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The Sarrus linkage, invented in 1853 by Pierre Frédéric Sarrus, is a mechanical linkage to convert a limited circular motion to a linear motion without reference guideways. Although Charles-Nicolas Peaucellier was widely recognized for being the first to invent such a straight-line mechanism, the Sarrus linkage had been invented earlier; however, it was largely unnoticed for a time.
In the examples shown, the linkage uses two horizontal plates (red) positioned parallel to each other, one above the other. Pairs of rectangular plates (green) with hinges at the middle connect the horizontal plates. The circular arc motion of a hinge produces a linear vertical movement. The upper plate moves vertically up and down, towards and away from the lower plate.