Scarborough (UK Parliament constituency)
Scarborough was the name of a constituency in Yorkshire, electing Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, at two periods. From 1295 until 1918 it was a parliamentary borough consisting only of the town of Scarborough, electing two MPs until 1885 and one from 1885 until 1918. In 1974 the name was revived for a county constituency, covering a much wider area; this constituency was abolished in 1997.
|Former County constituency|
for the House of Commons
Scarborough in Yorkshire, 1885–1918
|Major settlements||Scarborough, Whitby|
|Number of members||One|
|Replaced by||Scarborough and Whitby|
|Created from||Scarborough and Whitby|
|Number of members||Two (1295–1885) |
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
- 1 Boundaries
- 2 History
- 3 Members of Parliament
- 4 Elections 1640–1885
- 5 Elections 1885–1918
- 6 Elections 1970–1997
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes and references
- 9 Sources
1974–1983: The Borough of Scarborough, the Urban Districts of Pickering and Scalby, and the Rural Districts of Pickering and Scarborough.
1983–1997: The Borough of Scarborough wards of Ayton, Castle, Cayton, Central, Danby, Derwent, Eastfield, Eskdaleside, Falsgrave, Fylingdales, Lindhead, Mayfield, Mulgrave, Newby, Northstead, Scalby, Seamer, Streonshalh, Weaponness, and Woodlands.
Scarborough was first represented in a Parliament held at Shrewsbury in 1282, and was one of the boroughs sending 2 MPs to the Model Parliament of 1295 which is now generally considered to be the first parliament in the modern sense.
Until the Great Reform Act of 1832 Scarborough was a corporation borough, the right of election resting solely with the 44-member corporation or "common council". At an earlier period, it seems to have been a matter of some dispute whether the freemen of the borough could also vote, but at an election in 1736 the corporation and the (much more numerous) freemen backed different candidates. The candidate of the freemen was returned to Parliament, but on petition from his defeated opponent the House of Commons decided that only the corporation votes should stand, and overturned the result. In later days the Corporation was entirely under the influence of the Duke of Rutland and Earl of Mulgrave, who each nominated one of the Members of Parliament; by 1832, Scarborough had continuously been represented by junior members of their respective families for more than half a century. The restriction on the franchise was challenged in 1791, and Parliament declared in favour of "the ancient right of inhabitant householders" in the borough to vote, but the decision seems to have been a dead-letter for at the election of 1802, the last to be contested before the Reform Act, only 33 voters cast their votes.
At the time of the Reform Act, the borough had a population of about 8,760 in just over 2,000 houses, and the Act left its boundaries and two members intact, though widening the franchise. (There were 431 electors registered at the 1832 election.) The constituency remained broadly unchanged until 1918, though from 1885 its representation was reduced from two MPs to one.
After abolition in 1918, the constituency was absorbed into the new Scarborough and Whitby county constituency. However, the boundary changes which came into effect at the February 1974 general election created a new constituency named Scarborough. This was a county constituency including, in addition to Scarborough itself and its suburb Scalby, the town of Pickering and the Scarborough and Pickering rural districts.
There were further boundary changes at the 1983 general election, which brought in Whitby and its surrounding area in place of the Pickering district. The constituency was abolished once more for the 1997 general election, when it was again largely replaced by a new Scarborough and Whitby constituency.
Members of ParliamentEdit
- Constituency created (1295)
- Representation reduced to one member (1885)
|1885||Sir George Sitwell||Conservative|
|1892||Sir George Sitwell||Conservative|
|1974||Sir Michael Shaw||Conservative|
Elections in the 1840sEdit
|Whig||Charles Beaumont Phipps||237||30.2|
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing|
|Peelite gain from Conservative|
|Whig gain from Conservative|
Elections in the 1850sEdit
Phipps was appointed Comptroller of the Household, requiring a by-election.
|Conservative||George Frederick Young||314||52.8||N/A|
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing||N/A|
|Conservative||George Frederick Young||313||27.9||N/A|
|Turnout||561 (est)||69.7 (est)||N/A|
Phipps was appointed Treasurer of the Household, requiring a by-election.
|Conservative||Augustus Frederick Bayford||275||20.8||−7.1|
|Turnout||662 (est)||70.8 (est)||+1.1|
Phipps resigned after being appointed Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, causing a by-election.
|Conservative||George John Cayley||280||42.9||+22.1|
|Conservative||George John Cayley||66||4.1||−16.7|
|Turnout||798 (est)||82.5 (est)||+11.7|
Elections in the 1860sEdit
Denison succeeded to the peerage, becoming Lord Londesborough and causing a by-election.
|Liberal||James Molyneux Caulfield||340||41.9||N/A|
|Conservative||George John Cayley||441||21.5||+17.4|
|Turnout||1,244 (est)||92.1 (est)||+9.6|
|Conservative||George John Cayley||742||17.5||−4.0|
|Turnout||2,494 (est)||84.1 (est)||−8.0|
Vanden-Bempde-Johnstone's death caused a by-election.
