Sandy Springs, Georgia
Sandy Springs is a city in northern Fulton County, Georgia. As of the 2010 census, Sandy Springs had a population of 93,853, and its 2019 estimated population was 109,452. Sandy Springs is Georgia's seventh-largest city (just after Athens) and is the site of several corporate headquarters (though many are assigned "Atlanta" mailing addresses) such as UPS, Newell Brands, Inspire Brands, Cox Communications, and Mercedes-Benz USA's corporate offices.
Sandy Springs, Georgia
|City of Sandy Springs|
The contemporary skyline of Sandy Springs is dominated by the Concourse office towers.
|• Mayor||Rusty Paul|
|• City Manager||Andrea Surratt|
|• Total||38.52 sq mi (99.76 km2)|
|• Land||37.65 sq mi (97.52 km2)|
|• Water||0.86 sq mi (2.24 km2)|
|Elevation||1,093 ft (333 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,906.78/sq mi (1,122.32/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
30328, 30327, 30338, 30342, 30350, 30358, 30319, 30092
|GNIS feature ID||0332975|
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Human settlement in the area can be traced back to approximately 400 CE, when Native Americans in the area forged three trails to better access the area's freshwater springs. During the 16th century, the Creek Muskogee tribe settled the area, where they remained until the early 1800s, when they were forced out of the area due to the discovery of gold in it.
In 1821, the federal government held a number of land lotteries in the area, resulting in the purchase of land in present-day Sandy Springs and subsequent settlement of the land. The Austin-Johnson House, the oldest unaltered house in the town, was built in 1842 on what is now Johnson Ferry Road. In 1851, Wilson Spruill donated 5 acres (2.0 ha) of land for the founding of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church, near the natural spring for which the city is named. In 1905, the Hammond School was built at Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway, across the street from the church.
citation needed] In the early 1960s, Georgia 400 and Interstate 285 were constructed, connecting Sandy Springs to metro Atlanta and initiating a housing boom that brought new residents and major land development as part of the white flight from Atlanta after the Civil Rights Movement won greater racial integration within Atlanta. In 1965, Hartsfield once again proposed the annexation of the Sandy Springs area. Spokesmen for Sandy Springs promised residents to "build up a city separate from Atlanta and your Negroes and forbid any Negroes to buy, or own, or live within our limits" should they reject annexation. In 1966, annexation by Atlanta was defeated in a referendum, with two-thirds voting against.[
Early incorporation effortsEdit
Efforts to incorporate Sandy Springs began in 1966 in response to attempts by the city of Atlanta to annex this unincorporated area of north Fulton County. In the early 1970s, the city of Atlanta attempted to use a state law to force annexation of Sandy Springs, which failed after the Supreme Court of Georgia ruled that the law was unconstitutional. In response, a group of residents formed the Committee for Sandy Springs 1975 to lobby for the incorporation of Sandy Springs. During this time, proponents for an incorporated Sandy Springs argued that their taxes were disproportionately going to other, largely non-white, communities in Fulton County. In every legislative session, state legislators representing the area introduced a bill in the Georgia General Assembly to authorize a referendum on incorporation. Legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County, who feared that tax revenue would be lost from incorporation, blocked the bills, using the procedural requirement that all local legislation be approved first by a delegation of representatives from the affected area.
In 1991, the Georgia state government determined that Sandy Springs, along with other wealthier, and predominantly white, communities in Fulton County was being taxed below statewide minimums, resulting in an increase in taxes for the area. Some Sandy Springs residents, including Mitch Skandalakis, launched a number of campaigns against the taxes, and launched an unsuccessful lawsuit against the state.
When the Republican Party gained a majority in both houses of the Georgia General Assembly in 2005, the procedural rules previously used to prevent a vote by the full chamber were changed so that the bill was handled as a state bill and not as a local bill. The assembly also repealed the requirement that new cities must be at least 3 miles (4.8 km) from existing cities that had stymied previous attempts to incorporate due to Sandy Springs directly bordering both Roswell and Atlanta. The bill allowing for a referendum on incorporation was introduced and passed as HB 37. The referendum initiative was approved by the Assembly and signed by Governor Sonny Perdue.
The referendum was held on June 21, 2005, and residents voted 94% in favor of incorporation. In November 2005, voters returned to the polls to elect a mayor and six city council members. Eva Galambos, who had initiated and led the charge for incorporation, was elected mayor. Formal incorporation occurred on December 1, making Sandy Springs the third-largest city ever to incorporate in the U.S. The city's police force and fire department began service in 2006.
