Second Lubbers cabinet

The Second Lubbers cabinet was the executive branch of the Dutch Government from 14 July 1986 until 7 November 1989. The cabinet was a continuation of the previous First Lubbers cabinet and was formed by the Christian-democratic Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the conservative-liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) after the election of 1986. The cabinet was a centre-right coalition and had a substantial majority in the House of Representatives with Christian-Democratic Leader Ruud Lubbers serving Prime Minister. Former Liberal Leader Rudolf de Korte the Minister of the Interior in the previous cabinet served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economic Affairs.

Second Lubbers cabinet
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
60th Cabinet of the Netherlands
Kabinet-Lubbers II.jpg ZetelsLubbersII.svg
The installation of the Second Lubbers cabinet on 14 July 1986
Date formed14 July 1986 (1986-07-14)
Date dissolved7 November 1989 (1989-11-07)
3 years, 116 days in office
(Demissionary from 3 May 1989 (1989-05-03))
People and organisations
MonarchQueen Beatrix
Prime MinisterRuud Lubbers
Deputy Prime MinisterRudolf de Korte
No. of ministers14
Total no. of members16
Member partyChristian Democratic Appeal
(CDA)
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(VVD)
Status in legislatureCentre-right
Majority government
Opposition partyLabour Party
Opposition leaderJoop den Uyl (1986)
Wim Kok (1986–1989)
History
Election(s)1986 election
Outgoing election1989 election
Legislature term(s)1986–1989
Incoming formation1986 formation
Outgoing formation1989 formation
PredecessorFirst Lubbers cabinet
SuccessorThird Lubbers cabinet

The cabinet served in the middle of the turbulent 1980s. Domestically it had to deal with revitalizing the economy following the Early 1980s recession, reducing the deficit and stimulating deregulation and privatization, it was able to implement several major social reforms to social security, student loans, value-added taxes, public broadcasting and further stimulating Urban development. Internationally it had to deal with several crises such as the fallout of the decision to allow NATO to place the Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) at Woensdrecht Air Base. The cabinet suffered several major internal conflicts including multiple resignations, the cabinet fell 3 years into its term on 3 May 1989 following a disagreement in the coalition over a proposed excise and the cabinet continued in a demissionary capacity until it was replaced with the Third Lubbers cabinet following the 1989 election.[1][2]

FormationEdit

After the election on 21 May 1986 the Christian Democratic Appeal of incumbent Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers was the winner of the election winning nine new seats and had now a total of 54 seats. The Labour Party of Joop den Uyl gained 5 seats and had now a total of 52 seats. The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy under Ed Nijpels lost nine seats and now had a total of 27 seats in the House of Representatives, following this loss Ed Nijpels resigned as Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy on 9 July 1986 and was temporarily succeeded by Rudolf de Korte. On 23 May 1986 Queen Beatrix appointed Minister of Social Affairs and Employment Jan de Koning (CDA) as Informateur to start the cabinet formation process. The previous coalition of Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy agreed to continue the coalition. On 11 July 1986 Queen Beatrix subsequently appointed incumbent Prime Minister as Formateur and tasked him with forming a new cabinet. On 14 July 1986 the cabinet formation was completed and the Second Lubbers cabinet was installed with Ruud Lubbers beginning a second term as Prime Minister and Rudolf de Korte as the new Deputy Prime Minister.

On 21 July 1986 shortly after the cabinet formation Joop den Uyl who had been the Leader of the Labour Party since 13 September 1966 announced his retirement from front line politics and stood down on 21 July 1986 after serving 19 years as Leader of the Labour Party, he was succeeded by former Trade union leader Wim Kok who had only been a Member of the House of Representatives since 3 June 1986.

TermEdit

ChangesEdit

On 23 October 1986 State Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment Gerrit Brokx (CDA) resigned after Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives Bert de Vries lost his confidence in his ability to remain in office after a critical parliamentary inquiry. On 27 October 1986 State Secretary for Economic Affairs for international trade Enneüs Heerma (CDA) was appointed as his successor. On 30 October 1986 Member of the House of Representatives Yvonne van Rooy (CDA) was nominated to succeed him as State Secretary for Economic Affairs for international trade.

On 3 February 1987 Minister of the Interior Kees van Dijk (CDA) took a medical leave of absence after he had to undergo surgery as a result of heart problems. During his sick leave Minister of Social Affairs and Employment Jan de Koning (CDA) served as acting Minister of the Interior while State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment Louw de Graaf (CDA) was temporarily appointed as Minister of Social Affairs and Employment. On 6 May 1987 Kees van Dijk returned from his sick leave and resumed his duties as Minister of the Interior.

