Schule am Meer

Schule am Meer, Engl. School by the Sea, Hebrew בית ספר ליד הים, also known as S.a.M. or SaM, was a private, holistically oriented coed progressive boarding school on the East Frisian island of Juist in the Free State of Prussia of German Reich, located between Wadden Sea and North Sea.

Drawing of boarding school Schule am Meer on the East Frisian island of Juist, bird's eye view from Wadden Sea northbound, summer 1928
Stage hall complex of Schule am Meer as projected in 1929, its stage hall erected in 1930/31, watercolor painting by architect Bruno Ahrends
4-sided flyer (click picture to view all four pages), published by Schule am Meer, 1931
Eduard Zuckmayer directs some members of the boarding school's orchestra from his harpsichord, 1931
Play on stage, 1931
Students and teachers costumed in the stage hall of S.a.M., newly erected by renowned Berlin-based architect Bruno Ahrends, 1931

The boarding school was operated by Stiftung Schule am Meer, a private foundation whose board of trustees consisted of the Swiss educator Rudolf Aeschlimann [de] (1884–1961),[1] the Austrian painter Fritz Hafner,[2] the German industrialist, art collector and patron of the arts Alfred Hess from Erfurt in Thuringia, the progressive educator Martin Luserke from Berlin,[3] the social scientist Elisabeth Jaffé, née Freiin von Richthofen originating from Lorraine, and the chemist Paul Reiner [de] (1886–1932) from Nuremberg in Franconia.[4][5] Aeschlimann, Hafner, Luserke and Reiner were active teachers at S.a.M. and among the school's founders. The foundation got co-financed by the Prussian state.[6][7][8] Still most funds had to be brought up by the board of trustees, by the student's parents via tuition payments, by monetary donations or contributions in kind.[9] Most musical instruments of the boarding school got donated by Robert Wichard Pohl,[10] a Steinway grand piano was donated by Paul Reiner's wife Anna Sara Reiner [de] (1891–1972), née Hochschild,[11] a qualified nurse helper who also acted as a substitute teacher for the elementary/primary and the intermediate/lower secondary level.[12]

Schule am Meer was the first progressive school in Germany to be set up on an island in the sea. It is considered the first regular German open air school, which from grade 5 to grade 13 led to graduation (Reifeprüfung, Abitur).[13] Due to its open air status, in some cases it was chosen by parents of children and youth with health issues like bronchial asthma, which for instance affected the Austrian mountaineer and S.a.M. student Ulrich Sild (1911–1937) from Vienna who graduated at Schule am Meer in March 1931.[14]

It was the only German school that built its own free-standing theatre hall in 1930/31, right during Great Depression, which was also intended to train amateur play teachers throughout German Reich.[15][16] This and the remaining other large building Arche (= Arch) of the former school today are due to demolition.

In contrast to most state-run schools, it placed a special emphasis on training its students in the visual and performing arts, sports,[17] crafts and gardening.[18][19] It also considered scientific, artistic and sporting subjects as of equal value.[20][21]

A second offshot from Wickersdorf [Free School Community of Wickersdorf, Thuringia] is Luserke's Schule am Meer, another Free School Community, established some five years ago on the low-lying sandy island of Juist in the North Sea just opposite Bremen's harbor. The founder and leader of the school, Martin Luserke, is especially distinguished for his work and his writings in the juvenile drama. In the simplest of settings and with sincere artistry he leads his pupils to lose themselves or find themselves in the spirit of a play and to give their own interpretation of a character or a mood. But his school is more than a children's theater. It is also a place for hard duty and practical work. Boys and girls must be of Spartan mold to face the austerity of life in the "School by the Sea," [sic] where every member of the community labors at his share of necessary chores even when winter storms sweep the surrounding ocean and threaten the security of the island dwellers. Perhaps it is their very intimacy with primitive forces which makes it easier for Luserke's pupils to present dramas of vitality and simple beauty. Although Luserke is a product of the Youth Movement, he is not one of the extremists who encourage youth to create its own cultural forms without reference to classical traditions. Sometimes his pupils write their own dramas, occasionally he writes a play for them, but more often they turn to folk festivals, old mystery plays, to short pieces by Hans Sachs, or to the dramas of Schiller, Lessing, Goethe, and Shakespeare, when they plan a production for their theater. Luserke emphasizes creative acting rather than original writing. Within the limitations of the school theater he sees rich opportunities for children and young people to discover the essential beauty of dramatic masterpieces and to unfold their own emotions and abilities in re-living human experiences from other times and places. Music, the dance, and the arts of color, form, and design, all contribute to the beauty of the plays Luserke presents, but never does he forget that it is the human voice and figure which are the soul of the drama. At the Schule am Meer all plays are innocent of theatricalism and untouched by the cheap effects of a commercialized stage.

— Richard Thomas Alexander/Beryl Parker, 1929[22]

The boarding school existed from the beginning of May 1925 to the end of March 1934 and quickly developed some national reputation,[23] amongst others by its orchestra and choir, both founded and conducted by the most talented concert pianist, composer and music educator Eduard Zuckmayer, but most notably by its stage play.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

It got support by senior guest students and teachers from England, France and the United States,[31][32][33][34][35][36] especially for language classes and stage plays, the latter performed in German, English and French.[37][38][39][40]

Despite being competitors there was also some support among the progressive schools throughout German Reich, a temporary exchange of students and teachers as well as visits of senior classes for topical discussions like from Karl-Marx-Schule (Berlin-Neukölln) [de], led by progressive educator Fritz Karsen [de] (1885–1951), née as Fritz Krakauer.[41] Among other visitors had been progressive Protestant educator Bernhard Hell [de] (1877–1955) with his students.[42]

Schule am Meer was practicing "grassroots democracy" with a tendency to non-hierarchical structures. Students and teachers were considered as of equal rights and duties. Students actively helped shape the lessons.[43] All individuals of the Schulgemeinde (= school community), which acted as the boarding school's "legislative council" participated in a shared decision-making process. Comradeships, the subdivisions of the community were formed out of about ten students of different age and sex, not related to classes in any way. As a leader of each comradeship, a teacher was characterized as "primus inter pares" and got addressed either by first name or nickname, the latter sometimes an abbreviation or a cacography of the teacher's surname. Those comradeships were named as Bears, Bulls,[44] Dolphins,[45] Foals,[46] Seals,[47] Penguins,[48] Pinnipeds, Vultures[49] and Wolves,[50][51] created their logos and raised their own pennants. The comradeships turned out similar to a family-like structure, out of which most life-lasting friendships between many of the students and teachers emerged.

The boarding school was closed due to Nazi "Gleichschaltung" and state-run anti-Semitism, forcibly carried out by the islanders of Juist who already denounced the boarding school as Jewish since its foundation in 1925.[52] Several of the students and their parents as well as some teachers had to emigrate from Nazi Germany due to political or anti-Semitic prosecution. They went to North and South America, South Africa, Mandatory Palestine, Spain, France, England, Switzerland and other places, where several of them were able to make an encyclopedically relevant career in the industry, in sciences, in the arts, in photography or in journalism. All of them spread the word and shared their memories about a unique boarding school on a remote island in the sea.[53]