In 2010, the city undertook a procurement process to rebid all general city services, which was won by CH2M Hill. The timing of this contract, during the Great Recession, allowed the city to leverage a cheaper contract due to the economic downturn.
In 2019, the Sandy Springs City Council moved to scale back the PPP model, directly hiring 183 contract employees, leaving only 15 outsourced full-time workers by the end of 2019. The city will still outsource a number of services, including the city attorney's office, as well as security, street sweeping and ambulance services. The move is expected to save $2.7 million in the next year and more than $14 million over 5 years.
The boundaries of Sandy Springs are Atlanta to the south, Cobb County (at the Chattahoochee River) to the west and north, Roswell (also at the river) to the north, and Dunwoody and Brookhaven, at the DeKalb County line, to the east. A small panhandle in the northeast extends between the Chattahoochee River to the north and Dunwoody to the south, ending in a very small border with Peachtree Corners in the extreme western edge of Gwinnett County.
Sandy Springs has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). During January and February 2014, the Atlanta area, including Sandy Springs, experienced a severe snow storm and a severe ice storm, both of which left much of the region without power, caused major travel disruptions, and the former storm forced people to take shelter in cars and schools.
|Climate data for Sandy Springs|
|Record high °F (°C)||75
|Average high °F (°C)||50
|Average low °F (°C)||29
|Record low °F (°C)||−10
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||5.34
Downtown - City SpringsEdit
City Springs, the downtown district of Sandy Springs, is usually defined as the area to the south and east of Sandy Springs Circle, to the north of Interstate 285, and to the west of Boylston Drive. It is located approximately 12 miles directly north of Downtown Atlanta. In the absence of a traditional downtown, city leaders created City Springs, a multi-use development containing municipal offices, residential, retail, green space and a performing arts center, landmarking a formal "downtown" for its residents. City leaders purchased the property in 2008, which was once the site of a former Target (formerly Richway) shopping center, located between Roswell Road, Johnson Ferry Road, and Mount Vernon Highway. Since then, the surrounding area in the district has become a center for urban renewal for the city, with many new mixed-use apartment developments being planned or built, primarily replacing old strip malls along Roswell Road. The City Springs center officially opened in 2018, 10 years after the original site purchase.  The official address for the complex is on Galambos Way, named after the city's first mayor, Eva Galambos. Within the City Springs district is Heritage Green, which is home to the spring which spurred the name of the city.
Riverside is the western district of the city, located south of Dalyrmple Road and west of Roswell Road, bordering the Chattahoochee River to the west, forming the western border with Cobb County. It is a residential area marked by winding, hilly roads. The main roads are Heards Ferry Road and Riverside Drive, and it is located off the Riverside Drive exit of I-285.
The Dunwoody Panhandle, or just "The Panhandle" is a residential area bounded by the Dunwoody city limit to the south, the Chattahoochee River to the north, Georgia 400 to the west, and Peachtree Corners city limit to the east. The district's name is derived from the fact that it is wedged between the river and Dunwoody, forming a geographic panhandle. Major roads include Dunwoody Club Drive and Spalding Drive, and Interstate access is through the Northridge Road exit of Georgia 400. Many who lived in the neighborhood during Sandy Springs' incorporation considered themselves part of Dunwoody, and voiced their opposition to the installment of street sign toppers labelled "Sandy Springs". Then-mayor Eva Galambos stated that these new signs would do nothing to diminish the neighborhood's identity. Most residents now consider the area to be "Dunwoody in Sandy Springs", similar to the Buckhead Community district of Atlanta.
Perimeter Center is a commercial edge city and business district surrounding Perimeter Mall. Although about 40% of Perimeter Center, including the mall, is located in Dunwoody, the western 60%, including most of the area's office towers, are located in Sandy Springs. Pill Hill is located in the Sandy Springs section of Perimeter Center, and is the largest medical center in Georgia. It includes Northside Hospital, St. Joseph's Hospital, and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta. More than 40% of the hospital beds in the metro area are located within Sandy Springs. Landmarks include Hammond Park and the Sandy Springs and Medical Center MARTA stations.
North Springs is the located in the northern portion of the city, and is generally defined as the area west of the Dunwoody/DeKalb County border, east of Brandon Mill Road, north of Abernathy Road, and south of Dalrymple Road and Spalding Drive. The North Springs MARTA station, the terminus of the MARTA Red Line, serves the district.
South Springs - Sandy Springs ITPEdit
South Springs or Sandy Springs ITP, an acronym for "inside the perimeter", refers to a portion of the city which extends south of Interstate 285, colloquially referred to as "the perimeter". It is located north of the Atlanta border, east of the Riverside district, south of Interstate 285, and west of the Brookhaven/DeKalb County border. The southern area of this district is considered to be a part of the greater Chastain Park community of Buckhead. The southern district is isn't as more wealthy than the northern district. 
Powers Ferry LandingEdit
The business district just east of the river crossing is called Powers Ferry Landing, located where Northside Drive crosses the road, just east of the former landing. This provides freeway access at Northside Drive (west ramps) and New Northside Drive (east ramps, road and ramps built in a 1990s reconstruction). Signage on the freeway indicates Powers Ferry Road, Northside Drive, and New Northside Drive.
The North End is a large district in the northernmost portion of the city, and is generally defined as the area to the west of GA400, to the south and east of the Chattahoochee River, and to the north of Dalrymple Road. It is accessible via GA400 at Northridge Road, and contains the Northridge business area and the North River Village community. The Huntcliff community is located west of the district, on a panhandle to the northwest.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
(Note: the 2000 census numbers are for Sandy Springs prior to incorporation, but cover the same area.)
In the official 2010 census, the population of Sandy Springs was 93,853. There were 42,334 households. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 65.0% white, 20.0% black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 6.9% from some other race and 2.7% from two or more races. 14.2% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
In the preceding official census of 2000, when there were 85,781 people, 39,288 households, and 19,683 families residing in the CDP, the population density was 2,274.1 people per square mile (878.1/km2). There were 42,794 housing units at an average density of 1,134.5 per square mile (438.0/km2). The racial makeup of the CDP was 77.55% White, 12.04% African American, 0.18% Native American, 3.29% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.94% from other races, and 1.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.93% of the population. According to a 2006 report by the Atlanta Jewish Federation, 15,300 Jews reside in Sandy Springs and the adjacent city of Dunwoody.
There were 48,288 households, out of which 21.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.9% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 17.8% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 40.3% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males.
According to a 2008 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $106,240, and the median income for a family was $129,810. The average income for a household was $116,406 and the average income for a family was $169,815. Males had a median income of $60,053 versus $50,030 for females. About 3.1% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over.
Arts and cultureEdit
Sandy Springs offers a host of annual events each year.
The Sandy Springs Festival is the largest community event in Sandy Springs, with approximately 30,000 attendees. Established in 1984, the annual festival celebrated its 30th year in 2015. The festival features a juried artist's market, civic and business expo, performances by regional acts and community bands, a children's area with crafts and activities, a teen territory with bungee jumps and inflatables, the annual Kiwanis Pet Parade, the annual Doug Kessler Lighting 10K/5K race, and a food court. The festival serves as the primary fundraiser for Heritage Sandy Springs, a nonprofit dedicated to building community through preserving and promoting the historic and cultural identity of Sandy Springs. Heritage Sandy Springs also maintains Heritage Green, a 4-acre (1.6 ha) park in the heart of Sandy Springs. The most recent festival was held September 19–20, 2015. The next upcoming festival is Saturday September 22, 2018 - Sunday September 23, 2018.
Sandy Springs Artapalooza is a free fine arts festival held each year in Sandy Springs. Each year 125 to 150 notable artists from across the country have the opportunity to participate. Organizers of the event include the Georgia Foundation for Public Spaces and ArtsSpring, two groups that are dedicated to bringing free arts programs to the community.
Stars and Stripes Celebration is an annual community fireworks display held over the July 4 holiday at the Concourse Corporate Center. The community gathers on the Concourse lawn for fireworks and live music.
The annual Chattahoochee River Summer Splash, held in July, is a 6-mile (10 km) float along the Chattahoochee River, beginning at Morgan Falls Dam and finishing at Cochran Shoals-Powers Island National Recreation Area. After completing the float, participants can enjoy an afternoon of live music, food and fun during festivities at Powers Island. Guests can bring their own kayaks, canoes, or rafts, or rent them from several local outfitters.
