the Battle of Sentinum which took place nearby in 295 BC: the Romans defeated a coalition of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians and Senone Gauls. During the civil wars of the 40s BC, Sentinum sided with Mark Antony, but in 41 BC was taken and destroyed by Quintus Salvidienus Rufus who was leading troops of Octavian.[2] The town was planned and rebuilt, reurbanized, and continued to exist under the Empire, chartered as a municipium and (as is sometimes supposed) a colonia.[citation needed]

Civic life at Sentinum seems to have collapsed at the time of the invasion of Alaric I[3] and not to have resurged.

ArchaeologyEdit

The site and its environs have been investigated by teams of the University of Genoa, led by Maura Medri, and the University of Urbino led by Sergio Rinaldi Tufi. The site is protected as the Archaeological park of Sentinum.

The foundations of the city walls are preserved. The archeological investigation unearthed city gates, a road, cisterns, and the remains of houses. Notable cultural finds include several mosaic pavements[4] and inscriptions from the second half of the 3rd century AD, including three important tabulae patronatus: these are records of legal ratifications of the appointments of official patrons.

Baths (thermae) dating from the early Empire show a large figured mosaic, presently kept at the Museo Nazionale delle Marche. A 2nd-century colored mosaic of Mithra-Sol is conserved in the Glyptothek, Munich; Mithraic bas-relief of animals representing the stages of the initiate's progress were reused in the Church of Santa Croce, and Mithraic inscriptions are recorded.[5]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, s.v. "Sentinum"
  2. ^ Cassius Dio 48.13.2.5; Appian The Civil Wars 5.30.
  3. ^ Zosimus 5.37.
  4. ^ T. Buccolini (1890). "SASSOFERRATO". Notizie degli scavi di antichità: 346–350.
  5. ^ C. Ramelli, Monumenti mitriaci di Sentinum (1863); Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum XI, 5736-37.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit