Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio
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Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio
|Comune di Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio|
|• Total||21.43 km2 (8.27 sq mi)|
|Elevation||312 m (1,024 ft)|
|• Density||87/km2 (230/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||Saint Andrew the apostle|
|Saint day||30 November|
The town of Sant'Andrea is bordered by the river Alaca to the north, the Ionian Sea to the east, the river Salùbro in the south, and the foothills of the Calabro Apennines in the west. The village lies in the hills of La Maddalena and Lipantana Cerasia. Sant'Andrea municipal hall sits at an elevation of 330 meters above sea level.
The territories of the Ionian Sea in the Greco-Roman period and the early Middle AgesEdit
During the period of Ancient Greece the region was rich and prosperous. The Romans defeated Pyrrhus of Epirus in 275 BCE - this occupation marked the economic decline of the region. When Hannibal entered Italy (218 BCE), the Ionian populations sided with the Carthaginians, and when the Romans defeated the Carthaginians they enacted harsh reprisals against those who had aided Hannibal. These lands became estates in the hands of the great Roman families, causing the dispersal and impoverishment of the native population.
During the Imperial Era, a castle, the Cocinto, was built for defense against barbarian invasions. The exact location of the castle is unknown. Guesses include ancient Cecina (modern Satriano), Punta Stilo, and the modern town of Sant'Andrea.
The large estates' economic exploitation of the territory led to the abandonment of many villages by the local population, and consequently the land was progressively overgrown by natural vegetation. The area between the rivers Alaca and Salùbro was wild and undeveloped until the ninth century. The mountains were covered with rich forests of oak, beech, and other wild plants. The hilly areas toward the marina were full of green shrubs and bushes, such as blueberries and strawberries.
Birth of the countryEdit
The legend of the shepherd AdrianoEdit
It is said[by whom?] that the first nucleus of the village dates back to around the year 1000 at the site of the home of a herdsman, a native of Badolato, named Adriano. A partly mythological account holds that Adriano brought his flock to pasture toward the area of the country. When winter returned, he was unable to return to Badolato because of the flooding of the Salùbro river, and Adriano was thus was forced to stop at a hut he had built. This hut was later expanded into a modest home, and other houses built around this first building would come to form a small hamlet, today the center of Sant'Andrea.
The historical realityEdit
In the eighth century, following the Iconoclasm, many monks of St. Basil, widespread across the Middle East and Greece, took refuge in Sicily. To escape the Arab invasion of the island in the eighth century, they were forced to move to Calabria, traveling over the hills of the Ionian and Tyrrhenian coasts. Several Byzantine monks stopped in the Ionian zone and settled in Monasterace, Stilo, and several other places along the Ionian coast. A small group settled on the slope of a hill between the rivers Alaca and Salùbro, a fact supported by the ruins of a Basilian monastery and the church of San Nicola, as well as some medieval walls at the Villa Condò.
The Greek OrthodoxEdit
Toward the end of the 10th century, Saracen and Norman raids and incursions caused local populations to flee from the coast and take refuge in the hills and mountains. The foundation of Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio, consisting of a farm house and a monastery located near the Assi river in the territory of Monasterace, was established by Greek-Byzantine refugees between the years 981 and 1010.
The eleventh to fourteenth centuriesEdit
In 1044 the Normans arrived in Calabria, and the territory of Sant'Andrea also fell under their dominion. The territory acquired great importance when the hamlet of Sant'Andrea was built near the Grange of the Certosa di San Bruno. In the period from 1000 CE until 1400 CE, the territory of Sant'Andrea was first under the rule of the Normans and then[when?] the Swabians. The collapse of the Swabian dynasty in 1266 was followed by a long period during which control of the southern states was contested between Anjou and the Aragonese.
La Grange among the Carthusians and CisterciansEdit
The Carthusians of Serra San Bruno and the GrangeEdit
In 1156, after the Basilian monks had left the territory of Sant'Andrea, Malgerio Altavilla, son of Norman Hugh, granted the church of San Nicola, its assets, and the farmhouse to the Carthusian monks who lived in the Carthusian monastery founded by St. Bruno in the area of the town of Serra San Bruno. The donation also included the adjoining hamlet of Basilian origin. According to other sources,[who?] in 1131 the Carthusians built a granary by the house, which in time would become the building Scoppa. La Grange would thus become the center of social life for the house. Near the grange, the Church of the First Mother of Sant'Andrea was also erected, dedicated to St. Catherine of Alexandria.
