Superintendent of police (India)

Superintendent of Police (SP), also known as Deputy Commissioner in a Police Department, is a senior rank in the Indian Police Service (IPS) and of respective States' State Police Service (SPS), and a senior level post of the police service. They wear a star and an Ashoka emblem on their epaulettes with 'IPS' or 'SPS'(as in 'MPS' for Mizoram Police Service, 'KPS' for Kerala Police Service) below. The larger and more important districts in India are headed by a senior superintendent of police (SSP), while smaller districts are headed by a Superintendent of Police (SP). The administration of a Police district is vested upon the SP.

Superintendent of Police (SP) insignia in India.

It may be noted that Superintendent of Police is both a rank of the police service in India and a post of a police officer of this rank or higher. As such, even officers at the SSP rank are sometimes posted as Superintendent of Police of a District. In the state of Kerala, the Superintendent of Police (SP) who is in charge of a police district is referred to as the District Police Chief (DPC). However, in certain other states, the title District Superintendent of Police (SP) is more frequently used. In Kerala, the term District Police Chief is more prevalent. [1][2]

Below the SP, there are Additional Superintendent of Police (Addl. SP) and Deputy Superintendent of Police (Dy. SP/DSP). A Dy. SP who is in-charge of a sub-division is also called Sub-Divisional Police Officer (SDPO). Above the SP, there are the Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP) also known as Superintendent of Police (Selection Grade), Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIG), Inspector General of Police (IG), Additional Director General of Police (ADG) and Director General of Police (DG).

Term of Office Edit

Superintendent of Police posted as a District SP has a term of a minimum of two years and a maximum of three years subject to other circumstances.[3]

Deputy Commissioner of Police Edit

Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP) is a post in the Police Commissionerate, a police system existing in major cities of India.  The Commissioner of Police (CP) is the head of the city police force. In the hierarchy DCP is below Joint Commissioner of Police (Joint CP) and above Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police (Addl.DCP). The Deputy Commissioner of Police has the rank of Superintendent of Police (selection grade) or Superintendent of Police (SP). The Deputy Commissioner of Police is equivalent to Superintendent of Police in the district.[4][5]

The Deputy Commissioner of Police heads a division or a unit in the police commissionerate. The DCP has executive magisterial power in their jurisdiction, while a superintendent of police who is the District Police Chief has no executive magisterial power.[6]

rank insignia of Deputy Commissioner of Police (Selection Grade)
Rank insignia of the Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP)

Roles and Responsibilities Edit

The Superintendent of Police in India may be assigned various roles and responsibilities other than being the district police chief. They need to use their skills and expertise to ensure that law and order is maintained, and public safety is ensured in their assigned role. An SP may be appointed as the head of a unit or specialised wing in the police department. Such as head of telecommunication, motor transport, administration, special operations group, special investigation team, special cells, intelligence detachment, crime branch unit,etc. Commandants of various armed police battalions are officers of the rank of Superintendent of Police.

The post of the Superintendent of Police is the head of the police district of a State and the head of the District Executive Force (DEF). Each district of a State is a DEF. A Police District is an area within the state that is declared by notification by the State Government, after consulting with the Director General. The Superintendent of Police is in charge of the police administration in such district and may have the assistance of any number of Additional, Assistant or Deputy Superintendents, as notified and necessary. The District Executive Force is administratively under the overall supervision of District Superintendent of Police who works under the direct supervision of Dy. Inspector General of Police in charge of the Police range under which the district lies. There may be several sub-divisions under this which are headed by the Sub-Divisional Police Officer who is typically a relatively junior rank of the SPS and a probationary post among IPS officers. Sub-divisions may have a number of police stations and beat posts which are headed by an officer of the rank of Inspector of Police.

A typical small district may have the following establishments under the overall supervision of the SP -

  • Establishment & Account Branch
  • Reserve & Clothing Branch
  • Crime Branch
  • Motor Transport Branch
  • Prosecution Branch
  • Traffic Branch

Each DEF may have Welfare measures under the direct supervision and chairmanship of the SP. The welfare committee is typically structured as such -

  • Chairman – District SP
  • Vice Chairman – Addl. SP
  • Secretary – Head Assistant, SP Office
  • Asst. Secretary – Accountant, SP Office
  • Treasurer – Cashier, SP Office
  • Committee Members – Dy.SP (Hqrs), SDPO of the district, all Branch Head of SP Office, Prosecuting Inspector (PI)CJM Court of the district, O.C’s of PS/OP under the district DEF.
  • Member – All personnel under the district DEF.[7]

The Superintendent of Police or any officer, specially empowered in this behalf by the State Government, can, at any time by a written order issued under the hand and seal of such officer, appoint, for a period as specified in the appointment order, any able-bodied and willing person between the age of 18 and 50 years, whom he considers fit to be a Special Police Officer to assist the Police Service.

The SP also heads and directly supervises District Armed Reserve and Armed battalions while not occluding with the Commandant of the Battalion who is also a SP ranked officer.