Points of interestEdit
The Heritage Sandy Springs Museum opened on March 20, 2010. It is dedicated to the history of the Sandy Springs community and is located in the repurposed Williams-Payne house at Heritage Green. Two notable exhibits are "Sandy Springs: Land and People", which tells the changing story of Sandy Springs as the home of Native Americans, rural farmers, and modern suburbanites; and "A Land Nearby", which features a collection of 20 photographs of Georgia's Barrier Island taken by Dr. Curt Hames Jr.
Sandy Springs also has a museum devoted to Anne Frank.
Sandy Springs' sixteen parks and greenspaces offer more than 950 acres (380 ha) of parkland.
- Abernathy Greenway: The 6.6-acre linear park opened in 2014. The playable art structures were created as part of an international competition developed by the Sandy Springs Conservancy and Art Sandy Springs and sponsored by Northside Hospital.
- Heritage Green: a 4-acre (1.6 ha) park at the center of Sandy Springs' new downtown development. It is the site of the original underground springs for which the city is named and is anchored by the Heritage Sandy Springs Museum. It is operated and managed by Heritage Sandy Springs, a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization dedicated to building community through preserving and promoting the historic and cultural identity of Sandy Springs. Heritage Sandy Springs presents a full calendar of public programs and events, including the Sandy Springs Festival, museum exhibits, lectures and programs, three concert series, children's educational and enrichment programming, and community gardening programs.
- Hammond Park: multipurpose building, gym, game room, AstroTurf soccer field, lighted tennis courts, basketball courts, picnic pavilions, playground, restrooms
- Morgan Falls Overlook: picnic pavilions, children's playground, boat dock/fishing pier, hiking trail, fire pit, porch swings, scenic views, restrooms
- Morgan Falls Athletic Complex: baseball and softball fields, football fields, picnic pavilions, playgrounds, concessions stand, restrooms
- Sandy Springs Tennis Center: clubhouse, pro shop, restrooms, locker rooms, lighted tennis courts, jogging trail
- Abernathy Park: tennis courts, playground, picnic tables, arts center
- Allen: playground, multipurpose court, walking trail, basketball court
- John Ripley Forbes Big Trees Forest Nature: trails, tree, plant and wildlife sanctuary
- Ridgeview: nature trails, picnic pavilion, playground
- Abernathy Greenway: the city's newest park; a linear park opened in 2014; features playable art sculpture
- Windsor Meadows: benches and trails located at the intersection of Windsor Parkway and Northland Drive by Nancy Creek
- Island Ford: home to the headquarters for the Chattahoochee National Recreation Area, this unit is located entirely within Sandy Springs. It is also home to the Hewlett Lodge, a former home dating back to 1941 that was acquired when the park service bought the land surrounding the home in 1979.
- East Palisades: this park compromises the Fulton County portion of the Palisades unit.
- Powers Island: this park is a part of the Cochran Shoals unit.
- Mayor: Rusty Paul
- District 1: John Paulson
- District 2: Steve Soteres
- District 3: Chris Burnett
- District 4: Jodi Reichel
- District 5: Tiberio "Tibby" DeJulio
- District 6: Andy Bauman
- City Manager: John McDonough
Sandy Springs is notable for contracting private companies to perform the majority of its services in a public-private partnership model of government. While many governments contract with private-sector companies on a per-project basis, Sandy Springs is believed to be the first American city to outsource its services for the majority of ongoing operations. The city regularly hosts delegations from other governments that are interested in the model. Services not outsourced include police, fire-rescue, and city management.
The city's police department took over services from Fulton County on July 1, 2006, with 86 police officers from all over the state of Georgia; it is now staffed by 137 officers. The city's fire department began operations in December 2006. The department consists of 97 full-time firefighters. The former police chief, Gene Wilson Jr., was replaced by Terry Sult in 2008 - 2013. Kenneth DeSimone was promoted to Chief in 2013. The fire department was headed by Chief Jack McElfish from 2005 - 2014. The fire department is today headed by Chief Keith Sanders. It is staffed by 91 full-time firefighters and 52 part-time firefighters. The police department answered 98,250 calls in FY 2010, while the fire department handled 17,000 responses to 8,205 calls for service.
The city of Sandy Springs has purchased the old Target Corporation building (originally Richway) located on the corner of Sandy Springs Circle and Johnson Ferry Road. In May 2018, the new city hall opened after years of construction.