In 1192 the Carthusians were torn by internal discord. The Charterhouse had assumed great economic importance, given its 3,000 hectares of territory. Due to this discord, the Pope confiscated the hermitage of Serra San Bruno, which then passed to the Cistercians along with additional territory.
The Anjou and the ecclesiastical fiefEdit
In the 13th century, with the end of the reign of the Swabians, the Angevins took over and divided the territory among feudal princes. The territory of Sant'Andrea was part of the feudal estate of Badolato, but the granary and its farms continued to belong to the ecclesiastical fief.
The Cistercians remained in Sant'Andrea until 1513, when Pope Leo X returned the Charterhouse of Serra San Bruno to the Carthusian order. The Carthusian monks, on their return, expanded the grange of Sant'Andrea. The monks maintained possession of the granary until a few years after 1783[when?], the year of a catastrophic earthquake. As a result of the earthquake and political events, the monastery came to be stripped of all his possessions.
The fifteenth to seventeenth centuriesEdit
In 1458 the county of Sant'Andrea had about 800 inhabitants, all agricultural workers. In 1483 the estate passed to the Toraldo family, and during their reign a castle was built on the ruins of the "castrum Romanum". In the early years of the sixteenth century, together with the Kingdom of Naples, control of Sant'Andrea was passed to the Spanish crown, which established a Gallelli viceroyalty of the Badolato. In the sixteenth century, Turkish incursions were very frequent. However, the Turks never entered the village as it was very well protected and easily defended thanks to the fort surrounding it. The seashore, however, was defenseless and the Turks could raid there, burning crops and capturing young men and women to sell to the slave market. To curb these attacks, Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spain, created a system of castles to defend the coast, using old fortifications and building new ones. Thus, a feudal lord of Toraldo, Ravaschiera, built the castle between 1532 and 1537. The castle had a square with four towers (there remains one standing today). Nevertheless, pirate raids continued throughout the seventeenth century.
The eighteenth centuryEdit
In May 1734, the Kingdom of Naples (and therefore also the territory of Sant'Andrea) came under the dynasty of the Bourbons in the person of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. Important noble families, some linked to the Spanish court, lived in Sant'Andrea in the eighteenth century, owning beautiful palaces. Several representatives of these families were involved in the Church, in particular Saverio Mattei[who?].
During the eighteenth Century, pirate invasions tapered off and eventually ceased completely for a time.
In 1775, by decree of King Ferdinand IV, who continued the gradual abolition of feudalism started by his father Charles III, abolished feudalism in Sant'Andrea. In gratitude, the people of the town erected a cast-iron statue in the Malajra Square, which remained until 1860, the year the monarchy was deposed by the patriots[who?].
The nineteenth centuryEdit
For a brief period, between 1800 and 1805, the Turks returned to threaten the Ionian coast. The threats stopped with the consolidation of the Bourbon Kingdom of Naples. The last raid on the Turkish coast of Sant'Andrea occurred on August 15, 1815.
In 1805, after the victory at Austerlitz, Napoleon declared the French conquest of Bourbon Naples. Calabria was militarily occupied by French troops, but this occupation was opposed by the people of Calabria, who saw the French as enemies of the Catholic religion. The revolt against the French broke out when the Bourbon received the help of the British. But hopes were short-lived because the French regained the upper hand and took revenge on the hostility of the people of Calabria, putting the country on fire. In October 1806, French troops reached the area of Sant'Andrea. Among the French was the twenty-three-year-old Guglielmo Pepe, a native of Squillace, who tells the story of the invasion in his memoirs. Upon arrival of the French troops, the notables and the archpriest made ready to reach out to the French in submission, but a young Andreolese, named "Panzareddha", an enemy of oppression, injured the adjutant general of the French who commanded the troops. The reaction was immediate and violent. The French entered the Sant'Andrea Gate and swept through the village, burning, killing, and looting. They respected only the houses of Liberals and Masons, as well as the Palazzo Damiani and its family (note that the insignia of the portal is clearly of French royalty — the Damiani, in fact, originally D'Amiens, came from Normandy, but it seems that the origins date back to the Anjou period). Even today, the building has a chapel, where the family crest still stands.