Related people (selection)Edit

The following list is focussing on those related people who got a biography at the English Wikipedia, so it is no representative cross section, but already containing major names.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 3 (Rudolf Aeschlimann, Switzerland). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  2. ^ a b Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 6 (Fritz Hafner, Vienna). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  3. ^ a b Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 1 (Martin Otto Rudolf Luserke, Berlin). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  4. ^ Prof. Dr. Peter Dudek: „Versuchsacker für eine neue Jugend“. Die Freie Schulgemeinde Wickersdorf 1906–1945. Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2009, ISBN 978-3-7815-1681-6, p. 59
  5. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 5 (Dr. Paul Reiner, Nuremberg). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  6. ^ Beihilfe für den Bühnenfonds der Stiftung Schule am Meer in Juist (= State aid for stage fund of Schule am Meer Foundation, Juist). In: Staatsarchiv Hamburg (= State Archive of Hamburg), call number 361-2 V_894 a, at: hamburg.de
  7. ^ Stiftung Schule am Meer, Juist (= Schule am Meer Foundation, Juist). In: Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg (= State Archive of Baden-Württemberg), Abt. Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe, call number 69 Baden, Salem-13, No. 982, at: deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de
  8. ^ Luserke, Martin – Stiftung Schule am Meer, Juist/Ostfriesland (= Luserke, Martin – Schule am Meer Foundation, Juist/East Frisia). In: Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz (= Prussian Privy State Archives), VI. HA, Nl Grimme, A., Nr. 2058, at: deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de
  9. ^ Staatskommissar für die Regelung der Wohlfahrtspflege in Preußen: Schule am Meer, Juist – Antrag zur Sammlung von Geldspenden zugunsten eines Hallenbaus zur Verbesserung der kulturellen und sportlichen Ausbildungsmöglichkeiten (= School by the Sea, Juist – Application to collect monetary donations in order to erect a stage hall to improve cultural and athletic training opportunities), at: deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de
  10. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 22nd April, 1932. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  11. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 11st March, 1932. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  12. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 4 (Anni Reiner, Frankfurt am Main). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  13. ^ Margarita Schweitzer: Andrés Manjón – ein spanischer und christlicher Reformpädagoge. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1987. ISBN 3-88479-310-1, p. 76
  14. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 83 (Ulrich Sild). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  15. ^ Martin Luserke: Zum Abschluss – An die Mitglieder unserer Außengemeinde, 15. Oktober 1934. In: Blätter der Außengemeinde der Schule am Meer Juist (Nordsee) [S.a.M.'s periodical], November 1934, pp. 1–3
  16. ^ Dr. Herbert Giffei: Martin Luserke – Reformpädagoge, Dichter, Theatermann – Gründer und Leiter der Schule am Meer auf der Nordseeinsel Juist (1925–1934). K. Neubauer, Lüneburg 1990, ISBN 3-8845-6072-7, p. 75
  17. ^ Dr. Alexander Priebe: Vom Schulturnen zum Schulsport. Die Reform der körperlichen Ausbildung in den Deutschen Landerziehungsheimen und der Freien Schulgemeinde Wickersdorf von 1898 bis 1933. Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2007. ISBN 978-3-7815-1561-1, pp. 21, 181
  18. ^ Ulrich Schwerdt: Der Reformpädagoge Martin Luserke und seine Schule am Meer. Term paper, University Paderborn, Faculty 2, Paderborn 1986
  19. ^ Dr. Hans Peter Schöniger: Die Bildung des ganzen Menschen – Zur Geschichte eines reformpädagogischen Ideals. Schneider-Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2004. ISBN 978-3-89676-796-7, pp. 420ff.
  20. ^ [Prof. Dr.] Ulrich Schwerdt: Martin Luserke (1880–1968). Reformpädagogik im Spannungsfeld von pädagogischer Innovation und kulturkritischer Ideologie – Eine biographische Rekonstruktion. Thesis University Paderborn 1992; Peter Lang Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 1993. ISBN 3-6314-6119-4, pp. 378–385
  21. ^ Prof. Dr. Jörg W. Ziegenspeck (Ed.): Martin Luserke. Reformpädagoge – Dichter – Theatermann; Gründer und Leiter der Schule am Meer auf der Nordseeinsel Juist (1925–1934) (= Wegbereiter der modernen Erlebnispädagogik, 6). Neubauer, Lüneburg 1990, ISBN 3-929058-07-3
  22. ^ Thomas Alexander, Beryl Parker: The New Education in the German Republic. The John Day Company, Inc., New York City 1929, pp. 205–206
  23. ^ Dr. Winfried Mogge: Luserke, Martin. In: Deutsche Biographie, at: deutsche-biographie.de
  24. ^ [Prof. Dr.] Ulrich Schwerdt: Martin Luserke (1880–1968). Reformpädagogik im Spannungsfeld von pädagogischer Innovation und kulturkritischer Ideologie. Eine biographische Rekonstruktion. Peter Lang Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 1993, ISBN 3-631-46119-4, pp. 209–210, 232–233
  25. ^ Franz L. Pelgen: Das Laienspiel und die Spielweise Martin Luserkes. Thesis, Ludwig Maximilians University, Philosophical Faculty, Munich 1957. OCLC 720438378
  26. ^ Prof. Dr. Wilfried Gruhn: …und wir sind immer noch im Aufbruch. Eduard Zuckmayer – Musiker und Pädagoge im Umbruch der Jugendbewegung. In: Forum Musikpädagogik – Musikpädagogische Forschungsberichte, Vol. 6, Wissner, Augsburg 1993, pp. 450–465
  27. ^ Prof. Kurt Sydow: Eduard Zuckmayer zum 70. Geburtstag. In: Musik im Unterricht, 1960, pp. 264–265
  28. ^ Zuckmayer, Eduard. In: Walter Killy: Dictionary of German Biography, Vol. 10: Thiebaut – Zycha. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-598-23290-X, p. 731
  29. ^ Alfred Ehrentreich: Martin Luserkes Vision des Shakespeare-Theaters. In: Bildung und Erziehung. Vol. 4/1965. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1965, pp. 284–295
  30. ^ Dr. Herbert Giffei: Martin Luserke und das Theater. Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft für Spiel und Amateurtheater in Nordrhein-Westfalen (Hrsg.). Recklinghausen 1979, OCLC 174452579
