Satoshi Kanazawa (born 16 November 1962) is an American-born British evolutionary psychologist and writer. He is currently Reader in Management at the London School of Economics. His work uses evolutionary psychology to analyse social sciences such as sociology, economics, and anthropology. Kanazawa's comments and research on race and intelligence, health and intelligence, multiculturalism, and the relationship between physical attractiveness and intelligence have led to condemnation from observers and colleagues. He attributes this to political correctness and censorship, while his critics have described his claims as pseudoscientific and racist.
|Born||16 November 1962|
|Alma mater||University of Arizona|
|Institutions||London School of Economics|
In response to ongoing controversies over his stated views, such as Sub-Saharan Black African countries suffer from chronic poverty and disease because their people have lower IQs, and black women are objectively less attractive than women of other races, he was dismissed from writing for Psychology Today, and his employer, the London School of Economics, prohibited him from publishing in non-peer-reviewed outlets for 12 months. A group of 68 evolutionary psychologists issued an open letter titled "Kanazawa's bad science does not represent evolutionary psychology" rejecting his views, and an article on the same theme was published by 35 academics in American Psychologist.
Life and careerEdit
Kanazawa began working at the London School of Economics in 2003.
"Savanna Principle" is a term coined by Satoshi Kanazawa in 2004 for the principle that human behavior remaining to some extent adapted to the ancestral environment of early Homo in the savanna may lead to problems in a modern (Industrial or post-Industrial) environment. Kanazawa uses this disparity to explain "a host of societal difficulties". For example, ancestors who craved sugary and fatty foods lived longer and were healthier than those who didn't, in a time that such things were relatively scarce. Today, the abundance of such temptations leads to obesity and heart disease. Similar scenarios are illustrated with television, sex, and jealousy.
Kanazawa presented this argument in 2004 in the form of a short journal article called "The Savanna Principle and expounded upon it in a 2007 book aimed at a general audience, Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters.
In 2006, Kanazawa used the "Savanna Principle" to explain the correlation of health and IQ vs. health and wealth. He argued that IQ is a better predictor for health than wealth or inequality in most regions of the world, except in Sub-Saharan Africa, where health is more strongly correlated to wealth than to IQ, because Sub-Saharan Africa represents an "evolutionary familiar" environment with lesser selection pressure on IQ than elsewhere.
In a 2010 paper, Kanazawa proposed the Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis. This hypothesis, which is based on the "savanna principle", proposes that more intelligent individuals are more likely to engage in evolutionarily novel behaviors and believe in values that promote greater desire for novelty, such as political liberalism. It has been criticized for allegedly being unfalsifiable and for making contradictory predictions.
In response to Kanazawa's subsequent paper that attempted to integrate evolutionary psychology with intelligence research using the Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis, psychologists Scott Barry Kaufman, Colin G. DeYoung, Deirdre Reis, and Jeremy R. Gray found that "performance on non-arbitrary, evolutionarily familiar problems is more strongly related to general intelligence than performance on arbitrary, evolutionarily novel problems" after providing 112 subjects a 70-item computerized version of the Wason selection task in a social relations context originally proposed by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby in The Adapted Mind, contradicting Kanazawa's assertion that general intelligence correlated only with performance on evolutionarily unfamiliar rather than evolutionarily familiar problems.
Other views, publications and controversiesEdit
Kanazawa has co-written three books with Alan Miller:
- Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters: From Dating, Shopping, and Praying to Going to War and Becoming a Billionaire—Two Evolutionary Psychologists Explain Why We Do What We Do
- Why Men Gamble and Women Buy Shoes: How Evolution Shaped the Way We Behave
- Order by Accident: The Origins and Consequences of Conformity in Contemporary Japan
He also wrote a blog, The Scientific Fundamentalist, for Psychology Today until his dismissal in 2011.