The raids made 46 dead. After they bivouacked for the night, the French resumed their journey, but, arriving at the Church of Sant'Andrea, as a final insult they broke down the door of the church and brought out the statue of St. Andrew. The soldiers began to mock the saint, and, according to legend, when they tried to throw the statue of the saint into the ravine (now there is a staircase built in 1907 by Dr. Joseph Jannone) they failed in the enterprise because the statue had become heavy. Then an angry ranked soldier took the eyes from the statue with a bayonet and ran away. The eyes of the statue were later put back in. The same statue is at the altar of the Church of Sant'Andrea and is carried in procession twice a year.
The family ScoppaEdit
But the nineteenth century is marked by family Scoppa. A rider, Giuseppe Scoppa Badolato, had acquired several estates in the area of Monasterace and many farms in the area of Badolato. The son, Pier Nicola Scoppa (1760-1840), received the title of Baron of Badolato and inherited the family assets including the marina of St. Andrew. Over time he extended its possessions and even bought the old granary of Sant'Andrea. Near the granary built a magnificent palace, now home of the Sisters of Reparation, in the period between 1818 and 1825. In 1833 the building was attacked by robbers. Baron, with good presence of mind, he hid behind a door and escaped. In thanks for the narrow escape he had engraved the episode, dated 1833, his escape and the pursuit of the robbers on the door of the Sacred silver ciborium, in the church of Sant'Andrea. The son of Pier Nicola, Giuseppe Scoppa (1794-1857), married Saveria Greek, died in 1886. From Saveria had four daughters. Three married nobles of the area, while the daughter Henriette (1831-1910) remained unmarried and lived in the main house, retaining the title of baroness and all the properties of Isca on the Ionian and Sant'Andrea.
Henrietta Scoppa devoted himself to prayer and good works. Built in 1897, the college and the church of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (the church is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus), helped several seminarians, bestowed a dowry to poor girls, he restored the main church and the aqueduct of Niforio . Granted the Palace to the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, with a commitment to found an orphanage. Baroness Henriette died at his villa Condò in February 1910, leaving her property to his niece Henrietta Of France, wife of the Marquis Armando Lucifer. The sons of Henrietta and the Marquis Armando Lucifer were the natural heirs and today maintain their assets.
The exhibition waterEdit
In 1877 the water was brought to town by the fountain near the palace Jannoni. The water was channeled from the town Niforio.
In 1925 there were a series of fountains in and around the country.
Churches and chapelsEdit
St. Nicholas of CammerotaEdit
It was built by the Basilian and officiated in the 9th-10th century, the territory over Condò, in the period, that is, where the Basilian from Sicily, spread in Calabria. Few ruins remain of the church, but you can find the Byzantine structure, once the apse to the east. The finishing art, however, the Norman-Arab-Byzantine origin, like the windows in black and white, back to the eleventh century. They would have found the burial Hugh Norman Altavilla Rufo and his wife. Hugh possessed the territories of up to Satriano Badolato. In 1156, the son of Hugh, Malgerio Altavilla, after the Basilian had left the territory of St. Andrew, granted the church and its property to the Carthusian monks of San Bruno. In the donation also includes the farmhouse adjoining the period Basilian.
Church of the Assumption in the FieldEdit
It is near St. Andrew's Marina, in Campo, near the stream Salubro. According to tradition it was built on the site where it was found a picture of the Virgin. It is difficult to date, but should pick up in the period of expansion of the Basilian in the 9th-10th century. The cult of the Assumption, in fact, was brought to the West from the East. The original title was to the Church of St. Martin, which is preserved in the nearby district. It presents a very simple structure, in a square shape of 10x13 meters. The altar facing east according to the Eastern usage, the atrium consists of three pillars. The church, in the early decades of the twelfth century to the Carthusian monks of the Carthusian monastery of Serra San Bruno. The earthquake of 1783 destroyed most. In the early nineteenth Baron Pier Nicola Scoppa took possession of the church when he bought the Grange Carthusian following the abolition of the property of religious orders in 1808, by the will of Joachim Murat, King of Naples. Baron had the church rebuilt and made to paint, or renew, the picture of the Assumption. Baroness Scoppa subsequently granted donated the land and the church of St. Martin del Campo at the College of the Redemptorist Fathers, which she founded in 1898. The Redemptorist Fathers did restore the church in 1964, remaking make the picture of the Virgin and regreted the altar with marble brought from another church. On August 15, the church celebrates the feast of the Assumption. In ancient times, during the festival, it took place also the exhibition of animals subsequently suppressed by the frequent fights between andreolesi and Ischia.