Sandy Springs' model of public-private partnership has attracted considerable attention, with city leaders from across the country and around the globe, including China, Japan, Korea, Finland and others visiting Sandy Springs to learn about their model. Since the incorporation of Sandy Springs, several other municipalities in Georgia sought to replicate the city's style of governing, however, many of these municipalities significantly altered their model since then.
Primary and secondary schoolsEdit
Public schools are operated by the Fulton County School System. Elementary schools serving sections of Sandy Springs include Dunwoody Springs Charter Elementary School, Heards Ferry Elementary School, High Point Elementary School, Ison Springs Elementary School, Lake Forest Elementary School, Spalding Drive Charter Elementary School, and Woodland Charter Elementary School. Two middle schools, Sandy Springs Middle School and Ridgeview Charter Middle School, and two high schools, North Springs Charter School of Arts and Sciences and Riverwood High School, are in and serve Sandy Springs.
Private schools located in Sandy Springs include:
- Brandon Hall School (5th grade through high school)
- Springmont (formerly First Montessori School of Atlanta) (preschool through middle school)
- Atlanta Jewish Academy (k–12)
- Holy Innocents' Episcopal School (preschool through high school)
- Mount Vernon Presbyterian School (preschool through high school)
- St. Jude the Apostle Catholic School (k–8)
- Opened September 4, 1962
- The Alfred and Adele Davis Academy (k–8)
- The Felicia Penzell Weber Jewish Community High School a.k.a. The Weber School (high school)
- The Epstein School (k–8)
- Holy Spirit Preparatory School Lower Campus (the upper campus and preschool are in Atlanta)
- Cumberland Academy
- Riverwood International Charter High School
The initial campus of Sophia Academy, which opened in 1999, was on a rental property, in what became Sandy Springs. Construction on its new campus on what later became Chamblee began circa 2007.
The largest employers within Sandy Springs are hospitals, headquarters and regional offices from a variety of industries including computer related services, package delivery, telecommunications, media, and financial transaction processing.
Sandy Springs is home to three hospitals: Northside Hospital, St. Joseph's Hospital and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, comprising 40 percent of the hospital beds in the region.
According to the city's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of employees|
|3||United Parcel Service||2,072|
Some notable newspapers that cover areas of interest to Sandy Springs include the Sandy Springs Reporter, Sandy Springs Neighbor and The Atlanta Journal Constitution. Two television series are recorded within the city: Auction Kings at Gallery 63 on Roswell Road, and Say Yes to the Dress: Atlanta at Bridals by Lori on Hammond Drive. The Vampire Diaries series filmed scenes at Glenridge Hall, which is portrayed as the main characters' home.
Major roads and expresswaysEdit
Sandy Springs is served by two major limited-access highways, Georgia 400 − which runs north–south − and I-285 − which runs east–west. Major surface streets include Roswell Road (U.S. 19 south of I-285 and Georgia 9 entirely), Hammond Drive, Spalding Drive, Johnson Ferry Road, Abernathy Road, Glenridge Drive, and Dunwoody Club Drive.
Roswell Road is considered the "main street" of the city, with a majority of residents living within 2 miles of the corridor. It connects Roswell at the Chattahoochee River to the north into the Buckhead to the south. It runs through the heart of Downtown Sandy Springs, with the City Springs complex being located on the highway.
Recently completed major road projects include the widening of Abernathy Road between Johnson Ferry and Roswell Roads from two lanes to four plus a road median. The western intersection has been reconfigured so that traffic to and from Johnson Ferry Road − which carries heavy loads of Cobb County commuters across the Chattahoochee River at rush hour − now flows directly with Abernathy to and from the northwest. Additionally, the Roswell Road bridge over I-285 has been widened to add a turn lane in each direction. There had previously been talk of a tunnel under the freeway to bypass the highway interchange altogether, however this proved to be much too expensive. Another state project is the addition of a half-diamond interchange to Georgia 400 on the north side of Hammond Drive, allowing southbound traffic to exit and northbound traffic to enter the highway. (Ramps on the south side were not possible due to the proximity of the 400/285 interchange.)
The city's public works department has made significant improvements in the conditions of roads and traffic signals since incorporation in December 2005. The department has cleaned approximately 1,500 catch basins, striped 30 miles (48 km) of roadway, responded to more than 2,000 calls for repair and service, re-timed hundreds of traffic lights to help improve the flow of traffic and reduce automobile idling, and repaved 60 mi (97 km) of roads.