The SP also has power to constitute a group of local respectable persons for each village for the purpose of carrying out preventive patrolling, promoting crime reduction measures and generally assisting the police in their functioning. This group of local respectable persons are referred to as Village Defense Parties. The SP also has power to constitute a Community Liaison Group for each police station.

The SP is also entrusted with awarding any of the following punishments to any non-gazetted police officer subordinate to him if the subordinate officers under his command:

  • reduction in pay;
  • withholding of increment
  • withholding of promotion;
  • fine not exceeding one month’s pay; or
  • reprimand or censure.

The SP can also suspend his subordinates if required.

The SP can also regulate public assemblies and processions where necessary and direct the conduct of all assemblies and processions on any public road, street or thoroughfare, and prescribe the routes by which and the time at which such a procession may pass. The SP can also regulate the use of mike and other sound systems in public places and issue directions to the public to keep order on public roads.[8]

Coordination with District Magistrates Edit

The police manuals state -

For the purpose of efficiency in the general administration of the district, it shall be lawful for the District Magistrate, in addition to the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 and other relevant Acts, to coordinate the functioning of the police with other agencies of district administration in respect of matters relating to the following:

  • the promotion of land reforms and the settlement of land disputes;
  • extensive disturbance of the public peace and tranquility in the district;
  • the conduct of elections to any public body;
  • the handling of natural calamities and rehabilitation of the persons affected thereby;
  • situations arising out of any external aggression or internal disturbances;
  • any similar matter, not within the purview of any one department and affecting the general welfare of the public of the district; and
  • removal of any persistent public grievance.

In terms of seniority and general power-of-the-post level in State Civil Services (SCS) and State Police Services (SPS) between the DC and Superintendent of Police (SP) in a District, the DC is equivalent to SP as it is evidenced by their grade pay - Junior Administrative Grade, Selection Grade and Supertime Grade B officers.[9]

Entitlement Edit

Superintendent of Police officers (the post) are entitled to various benefits -

Vehicles Edit

Renault Duster entitled to Champhai SP in Mizoram, India

The standard entitlement and issue of vehicles of a DC is two vehicles which is typically a sedan and an SUV and range typically from Renault Duster to Toyota Innova, and a sedan typically of Maruti Suzuki Ciaz to Hyundai Accent. These vehicles may be fitted with triangular half red and half blue flags with text reading "SP" in their center or on their right side (driver side) like some states as Mizoram, or may have only black covered, arrowhead flag posts. These vehicles may also be fitted with red and blue lights or a blue beacon and/or be fitted with two-way radio systems depending upon the states. Almost all states' vehicles will have a designation plate that reads "SP" or "SP (district)" or similar in front of their vehicles.

Security Edit

SPs of districts are typically given a Government bungalow with proper fencing and a barrack of 5 personnel guarding the residence 24/7. SPs are also given at least one Personal Security Officer (PSO) for protection.

In Commissionerate system Edit

Many important cities in India have the commissionerate system of police rather than an SP-led police system. In this system, the head of the police department is called the commissioner of police (CP). While the superintendent of police (SP) is called a deputy commissioner of police (DCP).

Senior superintendent of police Edit

Senior Superintendent of Police or Superintendent of Police (Selection Grade), commonly known as SSP are senior to Superintendent of Police (Junior Management Grade). In here, Selection Grade and Junior Management Grade denotes to their seniority and pay scale. In some states, there is SSP rank, which is a selection grade scale, while some states doesn't use the term and they are simply known as SP (Selection Grade). After a working experience of 13 years, an IPS officer is promoted to the Selection Grade. In this rank, the officer will be appointed as Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP) at the district level. In city police commissionerate, they holds the position of Deputy Commissioner of Police (Selection Grade). The Grade Selection Officer also enjoys higher pay scales. The insignia or rank badge of a Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP) or Superintendent of Police (Selection Grade) typically consists of two stars and a ashoka emblem on the shoulder epaulets or shoulder boards.[10]

References Edit

  1. ^ Bureau, The Hindu (2022-11-19). "New police chief assumes charge in Alappuzha". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2023-05-05.
  2. ^ "Police chief lashes out at SP, Commissioners for lapses". OnManorama. Retrieved 2023-05-05.
  3. ^ "Mizoram Police Act, 2011" (PDF). Mizoram Police. 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2023-04-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ Emmanuel, Meera. "Madras HC questions validity of deeming Deputy Commissioners of Police in TN as "Executive Magistrate", giving them judicial, jailing power". Bar and Bench - Indian Legal news. Retrieved 2023-05-03.
  5. ^ "Now, commissioners to replace SPs in Agra as district gets new policing system". India Today. Retrieved 2023-05-03.
  6. ^ "DCPs of Tiruchirapalli and five other cities get magisterial powers". The Hindu. 2014-07-25. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2023-05-03.
  7. ^ "Champhai DEF". Mizoram Police. Retrieved 2023-04-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ "Mizoram Police Act, 2011" (PDF). Mizoram Police. 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2023-04-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "Civil List of Mizoram State Government, October, 2022" (PDF). Department of Personnel and Administrative Reforms. 2022-10-17. Retrieved 2023-04-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ "Police Ranks and Badges. | Odisha Police". Retrieved 2023-06-27.