Biancaea sappan is a species of flowering tree in the legume family, Fabaceae, that is native to tropical Asia. Common names in English include sappanwood and Indian redwood. Sappanwood is related to Brazilwood (P. echinata), and was originally called "brezel wood" in Europe.
|Leaves and fruits|
(L. 1753) Tod. 1875
This plant has many uses. It has antibacterial and anticoagulant properties. It also produces a valuable reddish dye called brazilin, used for dyeing fabric as well as making red paints and inks. Slivers of heartwood are used for making herbal drinking water in various regions, such as Kerala and Central Java, where it is usually mixed with ginger, cinnamon, and cloves. The heartwood also contains juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), which has antimicrobial activity. Homoisoflavonoids (sappanol, episappanol, 3'-deoxysappanol, 3'-O-methylsappanol, 3'-O-methylepisappanol and sappanone A) can also be found in B. sappan.
The wood is somewhat lighter in color than Brazilwood and other related trees. Sappanwood was a major trade good during the 17th century, when it was exported from Southeast Asian nations (especially Siam) aboard red seal ships to Japan.
- World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1998). "Caesalpinia sappan". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1998: e.T34641A9880683. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T34641A9880683.en. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Caesalpinia sappan L." Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved Jul 6, 2016.
- "CAB Direct".
- Lim, M.-Y.; Jeon, J.-H.; Jeong, E. Y.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H.-S. (2007). "Antimicrobial Activity of 5-Hydroxy-1,4-Naphthoquinone Isolated from Caesalpinia sappan toward Intestinal Bacteria". Food Chemistry. 100 (3): 1254–1258. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.009.
- Namikoshi, Michio; Nakata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Minako; Saitoh, Tamotsu (1987). "Homoisoflavonoids and related compounds. II. Isolation and absolute configurations of 3,4-dihydroxylated homoisoflavans and brazilins from Caesalpinia sappan L". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 35 (7): 2761. doi:10.1248/cpb.35.2761.
- Chang, T. S.; Chao, S. Y.; Ding, H. Y. (2012). "Melanogenesis Inhibition by Homoisoflavavone Sappanone a from Caesalpinia sappan". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 13 (8): 10359–10367. doi:10.3390/ijms130810359. PMC 3431864. PMID 22949866.