The 2008 fiscal year saw the creation of the Sandy Springs Traffic Management Center (TMC). The TMC was constructed and began to operate in less than six months. Construction began in February 2008, five cameras viewed traffic along Roswell Road by the end of June. Special features of the TMC include a webpage that allows the public access to real-time traffic conditions and voice-activated controls. By June 2009, 16 traffic cameras are now available and can be viewed online at the city's website.
The major provider of mass transit is MARTA, which operates a heavy rail rapid transit line and several bus lines through Sandy Springs. The city is served by the Medical Center, Sandy Springs and North Springs stations. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority also operates express buses from the North Springs station (which has its own ramps to and from 400) to other counties.
Pedestrians and cyclingEdit
Currently the city is limited in multi-use trails, but bike lanes can be found in certain parts of the city. The city is currently working on creating more trails and bike lanes. Currently, the Abernathy Greenway is a popular multi-use trail running adjacent to Abernathy Road, connecting to Abernathy Park. The PATH400 Greenway Trail is a multi-use trail running along the Georgia 400 freeway in the Buckhead district of Atlanta. Sandy Springs is currently in the early stages of planning an extension of the trail through the city north into Roswell. Once complete, it would run from the northern border of Sandy Springs to the Atlanta BeltLine. As well, the city is working with the Georgia Department of Transportation to transform the city's portion of Roswell Road into a more pedestrian and transit friendly corridor.
- Harris Barton (born 1964), former All Pro NFL offensive lineman
- Kate Bedingfield (born c.1982), American political advisor and designated White House Communications Director in the Biden administration.
- Mike Bettes, meteorologist for The Weather Channel
- Todd English, celebrity chef
- Eva Galambos, first mayor of Sandy Springs
- David Justice, former Atlanta Braves baseball player
- Simon Kornblit, studio executive and actor
- Hines Ward, former Pittsburgh Steelers wide receiver
- Young Thug, rapper
- Playboi Carti, rapper
- Usher, singer
- Akon, singer
- Champ Bailey, football cornerback
- Daughters of the American Revolution, Sandy Springs Chapter (2010). "City of Sandy Springs - From the Daughters of the American Revolution, Sandy Springs Chapter". City of Sandy Springs. Archived from the original on July 30, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
- City of Sandy Springs (2010). "City of Sandy Springs - Mayor's Office". Archived from the original on July 15, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- United States Postal Service (2012). "USPS - Look Up a ZIP Code". Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001), Sandy Springs city, Georgia". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
- "City and Town Population Totals: 2010-2019". Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- "Sandy Springs GA History". SandySprings.com. Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- Kruse, Kevin Michael, 1972- (2007). White flight : Atlanta and the making of modern conservatism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400848973. OCLC 852159650.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Rosen, Sam (April 26, 2017). "Atlanta's Controversial 'Cityhood' Movement". The Atlantic. ISSN 1072-7825. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- Bragg, Rick (January 17, 1997). "2 Bomb Blasts Rock Abortion Clinic at Atlanta; 6 Are Injured". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Bonvillian, Crystal (March 19, 2018). "Serial bomber Eric Rudolph targeted Olympics, gay club, abortion clinics". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Wilkinson, Joe; Willard, Wendell; Geisinger, Harry; Lindsey, Edward (2005). "Georgia General Assembly - House Bill 37". Georgia General Assembly. Archived from the original on July 30, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
- Paterson, Blake (September 19, 2019). "Why Sandy Springs, Georgia -- once a model for St. George -- has abandoned privatization". The Advocate. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "U.S. Reaches Agreements with Kings Mountain, N.C., and Sandy Springs, Ga., to Terminate Coverage from Preclearance of the Voting Rights Act". Justice.gov. September 22, 2010. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Arielle Kass, Ben Brasch (May 17, 2019). "Sandy Springs, First in Cityhood, Changes How it Does Business". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- Jamieson, Alastair (February 12, 2014). "'Catastrophic' ice storm hits Atlanta, threatening power lines". CNBC. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "Average weather for Sandy Springs". Weather.com. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "City Springs complex anchors new downtown for Sandy Springs". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. July 8, 2018. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
-  Archived August 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "Sandy Springs vetoes Dunwoody toppers - Dunwoody Crier: Local News". Thecrier.net. July 25, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "About Perimeter CIDs - Perimeter Community Improvement Districts". Archived from the original on September 6, 2012.