Elections in the 1870sEdit
|Turnout||2,617 (est)||72.1 (est)||−12.0|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+16.1|
Elections in the 1880sEdit
|Liberal||William Sproston Caine||2,065||28.0||−5.8|
|Conservative||John Cookson Fife-Cookson||1,581||21.5||+5.3|
|Turnout||3,683 (est)||85.6 (est)||+13.5|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||−5.4|
Jonhstone's resignation caused a by-election.
Dodson was elevated to the peerage, becoming Lord Monk Bretton, causing a by-election.
Caine was appointed Civil Lord of the Admiralty, requiring a by-election.
|Liberal||William Sproston Caine||1,832||52.8||−4.5|
Elections in the 1880sEdit
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+8.9|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+2.8|
Elections in the 1890sEdit
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+3.1|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+2.1|
Elections in the 1900sEdit
|Conservative||Charles Edward Hunter||2,619||45.6||−3.3|
Elections in the 1910sEdit
General election 1914/15:
Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;
- Liberal: Walter Rea
Elections in the 1970sEdit
|Liberal||M. F. Pitts||16,751||36.53|
|Labour||D. J. Taylor-Goodby||7,034||15.34|
|Independent||M. J. Ellis||114||0.25|
|Ind. Conservative||B. M. Stoker||102||0.22|
|Liberal||M. J. L. Brook||10,123||25.39|
|Labour||D. J. Taylor-Goodby||9,923||24.88|
|Labour||E. J. Lahteela||11,344||25.48|
Elections in the 1980sEdit
|Social Democratic||Rosamund Jordan||14,048||27.24|
|Social Democratic||H. Callan||14,046||25.71|
Election in the 1990sEdit
|Labour||David L. Billing||17,600||29.9||+6.2|
|Liberal Democrats||A. Davenport||11,133||18.9||−6.8|
|Green||Richard C. Richardson||876||1.5||+1.5|
Notes and referencesEdit
- Hinderwell, Thomas. The history and antiquities of Scarborough: with a brief memoir of the author. p. 138.
- "History of Parliament". Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Knighted 1626
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 2)
- Cobbett's Parliamentary History records that "21 June 1660, Mr Robinson was discharged by an Order of the House from sitting, and a writ ordered to be issued to elect another in his room; but the Journals do not give us the reason for this expulsion"
- Created a baronet as Sir John Legard, December 1660
- Dupplin beat Osbaldeston in the by-election by 154 votes to 27, but Dupplin's votes came mostly from the freemen and Osbaldeston had the majority of corporation votes (26 to 18). On petition the freemen's votes were discounted, Dupplin's election voided and Osbaldeston declared duly elected.
- Created a baronet as Sir John Major, 1765
- Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I., to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. pp. 167–169. Retrieved 1 December 2018 – via Google Books.
- Became Lord Mulgrave in 1792
- Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. p. 218. Retrieved 1 December 2018 – via Google Books.
- Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. p. 221. Retrieved 1 December 2018 – via Google Books.
- "The Elections". London Daily News. 29 July 1847. pp. 3–6. Retrieved 8 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Scarborough". Monmouthshire Beacon. 31 July 1847. p. 3. Retrieved 8 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1854). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 22. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. pp. 166–167. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- "Election Intelligence". Cambridge Independent Press. 19 December 1857. p. 4. Retrieved 8 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)
|url=(help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
- "Election Intelligence". Yorkshire Gazette. 21 March 1857. p. 10. Retrieved 8 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Abstract of Title to the Folly Farm and Cross Lane Cottages, p. Guilsfield". The National Archives. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "Scarborough Election". Yorkshire Gazette. 19 December 1857. p. 9. Retrieved 8 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Yorkshire Gazette. 28 January 1860. p. 10 https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000266/18600128/052/0010. Retrieved 17 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. Missing or empty
- "Election Intelligence". The Morning Post. 29 September 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 17 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The New Parliament". Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette. 5 February 1874. p. 3. Retrieved 19 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Scarborough". Sheffield Daily Telegraph. 31 March 1880. p. 6. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Elections, &c". The Cornishman (108). 5 August 1880. p. 6.
- "Scarborough Election: The Nominations". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 29 July 1880. p. 8. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 182. ISBN 9781349022984.
- The Liberal Year Book, 1907
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- D. Brunton & D. H. Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
- Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) 
- F. W. S. Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
- Thomas Hinderwell, The history and antiquities of Scarborough and the vicinity (2nd edition, York: Thomas Wilson & Son, 1811) 
- J. Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
- Edward Porritt and Annie G. Porritt, The Unreformed House of Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1903)
- Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by F. W. S. Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
- Robert Walcott, English Politics in the Early Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956)
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
| Constituency represented by the Speaker