Kanazawa uses the term Savanna principle to denote the theory that societal difficulties exist because "the human brain" evolved in Africa hundreds of thousands of years ago, a drastically different environment from today's urban, industrial society. In 2003, in an article in the Journal of Research in Personality, he claimed to show that scientists generally made their biggest discoveries before their mid-30s, and compared this productivity curve to that of criminals.
Attractiveness and sex of offspringEdit
In 2006, he published an article in the Journal of Theoretical Biology, claiming that attractive people are 26% less likely to have male offspring. In a letter to the editors regarding Kanazawa's claim that attractive people are more likely to have daughters, Columbia statistician Andrew Gelman points out that a correct interpretation of the regression coefficients in Kanazawa's analysis is that attractive people are 8% more likely to have girls, an error that Kanazawa acknowledges. Gelman argues that Kanazawa's analysis does not convincingly show causality, because of possible endogeneity as well as problematic interpretations of statistical significance in multiple comparisons. While Kanazawa claims that the former error is "merely linguistic" and that he addressed the latter two in his initial article, Gelman maintains that his original criticism remains valid.
Race and attractivenessEdit
In May 2011, he published an article in Psychology Today that explored why black women had been rated less attractive than those of other races in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Subsequent critical independent analysis of the results showed that the difference in assessed attractiveness held for three of the four data sets in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and that there was only a statistically significant race difference in younger women and that it disappeared by early adulthood. Applying his same reasoning to males, Kanazawa also concluded in his article that black men would generally be considered more attractive than black women. Kanazawa was also criticised for arguing that the common factor of subjective interviewer ratings of attractiveness used in his analysis constitutes an objective scale of attractiveness.
The article caused outrage and was widely criticised. The first criticisms were published in the blogosphere leading to the creation of petitions on Change.org and Facebook to have Kanazawa fired. But also other scientists, including a group of evolutionary psychologists publishing a joint statement published criticisms, distancing the discipline of evolutionary psychology from Kanazawa's research. Psychology Today pulled the article and on 27 May 2011, issued an apology to anyone who had been offended and stated that they had not reviewed Kanazawa's article before its publication, and stated that they would police more strictly for controversial content in the future.
In September 2011, Kanazawa apologised to LSE director Judith Rees, saying he "deeply regrets" the "unintended consequences" of the blog and accepting that "some of [his] arguments may have been flawed and not supported by the available evidence". An internal LSE investigation found that Kanazawa had brought the school into disrepute and prohibited him from publishing in non-peer-reviewed outlets for a year. Following the controversy, an open letter was signed by 68 evolutionary psychologists distancing themselves from Kanazawa and defending evolutionary psychology, writing "The principle of applying evolutionary theory to the study of human psychology and behaviour is sound, and there is a great deal of high-quality, nuanced, culturally-sensitive evolutionary research ongoing in the UK and elsewhere today". In response, an international group of 23 scientists published a letter in Times Higher Education defending Kanazawa's work.
Correlation of health and intelligenceEdit
In 2006, Kanazawa used the "Savanna principle" to explain the correlation of health and IQ vs. health and wealth. He argued that IQ is a better predictor for health than wealth or inequality in most regions of the world, except in Sub-Saharan Africa, where health is more strongly correlated to wealth than to IQ, because Sub-Saharan Africa represents an "evolutionary familiar" environment with lesser selection pressure on IQ than elsewhere. In a criticism of the paper George Ellison (2007) argued that the conclusion was based on "flawed assumptions, questionable data, inappropriate analysis and biased interpretations".
Homosexuality and intelligenceEdit
According to neuroscientist Simon LeVay, an early review in academic literature suggested that gays and lesbians were more intelligent than their peers, although this may have suffered from volunteer bias. In 2012, however, Kanazawa published an analysis of three large-scale randomly sampled studies from the U.S. and U.K., and found that in both males and females, homosexuals scored higher for intelligence. LeVay writes that these findings are "suggestive" of a link between homosexuality and intelligence, but notes that smarter people may be more likely to be open about their sexuality than less intelligent people, so these results may also suffer from bias.
