Semnan province

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Semnan Province (Persian: استان سمنان, Ôstâň-e Śemnân) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the north of the country, with its center and capital in the city of Semnan. The province of Semnan covers an area of 96,816 square kilometers and stretches along the Alborz mountain range, bordering on Dasht-e Kavir desert in its southern parts.

Semnan Province
استان سمنان
The entrance of Bayazid Shrine
The entrance of Bayazid Shrine
Location of Semnan province in Iran
Location of Semnan province in Iran
Coordinates: 35°34′37″N 53°23′43″E / 35.5769°N 53.3953°E / 35.5769; 53.3953Coordinates: 35°34′37″N 53°23′43″E / 35.5769°N 53.3953°E / 35.5769; 53.3953
CountryIran
RegionRegion 1[1]
CapitalSemnan
Counties8
Government
 • Governor-generalMohammad-Reza Hashemi
Area
 • Total97,491 km2 (37,641 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Total702,360
 • Density7.2/km2 (19/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+04:30 (IRST)
ISO 3166 codeIR-20
Main language(s)Semnani languages, Persian
HDI (2017)0.822[3]
very high · 6th

At the National Census of 2006, the population of the province was 570,835 in 159,791 households.[4] The following census in 2011 counted 631,218 people in 186,114 households.[5] The province was made part of Region 1 following the division of the provinces into 5 regions, solely for coordination and development purposes, on June 22, 2014.[1] By the time of the most recent census of 2016, the population had risen to 702,360 in 215,571 households.[2]

HistoryEdit

Semnan can be divided into sixteen sectors from the old days of Avesta. In the Median and Achaemenid times, it accounted for being one of the largest provinces of the empires, and today it roughly corresponds to the borders of the ancient region of Parthia.

During the Islamic era, Semnan was part of the historical region of Gomess or Komesh, and the Silk Road paved its way from the midst of this region. Needless to say, the province was witness to numerous wars.

The Cultural Historical Heritage Organization of Iran lists 470 sites of historical and cultural heritage such as palaces, forts, castles, caravansarais, ab anbars, and badgirs in Semnan. In addition to these, there are various religious and sacred places as well.

GeographyEdit

The province is divided into two parts: a mountainous region and the plains at the foot of the mountains. The former offers scope for recreational activities as well as being a source for minerals, while the latter encompasses some ancient cities of Iran, including one of the capitals of the ancient Parthian Empire.

The province neighbors Golestan and Mazandaran to the north, North Khorasan to the northeast, Tehran and Qom to the west, Isfahan to the south, South Khorasan to the southeast, and Razavi Khorasan to the east.

Abr forestEdit

This forest lies in the central province of Semnan, near its border with Golestan Province. It is one of the oldest forests in Iran which is a remnant of the third geological age. The Iranian Roads Ministry's decision to build a road through the forest sparked widespread protests last year.[when?]

The environmentalists, backed by the country's media, began a wide campaign against the ministry's decision, which finally led the Prosecutor General to order a halt in the construction of the road. However, all these efforts came to naught when it was announced in April 2008 that the government granted permission to the Roads Ministry to construct the road.[citation needed]

Administrative divisionsEdit

 

Semnan Province Population History
Administrative Divisions 2006[4] 2011[5] 2016[2]
Aradan County1 13,884
Damghan County 81,993 86,908 94,190
Garmsar County 77,676 81,324 77,421
Mehdishahr County2 41,896 47,475
Meyami County3 38,718
Semnan County 186,159 182,260 196,521
Shahrud County 225,007 238,830 218,628
Sorkheh County2 15,523
Total 570,835 631,218 702,360
1Separated from Garmsar County
2Separated from Semnan County
3Separated from Shahrud County

CitiesEdit

According to the 2016 census, 560,502 people (nearly 80% of the population of Semnan province) live in the following cities: Amiriyeh 3,561, Aradan 6,257, Bastam 8,609, Beyarjomand 2,528, Damghan 59,106, Darjazin 5,997, Dibaj 5,647, Eyvanki 13,518, Garmsar 48,672, Kalateh 4,611, Kalateh Khij 5,651, Kohanabad 1,192, Mehdishahr 24,485, Meyami 4,566, Mojen 5,932, Rudian 3,770, Semnan 185,129, Shahmirzad 11,191, Shahrud 150,129, and Sorkheh 9,951.[2]

LanguagesEdit

 
Linguistic Map of Semnan province
 
Area where Semnani languages spoken (bottom right, shaded dull pink) in relation to Caspian and Tati

The Semnani languages (known also as Komisenian languages) spoken in the province are a group of Northwestern Iranian languages,[6] (only 68,700 native speakers in 2019[7]) of Iran. These languages are accorded only "dialect" status in some sources. Most of the Semnani languages are descendants of the extinct Parthian while Semnani proper has been placed among the Caspian languages descended from the extinct Median.[8]

There are six Semnani languages named in the literature, these being Semnani, Biyabunaki, Sangsari, Sorkhei, Aftari and Lasgerdi - of which some may only be dialects, although there has been little published concerning the relationships between them.[9]

Semnani proper (Semnani: سمنی زفون), like other Caspian languages, bears some resemblance to the Old Iranian Median language but was influenced by Parthian in a later process. [10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند
  2. ^ a b c d "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 20. Archived from the original (Excel) on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 20. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 20. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  6. ^ Ethnologue listing for Semnani languages
  7. ^ "Semnani".
  8. ^ Pierre Lecoq. 1989. "Les dialectes caspiens et les dialectes du nord-ouest de l'Iran," Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Ed. Rüdiger Schmitt. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. pg. 297
  9. ^ C.F. & F.M. Voegelin, Classification and Index of the World's Languages (1977) lists them as dialects of Persian (pg. 185).
    Lecoq, pg. 297 lists them as "dialects" as well.
    Ethnologue lists Semnani, Sorkhei, Lasgerdi, and Sangsari as languages with Biyabunaki as a possible dialect of Semnani and Aftari as a dialect of Sorkhei.
    Linguasphere lists them together in an outer language called Semnani+Sangisari [58-AAC-f] with Semnani and Sangisari listed as inner languages.
    Merritt Ruhlen, A Guide to the World's Languages, Volume 1: Classification (1991) lists Semnani and Sangisari as languages in the Semnani subgroup.
  10. ^ Habib Borjian: . In: . Nr. 2. Brill, 2009

External linksEdit