Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families, in war and in peace. Together with the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, the Royal Army Dental Corps and Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps, the RAMC forms the Army Medical Services.
|Royal Army Medical Corps|
Cap badge of the Royal Army Medical Corps
|Part of||Army Medical Services|
|Nickname(s)||The Linseed Lancers|
|Motto(s)||In arduis fidelis|
(Faithful in adversity)
|March||Quick: Here's a Health unto His Majesty (arr. A.J. Thornburrow)|
Slow: Her Bright Smile haunts me still (J Campbell arr. Brown)
|Anniversaries||Corps Day (23 June)|
|Colonel-in-Chief||HRH The Duke of Gloucester KG, GCVO|
|Tactical recognition flash|
Medical services in the British armed services go as far back as the formation of the Standing Regular Army after the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. This was the first time a career was provided for a Medical Officer (MO), both in peacetime and in war.
This regimental basis of appointment for MOs continued until 1873, when a co-ordinated army medical service was set up. To join, a doctor needed to be qualified and single and aged at least 21, and then undergo a further examination in physiology, surgery, medicine, zoology, botany and physical geography including meteorology, and also to satisfy various other requirements (including having dissected the whole body at least once and having attended 12 midwifery cases); the results were published in three classes by an Army Medical School, which was set up in 1860 at Fort Pitt in Chatham, and moved in 1863 to Netley outside Southampton.
There was much unhappiness in the Army Medical Service in the following years. For medical officers did not actually have military rank but "advantages corresponding to relative military rank" (such as choice of quarters, rates of lodging money, servants, fuel and light, allowances on account of injuries received in action, and pensions and allowances to widows and families). They had inferior pay in India, excessive amounts of Indian and colonial service (being required to serve in India six years at a stretch), and less recognition in honours and awards. They did not have their own identity as did the Army Service Corps, whose officers did have military rank. A number of complaints were published, and the British Medical Journal campaigned loudly. For over two years after 27 July 1887 there were no recruits to the Army Medical Department. A parliamentary committee reported in 1890 highlighting the doctors' injustices. Yet all this was ignored by the Secretary of State for War. The British Medical Association, the Royal College of Physicians and others redoubled their protests. Eventually, in 1898, officers and soldiers providing medical services were incorporated into a new body known by its present name, the Royal Army Medical Corps; its first Colonel-in-Chief was H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught.
The RAMC began to develop during the Boer War of 1899–1902. The Corps itself lost 743 officers and 6130 soldiers in the war. However, far more of them, and thousands more of the sick and wounded they treated, would have died if it had not been for the civilian doctors working in South Africa as volunteers—such as Sir Frederick Treves, Sir George Makins, Sir Howard Henry Tooth and Professor Alexander Ogston—who, having seen how unprepared to deal with epidemics the RAMC and the Army itself were, decided that a radical reform was needed. Chief among them was Alfred Fripp, who had been chosen by the Imperial Yeomanry Hospital Committee to order all the necessary materials and medical personnel, and oversee the setting-up of a private hospital at Deelfontein to cater, initially, for 520 'sick and wounded.' The contrast between the smooth working of the IYH at Deelfontein with the chaos of the RAMC hospitals, where an enteric epidemic had overwhelmed the staff, led to questions in Parliament, mainly by William Burdett-Coutts. In July 1901 the first meeting of the Committee of Reform took place, with all the aforementioned civilian experts, plus Sir Edwin Cooper Perry, making up half the number; the rest were Army men, and included Alfred Keogh, whom the new Secretary of State for War, St. John Brodrick, later Earl of Midleton, appointed Chairman of this Committee and the subsequent Advisory Committee. Neither would have met so soon—if at all—but for Fripp's concern to limit unnecessary suffering, and for his ten years' friendship with the new King, Edward VII. Fripp showed him his plans for reform and the King made sure that they were not shelved by his Government. Part of his plan was to move the Netley Hospital and Medical School to a Thames-side site at Millbank, London. Cooper Perry, Fripp's colleague from Guy's Hospital, was instrumental in making this happen, as well as using his formidable talents as an organizer in other services for the Reform Committee. Fripp and Cooper Perry were knighted for their services to the RAMC Committee of Reform in 1903.