Muslims, terrorism and Psychology TodayEdit
In his blog The Scientific Fundamentalist, hosted by Psychology Today, Kanazawa published often on Muslims, Islam and the Middle East. The publication Psychology Today later received a significant amount of negative but constructive feedback and criticism following some of Kanazawa's more controversial articles.
On 6 March 2008, in the article subtitled "All you need is hate", he suggested a "little thought experiment", asking his readers to "(i)magine that, on September 11, 2001, when the Twin Towers came down, the President of the United States was not George W. Bush, but Ann Coulter. What would have happened then? On September 12, President Coulter would have ordered the US military forces to drop 35 nuclear bombs throughout the Middle East, killing all of our actual and potential enemy combatants, and their wives and children. On September 13, the war would have been over and won, without a single American life lost". He concludes, "(y)es, we need a woman in the White House, but not the one who’s running", suggesting that in his opinion someone like Ann Coulter is preferable.
On 10 January 2010, he posted an article titled "What’s Wrong with Muslims?" In it he claims that Muslim "are all united in their values and goals by their singular identity of being Muslims", and that although it may be "tempting to dismiss these observations", and "politically correct and comforting" to say that terrorists are ‘extremists’ or ‘jihadists’, that would be "factually inaccurate", he claims. He further elaborated on his views seven days later, on 17 January, in another article on the same website. In its intro he claims that "Racial profiling works and saves lives". Although, at some point through this article, he dismisses an Islamophobic stereotype expressed through the media trope “Not all Muslims are terrorists, but all terrorists are Muslims”, but follows it with one of his own, writing: "half of Muslims worldwide are terrorists or active supporters of terrorism, who would encourage their sons, brothers, and nephews to blow themselves up."
In the article titled "Is Your Professor an Islamophobe?", at the time Columbia University epidemiologist and HuffPost contributor, Abdul El-Sayed, quoted Kanazawa's articles, along with some other authors', when he discussed the phenomenon of "a growing number of academics using (their) intellectual identity to promote intolerance and xenophobia against Islam and Muslims". El-Sayed expressed concern that, as he writes, "the fundamental messages portrayed in the public musings of academics are no different from the crude ramblings of a Glenn Beck or a Rush Limbaugh, they are many times more damaging". He explains how "PhD's and daunting lists of academic publications to their names, academics are perceived to carry the weighty, objective backing of “knowledge” and “science” by the lay-public, so bigoted, ignorant opinions on their parts are taken as justification to those who already hold skewed perspectives and hateful opinions about Islam and Muslims". He points out that "these academic dogmatists cloak (perhaps under their PhD hoods) the fire of Islamophobia with the cool, measured tones of objectivity".
Nanjala Nyabola, writing in The Guardian, dismissed Kanazawa's claims as "racist nonsense". She also warned of growing concern over Psychology Today's position, at the time, regarding issue, also expressed by various academics and numerous public intellectuals, among them the publication's own authors, such as Mikhail Lyubansky, who criticized the publication, noting that "extraordinary claims (especially those that hurt and damage marginalized groups) require extraordinary evidence and editorial oversight". Similarly, Christopher Ryan criticized Kanazawa's views and writings, calling him the "Rush Limbaugh of Evolutionary Psychology", noting that "if Rush Limbaugh, Bill O'Reilly, or Ann Coulter had studied science, they'd be penning articles like some of Kanazawa's.
Universities and engagements controversiesEdit
A group of 68 evolutionary psychologists issued an open letter titled "Kanazawa's bad science does not represent evolutionary psychology" rejecting his views, and an article on the same theme was published by 35 academics in American Psychologist.
- In May 2011 and in the wake of his latest blogging incident, the University of London Union Senate subsequently unanimously voted to condemn his research.
- In February 2008, he started a blog on Psychology Today called "The Scientific Fundamentalist". In June 2011, the publication dismissed Kanazawa for good in reaction to his "Why Are Black Women Less Physically Attractive Than Other Women?" article.