Church of All Saints (also known as Saint Catherine of Alexandria)Edit
The church of All Saints was the first mother church of St. Andrew, near which stood the Grange of All Saints. It was founded in 1114 by the Carthusian monks and was the first church of the Latin rite in the territory of Saint Andrew. He was known, too, with the name of St. Catherine of Alexandria. The cult of the holy martyr was widespread in the area. From 1806 it was no longer used because dilapidated.
St. Andrew the ApostleEdit
The church is dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, patron of the country. Andrew of Bethsaida, a fisherman of Lake Tiberias, was one of the apostles of Jesus. The cult of the saint was of Greek origin and had spread in Monasterace and Badolato by the Basilian. According to some authors, the construction of the church was completed in 1737. But others report the origin of the church at times much more distant. The church, in fact, had to be built, albeit in different forms, with the nascent settlement that later took the name of St. Andrew the Apostle of the Ionian Sea. A document from 1131 shows, in fact, for the first time the existence of St. Andrew the Apostle of the Ionian Sea, which suggests the existence, in addition to the house, even the church which is named the same house. Even the statue of St. Andrew dates back to ancient times on the basis of an inscription found during restoration following the outrage suffered by the statue by the French in 1806. The statue is of particular interest to establish its ancient origin. In fact, the saint has three symbols, two "normal" as the cross and the fish, a "unique" as the book bearing in the left hand. This book might be referring to "the Gospel of St. Andrew," recalled one of the apocryphal gospels. The particular recalls the ancient Eastern tradition concerning a gospel attributed to the holy tradition of which the sculptor took account. The date of 1757 engraved on the new portal of granite, indicates that in that year the church was restored and enlarged. The interior has a nave. The altar, in baroque style, dates back to the eighteenth century. The door of the enclosure, silver, on the altar, is a votive offering of Baron Pier Nicola Scoppa for the narrow escape during an assault by robbers at his palace in 1833. The housing contains a bone fragment relic of St. Andrew . It is not known how long the church has, this relic. In 1893, the façade was enriched with an architectural ornament, which was inserted in the bell (the bell tower was demolished dilapidated) was built and the new time. In 1927 he was decorated with interesting frescoes by painters Zimatore and Grillo. Keep the statue of the saint. Even the statue of Saint Andrew, like the church, dates back to ancient times on the basis of an inscription found during restoration following the outrage suffered by the statue by the French in 1806. The statue is of particular interest to establish its ancient origin. In fact, the saint has three symbols, two "normal" as the cross and the fish, a "unique" as the book bearing in the left hand. This book might be referring to "the Gospel of St. Andrew," recalled one of the apocryphal gospels. The particular recalls the ancient Eastern tradition concerning a gospel attributed to the holy tradition of which the sculptor took account. In 1970 they were made to the existing marble floor and the ambos. In 1908 they built the external stairway and the adjacent villa. In 1952, in the apse exterior, he was leaning on a pillar in the shape of palm and covered canopy, a marble statue of St. Andrew. Previously, instead of the marble statue, was a statue of St. Andrew in the throne kept in the cupboard to the right of the church. Popularly known as "Saint Andrew Assettatu". The statue was of cardboard and was commissioned after the French, in September 1806, had gouged out his eyes to the historic statue. It was later restored. When it was created the pillar-shaped palm, in the apse exterior, there was a statue of cardboard which eventually deteriorated. It was replaced, so, in 1952, with the current marble statue.