During the First World War, the corps reached its apogee both in size and experience. The two people in charge of the RAMC in the Great War were Arthur Sloggett, the senior RAMC officer seconded to the IYH in Deelfontein who acquiesced in all Fripp's surprising innovations, and Alfred Keogh, whom Fripp recommended to Brodrick as an RAMC man well-regarded when Registrar of No.3 General Hospital in Cape Town.
During Britain's colonial days, the RAMC set up clinics and hospitals in countries wherever British troops could be found. Major-General Sir William Macpherson of the RAMC wrote the official Medical History of the War (HMSO 1922). Its main base was for long the Queen Alexandra Hospital at Millbank, London (now closed).
Before the Second World War, RAMC recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 2 inches tall and could enlist up to 30 years of age. They initially enlisted for seven years with the colours and a further five years with the reserve, or three years and nine years. They trained for six months at the RAMC Depot, Queen Elizabeth Barracks, Church Crookham, before proceeding to specialist trade training.
The military medical services are now a tri-service body, with the hospital facilities of Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy combined. The main hospital facility is now the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine at Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, a joint military-National Health Service centre. The former Royal Naval Hospital Haslar in Gosport became the tri-service Royal Hospital Haslar until it was decommissioned in March 2007. The majority of injured service personnel were treated in Selly Oak Hospital in Birmingham prior to the new Queen Elizabeth Hospital's opening. Negative press coverage during the surge of UK military commitments in the years following the second invasion of Iraq has largely given way to an appreciation that the care provided to injured troops has significantly improved.
Queen Alexandra Hospital in Portsmouth, Derriford Hospital in Plymouth, Friarage Hospital in Northallerton (near Catterick Garrison) and Frimley Park Hospital (near Aldershot Garrison) also have military hospital units attached to them but they do not treat operational casualties.
- 1st Armoured Medical Regiment – Reactive Force
- 2nd Medical Regiment – Adaptable Force. A written statement in December 2016 stated that this unit will be rationalised, with all manpower redeployed to other areas of the Army.
- 3 Medical Regiment – Adaptable Force – to support first new Strike Brigade
- 4 Armoured Medical Regiment – Reactive Force
- 5 Armoured Medical Regiment – Reactive Force
- 16 Medical Regiment – 16 Air Assault Brigade
- 225 Medical Regiment
- 253 Medical Regiment
- 254 Medical Regiment – Army Reserve
- 335 Medical Evacuation Regiment – Army Reserve
- 2 Medical Brigade
- Regular Army
- 22 Field Hospital
- 33 Field Hospital – a written statement in December 2016 stated that this unit will be rationalised, with all manpower redeployed to other areas of the Army.
- 34 Field Hospital
- Army Reserve
- 201 (Northern) Field Hospital
- 202 (Midlands) Field Hospital
- 203 (Welsh) Field Hospital
- 204 (North Ireland) Field Hospital
- 205 (Scotland) Field Hospital
- 207 (Manchester) Field Hospital
- 208 (Liverpool) Field Hospital
- 212 (Yorkshire) Field Hospital
- 243 (Wessex) Field Hospital
- 256 (City of London) Field Hospital
- 306 Hospital Support Regiment
- Medical Operational Support Group
- Regular Army
The RAMC, like every other British regiment, has its own distinctive unit insignia:
- Dark blue beret, the default Army colour worn by units without distinctive coloured berets. The exceptions are members of 16 Medical Regiment, who wear the maroon beret, 225 Scottish General Support Medical Regiment (previously Field Ambulance) and members of 205 (Scottish) Field Hospital, who wear the traditional Scottish Tam o' Shanter headdress with Corps badge on tartan backing, and medical personnel attached to field units with distinctive coloured berets, who usually wear the beret of that unit (e.g. maroon for The Parachute Regiment and sky blue for the Army Air Corps). There is also a small attachment to Special Forces, the Medical Support Unit (MSU) who wear the sandy beret of the SAS.