- In September 2011, London School of Economics (LSE) suspended Kanazawa from publishing any material in non-peer reviewed journals for a year and he issued an apology stating that the post was "flawed".
- In September 2012, after the period of 12 months when he was prohibited from publishing in non-peer-reviewed outlets by the LSE, he was hired by the blog Big Think as a contributing editor; the co-operation was discontinued on 29 March 2013.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (2012). The Intelligence Paradox: Why the Intelligent Choice Isn't Always the Smart One. ISBN 978-0-470-58695-2.[page needed]
- Khadijah, Britton (23 May 2011). "The Data Are In Regarding Satoshi Kanazawa". Scientific American. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
[...] Dr. Satoshi Kanazawa, an evolutionary psychologist associated with the London School of Economics [...].
- Dr Satoshi Kanazawa, London School of Economics. Retrieved 6 September 2006
- "Psychology Today: "If the truth offends, it's our job to offend", 2008". Archived from the original on 23 December 2015.
- "The bad science of Satoshi Kanazawa". Big Think. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- Nyabola, Nanjala (18 May 2011). "Satoshi Kanazawa's racist nonsense should not be tolerated". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- Lee, Adam (12 September 2012). "Doesn't This Place Have Standards?". Big Think. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- "LSE lecturer Dr Satoshi Kanazawa tells of race blog 'regret'" "BBC, 16 September 2011"
- "Kanazawa Statement | Academia | Science". Scribd.com. 29 March 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- Scott Barry Kaufman (18 May 2011). "Satoshi Kanazawa Does Not Speak for All of Evolutionary Psychology". HuffPost. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "Dr. Satoshi Kanazawa". personal.lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- Satoshi Kanazawa. "Why the less intelligent may enjoy television more than the more ..." (PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- Managerial and decision economics 25 (1), 2004, pp. 41–54
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (1 January 2004). "The Savanna Principle". Managerial and Decision Economics. 25 (1): 41–54. doi:10.1002/mde.1130. ISSN 1099-1468.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters (2007) All, ISBN 978-0-399-53365-5.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (11 November 2006). "Mind the gap... in intelligence: Re-examining the relationship between inequality and health" (PDF reprint). British Journal of Health Psychology. 11 (4): 623–642. doi:10.1348/135910705X69842. PMID 17032488.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (16 February 2010). "Why Liberals and Atheists Are More Intelligent". Social Psychology Quarterly. 73 (1): 33–57. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.395.4490. doi:10.1177/0190272510361602. ISSN 0190-2725. S2CID 2642312.
- Dutton, Edward (September 2013). "The Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis: A critical examination of the comprehensive case presented in Kanazawa's The Intelligence Paradox". Intelligence. 41 (5): 607–614. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2013.07.024. ISSN 0160-2896.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (May–June 2010). "Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research" (PDF). American Psychologist. 65 (4): 279–289. doi:10.1037/a0019378. PMID 20455621. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John (1995) . "3. Cognitive Adaptations for Social Exchange". In Barkow, Jerome H.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John (eds.). The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 179–206. ISBN 978-0195101072.
- Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Colin G.; Reis, Deidre L.; Gray, Jeremy R. (May–June 2010). "General intelligence predicts reasoning ability even for evolutionarily familiar content" (PDF). Intelligence. 39 (5): 311–322. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2011.05.002. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- "Psychology Today Agrees to remove Controversial Author Satoshi Kanazawa from Website; Implements New Policies to Prevent Inflammatory Content". Color of Change. 1 June 2011.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (2004) The Savanna principle. Managerial and decision economics, 25 (1). pp. 41–54. ISSN 0143-6570
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (2003). "Why productivity fades with age: The crime–genius connection". Journal of Research in Personality. 37 (4): 257–272. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00538-X.