  31. ^ D. P., Nancy [= Dominique Picard]: Eindrücke eines französischen Gastschülers von der Schule am Meer (= Impressions by a French guest student of Schule am Meer). In: Stiftung Schule am Meer (Hrsg.): Blätter der Außengemeinde der Schule am Meer Juist, 9. Rundbrief, August 1931, pp. 15–16
  32. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 142 (Jean Crussard, France). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  33. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 143 (François Crussard, France). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  34. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 168 (Dominique Picard, France). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  35. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 194 (Jean France-Lanord, France). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  36. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 190 (Thomas José René Herrán, Colombia). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  37. ^ Englisches Theater in der Schule am Meer. In: Stiftung Schule am Meer (Hrsg.): Blätter der Außengemeinde der Schule am Meer Juist, 9. Rundbrief, August 1931, pp. 12–15
  38. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 17 (Lennox Bain Dickinson, England). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  39. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 33 (Ellen Musgrave, England). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  40. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 24 (Jeanne Laumain, France). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  41. ^ Prof. Dr. Christa Uhlig: Reformpädagogik und Schulreform: Diskurse in der sozialistischen Presse der Weimarer Republik; Quellenauswahl aus den Zeitschriften „Die Neue Zeit“ / „Die Gesellschaft“ und „Sozialistische Monatshefte“ (1919–1933). Peter Lang Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-55703-7, p. 95
  42. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 4th June, 1929. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  43. ^ Dr. Hans Peter Schöniger: Es war einmal eine Schule am Rande der Welt… In: Deutsche Lehrerzeitung, 42/1995, No. 5, February 1995, p. 15
  44. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 10th May, 1932. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  45. ^ Die Schule am Meer auf Juist. In: Gesine zu Münster (Ed.), Oswald zu Münster: Fototagebuch Band 1 – Aufenthalt in den Landschulheimen Schule am Meer auf Juist und in Marienau 1931–1937. Bei der Olympiade 1936, Berlin. FTB-Verlag, Hamburg 2015. ISBN 978-3-946144-00-7, pp. 3–5
  46. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 24th May, 1933. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  47. ^ Prof. Dr. Gunther Nickel, Johanna Schrön (Ed.): Geheimreport. Wallstein, Göttingen 2002. ISBN 3-89244-599-0, p. 161
  48. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 28th November, 1931. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  49. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 12th May, 1932. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  50. ^ Logbook of Schule am Meer, Juist, entry dated 24th May, 1933. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  51. ^ Prof. Dr. Peter Dudek: Versuchsacker für eine neue Jugend – Die Freie Schulgemeinde Wickersdorf 1906–1945. Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2009. ISBN 978-3-7815-1681-6, p. 293
  52. ^ Thomas Aititsch: Eine Schule am Meer… In: Schule, Vol. 225, Landesschulrat für Steiermark (Ed.), Graz, November 2010, pp. 6–7
  53. ^ Prof. Dr. Andreas Lischewski, Prof. Dr. Janne Fengler: New Schools – Écoles Nouvelles – Landerziehungsheime. Zum historischen Auftakt reformpädagogisch motivierter Schulversuche. In: Prof. Dr. Heiner Barz (Ed.): Handbuch Bildungsreform und Reformpädagogik. Springer, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-658-07490-6, pp. 229–241
  54. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 109 (Gottfried Bruno Ahrends, son of Bruno Ahrends, architect, Berlin). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  55. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 208 (Annemarie Martha Bondy, daughter of Max Bondy, headmaster, Marienau). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
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  57. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 111 (Peter Döblin, son of Alfred Döblin, MD and writer, Berlin). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
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  61. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 16 (Walter Georg Kühne, son of painter Wilhelm Kühne, Jamlitz). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  62. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 232 (Anna Maria Dora Felicitas Kestner, daughter of university professor Otto Kestner). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  63. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 59 (Karl Siegfried Ludwig, legal guardian: Paula Ludwig, writer, Berlin). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  64. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 26 (Dr. phil. Heinrich Karl Ernst Martin Meyer, Nuremberg). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
  65. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 163 (Friedrich Rolf Pappiér, son of merchant Gustav Pappiér, Bremen). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
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  69. ^ Student's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 49 (Werner Rings, son of architect Josef Rings, Essen). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37
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  71. ^ Bruno Jahn: Deutsche biographische Enzyklopädie der Musik, Band 2: S – Z. K. G. Saur, München 2003, ISBN 3-598-11586-5, p. 963
  72. ^ Luserke, Martin. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 15. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Historische Kommission. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-428-00196-6, p. 533
  73. ^ Teacher's records of Schule am Meer, Juist, p. 9 (Eduard Zuckmayer, Nackenheim). In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek, Kiel (= Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel), Legacy Luserke, Martin, call number Cb 37

Coordinates: 53°40′32″N 6°57′47″E / 53.67556°N 6.96306°E / 53.67556; 6.96306