On 6 September 1988 Minister of Defence Wim van Eekelen (VVD) resigned after the conclusions of a critical parliamentary inquiry into fraud was released about the time he had served as State Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the previous cabinet. On 9 September 1988 State Secretary for Foreign Affairs René van der Linden (CDA) also resigned. Minister for Development Cooperation Piet Bukman (CDA) served as acting Minister of Defence until 24 September 1988 when Member of the House of Representatives Frits Bolkestein (VVD), the former State Secretary for Economic Affairs was appointed as Minister of Defence. On 27 September 1988 Berend-Jan van Voorst tot Voorst (CDA), who until then had been working as senior official at the Ministry of Economic Affairs was sworn in as State Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

On 30 June 1989 State Secretary for Economic Affairs for small business policy Albert-Jan Evenhuis (VVD) resigned following a publication in the NRC Handelsblad after he had provided a dubious loan and subsidy and because the cabinet was already demissionary he was not replaced.

On 14 September 1989 Minister of Education and Sciences Wim Deetman (CDA) resigned after he was appointed as Speaker of the House of Representatives. Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Gerrit Braks (CDA) served as acting Minister of Education and Sciences until the new cabinet took office on 7 November 1989.

On 1 October 1989 one month before the new cabinet took office State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment Louw de Graaf (CDA) resigned after he was appointed as chairman of the trade associations of Insurance Companies.

 
Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers, Minister of Foreign Affairs Hans van den Broek and King Hussein of Jordan at the Catshuis on 6 April 1987.
 
Minister of Defence Wim van Eekelen and French Minister of Defence André Giraud at the Ministry of Defence on 13 April 1987.
 
Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers, Prime Minister of Italy Giovanni Goria and Minister of Foreign Affairs Hans van den Broek at the Binnenhof on 10 September 1987.
 
Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers and Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi at Airport Schiphol on 21 October 1987.
 
President of El Salvador José Napoleón Duarte, Minister of Foreign Affairs Hans van den Broek and Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers at the Catshuis on 21 October 1987.
 
Chancellor of West-Germany Helmut Kohl and Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers at the Catshuis on 30 November 1987.
 
President of the United States George H. W. Bush and Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers at the Catshuis on 17 July 1989.

Cabinet MembersEdit

Ministers Title/Ministry/Portfolio(s) Term of office Party
  Ruud Lubbers
(1939–2018)
Prime Minister General Affairs 4 November 1982 –
22 Augustus 1994
[Retained] [Continued]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Dr.
Rudolf de Korte
(1936–2020)
Deputy
Prime Minister
Economic Affairs 14 July 1986 –
7 November 1989
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
Minister
  Kees van Dijk
(1931–2008)
Minister Interior 14 July 1986 –
26 January 1987
[Note]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Frits
Korthals Altes

(born 1931)
26 January 1987 –
3 February 1987
[Ad Interim]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Jan de Koning
(1926–1994)
3 February 1987 –
6 May 1987
[Acting]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Kees van Dijk
(1931–2008)
6 May 1987 –
7 November 1989
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Hans van
den Broek

(born 1936)
Minister Foreign Affairs 4 November 1982 –
3 January 1993
[Retained] [Continued]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Dr.
Onno Ruding
(born 1939)
Minister Finance 4 November 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Frits
Korthals Altes

(born 1931)
Minister Justice 4 November 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Dr.
Wim van Eekelen
(born 1931)
Minister Defence 14 July 1986 –
6 September 1988
[Res]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Piet Bukman
(born 1934)
6 September 1988 –
24 September 1988
[Ad Interim]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Frits Bolkestein
(born 1933)
24 September 1988 –
7 November 1989
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Elco Brinkman
(born 1948)
Minister Welfare, Health
and Culture
4 November 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Jan de Koning
(1926–1994)
Minister Social Affairs and
Employment
4 November 1982 –
3 February 1987
[Retained] [Note]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Louw de Graaf
(1930–2020)
3 February 1987 –
6 May 1987
[Acting]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Jan de Koning
(1926–1994)
6 May 1987 –
7 November 1989
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Wim Deetman
(born 1945)
Minister Education and
Sciences
29 May 1982 –
14 September 1989
[Retained] [App]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Gerrit Braks
(1933–2017)
14 September 1989 –
7 November 1989
[Acting]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Neelie Kroes
(born 1941)
Minister Transport and
Water Management
4 November 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Gerrit Braks
(1933–2017)
Minister Agriculture and
Fisheries
4 November 1982 –
18 September 1990
[Retained] [Continued]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Ed Nijpels
(born 1950)
Minister Housing, Spatial
Planning and the
Environment
14 July 1986 –
7 November 1989
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
Ministers without portfolio Title/Ministry/Portfolio(s) Term of office Party
  Jan de Koning
(1926–1994)
Minister Interior Netherlands
Antilles and
Aruba Affairs
29 May 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Piet Bukman
(born 1934)
Minister Foreign Affairs Development
Cooperation
14 July 1986 –
7 November 1989
Christian
Democratic Appeal
State Secretaries Title/Ministry/Portfolio(s) Term of office Party
  Dieuwke de
Graaff-Nauta