- "Beautiful people have girls" John Von Radowitz, News.com.au, 2 August 2006
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (2007). "Beautiful parents have more daughters: A further implication of the generalized Trivers–Willard hypothesis (gTWH)". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 244 (1): 133–140. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2006.07.017. PMID 16949101.
- Gelman, Andrew (2007). "Letter to the editors regarding some papers of Dr. Satoshi Kanazawa". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 245 (3): 597–599. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2006.11.005. PMID 17184794.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi; Reyniers, Diane J. (2009). "The role of height in the sex difference in intelligence". The American Journal of Psychology. 122 (4): 527–536. JSTOR 27784427. PMID 20066931.
- Gelman, Andrew; Weakliem, David (2009). "Of Beauty, Sex and Power". American Scientist. 97 (4): 310. doi:10.1511/2009.79.310.
- "Black Women Are Not (Rated) Less Attractive! Our Independent Analysis of the Add Health Dataset".
- Angus Hutchison. "'Black women less attractive' blogpost: Anger grows". International Business Times, 20 May 2011.
- Perina, Kaja (27 May 2011). "An Apology from Psychology Today". Psychology Today.
- Jack Grove (15 September 2011). "LSE scholar admits race analysis was 'flawed'". Times Higher Education. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012.
- "Sinned against, not sinning" 16 June 2011, Times Higher Education
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (2006). "Mind the gap…in intelligence: Re-examining the relationship between inequality and health". British Journal of Health Psychology. 11 (4): 623–642. doi:10.1348/135910705X69842. PMID 17032488.
- Ellison, George T. H. (2007). "Health, wealth and IQ in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges facing the Savanna Principle as an explanation for global inequalities in health". British Journal of Health Psychology. 12 (2): 191–227. doi:10.1348/135910707X180972. PMID 17456282.
- LeVay, Simon (2017). Gay, Straight, and the Reason why: The Science of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-19-029737-4.
- "Why we are losing this war". Psychology Today. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Satoshi Kanazawa (10 January 2010). "What's Wrong with Muslims?". Psychology Today. The Scientific Fundamentalist blog. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Satoshi Kanazawa (17 January 2010). "Naked Air". Psychology Today. The Scientific Fundamentalist blog. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- El-Sayed, Abdulrahman; Professor, ContributorAssistant; University, Columbia (4 April 2010). "Is Your Professor an Islamophobe?". HuffPost. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Christopher Ryan Ph.D. (18 May 2011). "Satoshi Kanazawa Is the Rush Limbaugh of Evolutionary Psychology". Psychology Today. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Christopher Ryan Ph.D. (10 November 2008). "Is Evolutionary Psychology a Used Car?". Psychology Today. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "Inconvenient truths about our evolution?". The Independent. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Sample, Ian; correspondent, science (19 May 2011). "LSE academic's claim 'black women less attractive' triggers race row". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- "Psychologist Fired For "Why Black Women Are Unattractive" Study". News One. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- Editor, LSE Web. "Dr Satoshi Kanazawa - findings of internal review and disciplinary hearing - 09 - 2011 - News archives - News and media - Website archive - Home". www.lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2019.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Times Higher Education - LSE scholar admits race analysis was 'flawed'". 27 October 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
- Hopkins, Phillip (29 March 2013). "The End of a Bold Experiment: Big Think and Satoshi Kanazawa". Big Think.
- Colleen Flaherty (19 December 2018). "Northwestern students want a controversial scholar off their campus". www.insidehighered.com. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Kanazawa, S. (2010). "Why Liberals and Atheists Are More Intelligent". Social Psychology Quarterly. 73: 33–57. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.395.4490. doi:10.1177/0190272510361602. S2CID 2642312.
- Michaud, Derek (March 2010). "Is atheism linked to intelligence?". Science on Religion.
A review of Kanazawa's recent "Why liberals and atheists are more intelligent"
- Satoshi Kanazawa publications indexed by Google Scholar
- Profile and videos at Big Think