Saints Peter and PaulEdit
It is the mother church. It stands on the highest point of the old town. In 1569 the church was included within the walls of the castle built by Emperor Charles V. In 1725, around the castle was transformed into a church with works that went from 1719 to 1725 using the outer walls of the castle. In 1860 the church was restored, consolidated and extended with the addition of the chancel and apse. Also raised was the dome and made the circular vault, all in Renaissance style. He contributed to the work, with great generosity, Baroness Henriette Scoppa. The bell was made in part in 1781 but was only completed at the end of the nineteenth century. In 1954 the church was reinforced after the injuries suffered in the earthquake of 1947. However, on Feb. 3, 1965, was closed because it was deemed unsafe. October 27 began the demolition, despite the resentment of the public. The eighteenth-century church had its remarkable architectural beauty. Admission envisaged on the current square Saverio Mattei and not as now, on the final stretch of Via Belvedere. She gave access to the church through a majestic staircase with two flights 24 settembre1972, the new church was consecrated by the Bishop of Squillace, Monsignor Armando Fares. The present church has three naves and a large gallery. Behind the altar is a beautiful mosaic depicting Christ ascending to heaven. In the chapel on the left nave is a valuable altar of 1700, polychrome marble stained, typical of the artistic culture of the south from the 18th century. It is a faithful reproduction of the altar of the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament in the church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of the Redemptorist Fathers. In the chapel at the end of the left aisle it is preserved a valuable painting depicting the Immaculate Conception, attributed to the great seventeenth-century painter Mattia Preti, born in Taverna, which presumably left even his self-portrait in a corner of the canvas. Along the wall of the right aisle is the headstone of the burial of Mariantonia Samà, called the "nun of San Bruno" translated to the Church in 2003.
Santa Maria in ArceEdit
The church of Santa Maria in Arce was founded in 1629, under the patronage of the Greek family. Collapsed in 1783 because of the earthquake was rebuilt in 1850 by the priest Bruno Dominijanni. Behind the church they are buried the children who die without baptism. In 1914 there were established the festive oratory and the catechism school, animated by the priest Bruno Cosentino. His work was responsible for the construction of the hall (1931) and the theater Dominic Savio (1934). In 1932 the oratory became the seat of the Catholic Action. Later, in 1955 the church was rebuilt, as damaged by the earthquake of 1947. Near the church was also built the sports field.
The church, not to be confused with that of St. Nicholas of Cammerota, was built in 1746 by the family Parise. He was leaning against the church of Santa Caterina (or All Saints). It was destroyed in 1976. The statue of Saint Nicholas is now the mother church.
Sacred Heart of JesusEdit
The building was built in 1897 (as you can read on the clasp of iron on the floor at the entrance of the church) to the munificence of the Baroness Henriette Scoppa the whole of the College of the order founded by St. Alphonsus Redemptorist Fathers of the Spirits. It is a large, bright composite Neo-Renaissance-style church, baroque and neoclassical, of great beauty both inside and outside. The interior has three naves. The nave is divided by 14 columns while the presbytery is characterized by 10 columns. In the presbytery is the main altar in polychrome marble. The banister that divides the sanctuary from the nave was built in the later period.
The "great choir" was inaugurated in 1909, while the throne of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in 1929, the work of a local master, Xavier Armogida, father Francesco Armogida architect who designed the throne. On the six altars, polychrome marble, were built six niches, from local craftsmen to house the statues of St. Alphonsus (first was the right nave), St. Gerard, St. Anthony of Padua, the Immaculate Conception, St. Joseph, St. Henry, St. Francis Xavier.
Church of St. Andrew marineEdit
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Palace Chapel ScoppaEdit
The palace chapel Scoppa opens onto the courtyard of the palace itself. They were kept two paintings depicting a San Bruno kneeling before the Pope Urban II and the other San Bruno while giving the rule to his brothers. The two paintings were destroyed to open the niche of Our Lady of Lourdes and place the side of the choir nuns. The chapel was built following the work of restoration and extension of the Grange took Baron Pier Nicola Scoppa after he bought the Grange and its territory in 1806, after the confiscation of property of religious orders by the Kingdom of Naples, under Gioachcino Murat. The work, carried out respecting the structure of the Grange century, took place between 1818 and 1825. This led to huge palace which Baron did add the superb porch overlooking the marina.
Chapel of PurgatoryEdit
It is located in Via Grande's Seat. Currently he is filing the congregation of SS. Sacrament
Temple of Santa BarbaraEdit
Chapel of the Villa of the FraternityEdit
- "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.