- Cap badge depicting the Rod of Asclepius, surmounted by a crown, enclosed within a laurel wreath, with the regimental motto In Arduis Fidelis, translated as "Faithful in Adversity" in a scroll beneath. The cap badge is worn 1 inch above the left eye on the beret. The cap badge of the other ranks must also be backed by an oval patch of dull cherry-red coloured cloth measuring 3.81 cm (1.5 inches) wide and 6.35 cm (2.5 inches) high sewn directly to the beret.
Colonels-in-Chief have been:
- FM HRH Arthur William Patrick Albert, 1st Duke of Connaught & Strathearn KG, KT, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, GBE, VD, TD (1919–1942)
- HM Queen Mary LG, GCVO, GBE, GCSI (1942–1953)
- HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother LG, LT, CI, GCVO, GBE, CC, ONZ, CD (1953–2002)
- HRH The Duke of Gloucester KG, GCVO (2003–present)
Order of precedenceEdit
Royal Logistic Corps
|Order of Precedence||Succeeded by|
Corps of Royal Electrical
and Mechanical Engineers
Successive changes in titleEdit
- Medical Staff Corps (1855–1857) (other ranks only)
- Army Hospital Corps (1857–1884) (other ranks only)
- Army Medical Department (1873–1898) (officers only)
- Medical Staff Corps (1884–1898) (other ranks only)
- Royal Army Medical Corps (1898–present)
|Before 1873||1873–1879||1879–1891||1891–1898||From 1898|
|Inspector-General of Hospitals||Surgeon-General||Surgeon-General||Surgeon-Major-General||Surgeon-General|
|Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals||Deputy Surgeon-General||Deputy Surgeon-General||Surgeon-Colonel||Colonel|
|Brigade Surgeon||Brigade Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel||Lieutenant-Colonel|
Since the Victoria Cross was instituted in 1856 there have been 27 Victoria Crosses and two bars awarded to army medical personnel. A bar, indicating a subsequent award of a second Victoria Cross, has only ever been awarded three times, two of them to medical officers. Twenty-three of these Victoria Crosses are on display in the Army Medical Services Museum. The corps also has one recipient of both the Victoria Cross and the Iron Cross. One officer was awarded the George Cross in the Second World War. A young member of the corps, Private Michelle Norris, became the first woman to be awarded the Military Cross following her actions in Iraq on 11 June 2006.
One VC is in existence that is not counted in any official records. In 1856, Queen Victoria laid a Victoria Cross beneath the foundation stone of the Royal Victoria Military Hospital, Netley. When the hospital was demolished in 1966, the VC, known as "The Netley VC", was retrieved and is now on display in the Army Medical Services Museum.