(1930–2008)
State Secretary Interior Municipalities
Emergency
Services

Emergency
Management

Regional
Languages
14 July 1986 –
27 May 1994
[Continued]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  René van
der Linden

(born 1943)
State Secretary
[Title]
Foreign Affairs European Union
Benelux
14 July 1986 –
9 September 1988
[Res]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Baron
Berend-Jan van
Voorst tot Voorst

(born 1944)
27 September 1988 –
7 November 1989
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Henk Koning
(1933–2016)
State Secretary Finance Fiscal Policy
Tax and Customs
Governmental
Budget
4 November 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Virginie
Korte-van Hemel

(1929–2014)
State Secretary Justice Immigration
and Asylum

Civil Law
• Youth Justice
Penitentiaries
Gambling
8 November 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Enneüs Heerma
(1944–1999)
State Secretary Economic Affairs Trade and Export
[Title]
17 July 1986 –
27 October 1986
[App]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Yvonne van Rooy
(born 1951)
30 October 1986 –
7 November 1989
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Albert-Jan
Evenhuis

(1941–2011)
Small and
Medium-sized
Businesses

Regional
Development

• Consumer
Protection
Tourism
14 July 1986 –
30 June 1989
[Res]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Jan van
Houwelingen

(1939–2013)
State Secretary Defence Human
Resources

Equipment
14 September 1981 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Dick Dees
(born 1944)
State Secretary Welfare, Health
and Culture
Primary
Healthcare

• Social Services
Environmental
Policy
14 July 1986 –
7 November 1989
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Louw de Graaf
(1930–2020)
State Secretary Social Affairs and
Employment
• Social Security
• Unemployment
Occupational
Safety

Integration
Minorities
5 November 1982 –
3 February 1987
[Retained]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
6 May 1987 –
1 October 1989
[Res]
  Nell Ginjaar-Maas
(1931–2012)
State Secretary Education and
Sciences
Primary
Education

Secondary
Education

Adult
Education
5 November 1982 –
7 November 1989
[Retained]
People's Party
for Freedom and
Democracy
  Gerrit Brokx
(1933–2002)
State Secretary Housing, Spatial
Planning and the
Environment
Urban Planning
Public Housing
Spatial Planning
5 November 1982 –
23 October 1986
[Retained] [Res]
Christian
Democratic Appeal
  Enneüs Heerma
(1944–1999)
27 October 1986 –
22 August 1994
Christian
Democratic Appeal
Resigned
Retained from the previous cabinet
Continued in the next cabinet
Acting
Ad Interim
Died in Office
Designated with the diplomatic rank of Minister
Medical leave of absence from 26 January 1987 until 6 May 1987
Appointed as Speaker of the House of Representatives
Appointed as State Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment

TriviaEdit

  • Six cabinet members (later) served as Party Leaders and Lijsttrekkers: Ruud Lubbers (1982–1994), Elco Brinkman (1994) and Enneüs Heerma (1994–1997) of the Christian Democratic Appeal, Rudolf de Korte (1986), Frits Bolkestein (1990–1998) and Ed Nijpels (1982–1986) of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy.
  • Eight cabinet members had previous experience as scholars or professors: Rudolf de Korte (Business Administration), Jan de Koning (Social Geography), Onno Ruding (Business Economics), Wim van Eekelen (Political Science), Frits Bolkestein (Business Economics and Corporate Law), Gerrit Braks (Agronomy), Henk Koning (Tax Law) and Nell Ginjaar-Maas (Chemistry and Pedagogy)
  • Three cabinet members later served as European Commissioner: Hans van den Broek (1993–1999), Frits Bolkestein (1999–2004) and Neelie Kroes (2004–2014).
  • Five cabinet members later served as in high-profile international functions: Ruud Lubbers (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), Wim van Eekelen (Secretary General of the Western European Union), Piet Bukman (President of the European People's Party), Frits Bolkestein (President of the Liberal International) and René van der Linden (President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe).
  • Five cabinet members later served as legislative speakers: Frits Korthals Altes (1997–2001), Gerrit Braks (2001–2003) en René van der Linden (2009–2011) for the Senate, Wim Deetman (1989–1996) en Piet Bukman (1996–1998) for the House of House of Representatives.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ (in Dutch) NRC-enquête: Drees en Lubbers beste premiers sinds 1900, NRC Handelsblad, 28 September 2013
  2. ^ "De jaren tachtig van Onno Ruding" (in Dutch). Historisch Nieuwsblad. 19 August 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2018.

External linksEdit

Official