|Sendai Subway 1000N series|
|Manufacturer||Kawasaki Heavy Industries|
|Number built||84 vehicles (21 sets)|
|Formation||4 cars per trainset|
|Capacity||144 passengers per car (58 seating, 54 post-refurbishment)|
|Operator(s)||Sendai City Transportation Bureau|
|Line(s) served||Sendai Subway Namboku Line|
|Car length||21.75 m (71 ft 4 in) (end cars)|
20 m (65 ft 7 in) (intermediate cars)
|Width||2.89 m (9 ft 6 in)|
|Height||4.04 m (13 ft 3 in)|
|Doors||4 pairs per side|
|Maximum speed||75 km/h (45 mph)|
|Weight||128.0 t (126.0 long tons; 141.1 short tons)|
|Traction system||Original: Chopper control|
|Traction motors||160 kW (210 hp)|
Original: DC series-wound motor
Refurbished: 3-phase AC induction motor
|Transmission||Westinghouse-Natal drive; |
Gear ratio: 5.73
|Acceleration||3.0 km/h/s (3.5 km/h/s post-refurbishment)|
|Deceleration||3.7 km/h/s (service maximum)|
4.5 km/h/s (emergency)
|Electric system(s)||1,500 V DC (nominal) from overhead catenary|
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|Braking system(s)||Electromagnetic braking|
|Safety system(s)||ATC/ATO (Fuzzy logic)|
|Track gauge||1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)|
The 1000 series was the world's first train type to use fuzzy logic to control its speed, and this system developed by Hitachi accounts for the relative smoothness of the starts and stops when compared to other trains, and is 10% more energy efficient than human-controlled acceleration. It was the recipient of the 28th Laurel Prize award presented by the Japan Railfan Club.
From 2004 until 2013, the 1000 series trains will undergo mid-life refurbishment to extend their lifespan. As of April 2009, 12 sets have been refurbished, and the refurbished sets are renamed 1000N series.
The refurbished trains include the following features.
- Andrew Pollack (April 2, 1989). "Fuzzy Computer Theory: How to Mimic the Mind?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- Philip Elmer-DeWitt (September 25, 1989). "Time For Some Fuzzy Thinking". Time. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- http://www.city.sendai.jp/toshi/touzaisenchousei/nandemo/pdf/design5-2.pdf. Retrieved 2011-03-11.