|Name||Award||Awarded while serving with||Medal held by|
|Harold Ackroyd||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd The Royal Berkshire Regiment||Lord Ashcroft Collection|
|William Allen||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd Royal Field Artillery||Army Medical Services Museum|
|William Babtie||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps||AMS Museum|
|William Bradshaw||VC||90th Regiment (The Cameronians)||AMS Museum|
|Royal Army Medical Corps att'd The King's (Liverpool Regiment)
|Imperial War Museum|
|Thomas Crean||VC||1st Imperial Light Horse (Natal)||AMS Museum|
|Henry Douglas||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps||AMS Museum|
|Joseph Farmer||VC||Army Hospital Corps||AMS Museum|
|John Fox-Russell||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd The Royal Welch Fusiliers||AMS Museum|
|John Green||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd The Sherwood Foresters||AMS Museum|
|Thomas Hale||VC||7th Regiment (The Royal Fusiliers)||AMS Museum|
|Henry Harden||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd 45 Royal Marine Commando||AMS Museum|
|Edmund Hartley||VC||Cape Mounted Riflemen, SA Forces||AMS Museum|
|Anthony Home||VC||90th Perthshire Light Infantry||AMS Museum|
|Edgar Inkson||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers||AMS Museum|
|Joseph Jee||VC||78th Regiment (The Seaforth Highlanders)||AMS Museum|
|Ferdinand Le Quesne||VC||Medical staff Corps||Jersey Museum|
|Owen Lloyd||VC||Army Medical Department||AMS Museum|
|George Maling||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd The Rifle Brigade||AMS Museum|
|Royal Regiment of Artillery
Awarded Iron Cross 1870
|VC: South African Constabulary
Bar: Royal Army Medical Corps
|Valentine Munbee McMaster||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps
Winning his VC during the relief of Lucknow, while serving with the 78th Highlanders
|National War Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh|
|James Mouat||VC||6th Dragoons (Inniskilling)||AMS Museum|
|William Nickerson||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps||Privately held|
|Harry Ranken||VC||Royal Army Medical Corps att'd King's Royal Rifle Corps||AMS Museum|
|James Reynolds||VC||Army Medical Department||AMS Museum|
|John Sinton||VC||Indian Medical Service||AMS Museum|
|William Sylvester||VC||23rd Regiment (The Royal Welch Fusiliers)||AMS Museum|
Although not serving with the RAMC, Irish born Surgeon John Crimmin VC, CB, CIE, VD is another military medic to win the country's highest award for gallantry. He won his medal in 1889 while serving with The Bombay Medical Service of The Indian Army in the Karen Ni Expedition. John Crimmin is buried in Wells, Somerset. Contrary to other sources the medal is not held by The Army Medical Services Museum.
Trades/careers in the 21st centuryEdit
RAMC officer careers:
- Doctor (Medical Officer)
- Environmental Health Officer
- Medical Support Officer
- Clinical Psychologist
- Technical Officer – Biomedical Scientist/Radiographer/Clinical Physiologist/Operating Department Practitioner
RAMC soldier trades:
- Clinical Physiologist
- Combat Medical Technician
- Emergency Medical Technician
- Operating Department Practitioner
- Pharmacy Technician
- Environmental Health Technician
- Biomedical Scientist
Military abbreviations applicable to the Medical CorpsEdit
Within the military, Medical officers could occupy a number of roles that were dependent on experience, rank and location. Within military documentation, numerous abbreviations were used to identify these roles, of which the following are some of the most common:
- ADMS = Assistant Director Medical Services
- DADMS = Deputy Assistant Director of Medical Services
- DCA = Defence Consultant Advisor (the lead clinician for each specialty)
- DDGMS = Deputy Director General Medical Services
- DDMS = Deputy Director Medical Services
- DG = Director General (Medical Services)
- DGAMS = Director General Army Medical Services (HQ AMD, Camberley / HQ Land Forces, Andover)
- DGMS = Director General Medical Services
- DMS = Director Medical Services
- EMO = Embarkation Medical Officer
- GDMO = General Duties Medical Officer (a junior army doctor attached to a field unit before commencing higher specialist training)
- MCD = Military Clinical Director (a senior army Consultant)
- MSO = Medical Support Officer (a non-clinical military officer who hold command and staff positions)
- MO = Medical Officer
- OMO = Orderly Medical Officer
- PMO = Principal Medical Officer
- RMO = Regimental Medical Officer (normally an army General Practitioner with additional training in Pre-Hospital Emergency Care and Occupational Medicine)
- SMO = Senior Medical Officer (normally a senior army General Practitioner)
- CMT = Combat Medical Technician (an army medic). Not necessarily a paramedic. There are some (mostly special forces) CMTs who are paramedic-trained, but the term 'paramedic' is protected in law and can only be used by those who are fully qualified and state-registered with the HCPC.
Since 1903, the corps has published an academic journal titled the Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps (JRAMC). Its stated aim is to "publish high quality research, reviews and case reports, as well as other invited articles, which pertain to the practice of military medicine in its broadest sense". Submissions are accepted from serving members of all ranks, as well as academics from outside the military. Initially a monthly publication, it is currently published quarterly by BMJ on behalf of the RAMC Association.
- Pine, L G (1983). A Dictionary of mottoes (1 ed.). London: Routledge & K. Paul. p. 106. ISBN 0-7100-9339-X.
- "Royal Army Medical Corps". British Military History. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- A E W Miles, The Accidental Birth of Military Medicine, Civic Books, London, 2009 ISBN 978-1-904104-95-7, page 14
- London and Provincial Medical Directory, 1860, John Churchill, London; on the AMS see Hampshire and QARANC both accessed 29 November 2010
- Commissioned Officers of the Army Medical Service, W Johnston, Aberdeen UP 1917
- "Royal Army Medical Corps". Regiments.org. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "Fripp, Sir Alfred Downing (1865 - 1930)". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. Royal College of Surgeons of England. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "Sloggett, Sir Arthur Thomas (1857–1929)". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. Royal College of Surgeons of England. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Keogh, Sir Alfred Henry (1857–1936)". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. Royal College of Surgeons of England. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Macpherson, Sir William (1922). "Medical services, surgery of the war". HMSO.
- "Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital". Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- War Office, His Majesty's Army, 1938
- Muir, Hugh (12 March 2007). "Storm over injured troops' care fails to save military hospital". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. p. 8. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
- "House of Commons Defence Committee Report on the Medical Care of the Armed Forces". 5 February 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- Evans, Michael (7 March 2009). "Chain of care: from front line to Selly Oak Hospital". The Times. Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- "Ministry of Defence | MicroSite | DMS | Our Teams | Royal Air Force Medical Services (RAFMS)". Mod.uk. 2007-02-20. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Strategic Defence and Security Review - Army:Written statement - HCWS367 - UK Parliament". Parliament.uk. 2014-12-04. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
- "SOLDIER JAN 2017". SOLDIER JAN 2017.
- "16 Medical Regiment, Royal Army Medical Corps". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- "'Crap Hats', Berets and Peak Caps" (PDF). Boot Camp & Military Fitness Institute. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- "No. 26196". The London Gazette. 28 August 1891. p. 4615.
- "No. 26988". The London Gazette. 19 July 1898. p. 4355.
- "The Royal Army Medical Corps". VictoriaCross.org. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
- Glendinning, Lee (22 March 2007). "Historic award for female private". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. p. 8. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2007-03-22.
- "Netley Hospital information". QARANC – Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
- "Abbreviations Used in Original Documents". Scarlettfinders: British Military Nurses. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "About Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps". BMJ. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps: Archive of All Online Issues (July 1903 – Present)". BMJ. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Museum of Military Medicine". ARCHON Directory. UK: The National Archives. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- Blair, J.S.G. Centenary History of the Royal Army Medical Corps, 1898–1998. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1998.
- Brereton, F.S. The Great War and the RAMC. London: Constable, 1919.
- Leneman, Leah. "Medical Women at War, 1914–1918." Medical History (1994) 38#2 pp: 160–177. online
- Lovegrove, P. Not Least in the Crusade. A Short History of the RAMC. Gale and Polden, 1955.
- Miles, A. E. W. The Accidental Birth of Military Medicine: The Origins of the Royal Army Medical Corps, Civic Books, 2009
- Oram, A.R. An Army Doctor's Story: Memoirs of Brigadier A.R. Oram 1891–1966, published in paperback and on Kindle 2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Army Medical Corps.|
- Official website
- Army Medical Services Museum
- RAMC Association
- Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
- "Army 2020 units and sub-units of the Royal Medical Corps (Reaction/Adaptable Force Divisions)" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. 18 May 2015.
- Other links