- "MARTA - Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority". Itsmarta.com. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
-  Archived August 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Osterman, Jim (September 3, 2010). "Sandy Springs: ITP snob appeal is s-o-o-o-o not funny". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "Navigating Atlanta Neighborhoods: ITP vs. OTP | | KNOWAtlanta". Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "Sandy Springs' Powers Ferry Landing gets a place in the spotlight". April 17, 2016.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Census numbers enumerated were for "Sandy Springs CDP"
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
- 2010 profile of general population and housing characteristics of Sandy Springs from the US Census
- "Highlights of Jewish Community Centennial Study 2006". Shalomatlanta.org. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
- "Sandy Springs, GA".
- "Sandy Springs Festival".
- "Sandy Springs Festival".
- "Sandy Springs Artsapalooza".
- "Sandy Springs, GA".
- "Sandy Springs, GA".
- Hurd, Hatcher (August 1, 2012). "John Ripley Forbes, the great man nobody knows: Left indelible (green) mark on North Fulton, Atlanta". Alpharetta and Roswell Revue & News. Appen Newspapers Inc. Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Feine, Paul. "Sandy Springs, Georgia: The city that outsourced everything". ReasonTV. Reason Foundation. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- David Segal (June 23, 2012). "A Georgia Town Takes the People's Business Private". New York Times.
- "Sandy Springs to purchase former Target site | Sandy Springs Homes for Sale - Sandy Springs Real Estate - Restaurants - Businesses - Events". December 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Northam, Mitchell (April 4, 2018). "New city hall in Sandy Springs set to open in May". Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
- Niesse, Mark; Kass, Arielle. "Privatization of Georgia cities morphs from Sandy Springs model". ajc. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "Sandy Springs Elementary School Attendance Boundaries School Year 2009–2010 Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine." Fulton County School System. Accessed October 26, 2008.
- "Home". St. Jude the Apostle Catholic School. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
7171 Glenridge Drive NE, Atlanta, GA 30328- Address says "Atlanta, GA" but it is in the Sandy Springs city limits
- "History and Mission". St. Jude the Apostle Catholic School. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
- "Contact Us." Holy Spirit Preparatory School. Retrieved on January 7, 2019. "Upper School Campus 4449 Northside Drive Atlanta, GA 30327" and "Lower School Campus 4820 Long Island Drive Atlanta, GA 30342" and "Preschool Campus 4465 Northside Drive Atlanta, GA 30327"
- "Zoning." City of Sandy Springs. Retrieved on January 7, 2019.
- "History". Sophia Academy. Archived from the original on June 19, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- "Home". Sophia Academy. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original on November 1, 2004. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
650 Mt. Vernon Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30238
- "Zoning Map" (PDF). Sandy Springs, Georgia. January 1, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 1, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- "Sandy Springs Branch." Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System. Retrieved on February 24, 2010.
- "City of Sandy Springs, GA CAFR". sandyspringsga.org. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
- "Reporter Newspapers". Reporter Newspapers.
- Marietta Daily Journal - Neighbor Newspapers. "Northside / Sandy Springs". Marietta Daily Journal - Neighbor Newspapers.
- "AJC.com: Atlanta News, Sports, Atlanta Weather, Business News".
- "Capital Improvement Projects". Archived from the original on January 29, 2011.
- "First Phase of PATH400 to Break Ground Feb. 17". Buckhead, GA Patch. February 13, 2014.
- "Consultants present early plan for PATH400 extension to Sandy Springs". reporternewspapers.net. October 25, 2017.
- "Consulates Archived December 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine." Georgia Department of Economic Development. Accessed October 26, 2008.
- " Consulate-General of Nigeria in Atlanta. Accessed November 10, 2008
- "Consulate Location". Archived from the original on November 9, 2012.
- Erdman, Shelby Lin (October 8, 2015). "Metro Atlanta Boasts A Number Of Famous High School Graduates". WABE 90.1 FM. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
- Green, Josh (May 4, 2016). "Akon's Bonkers Atlanta Mansion Hits Market at $2.5M". Curbed Atlanta. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
- "Georgia football legends Champ Bailey, Hines Ward have Atlanta houses for sale during Super Bowl". WFTV. January 29, 2019. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
- Paul, Rusty. "Sister cities learning together". ajc.
Maps of the former census-designated place:
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sandy Springs.|
- City of Sandy Springs official website
- Sandy Springs Hospitality and Tourism
- Sandy Springs Chamber of Commerce
- Heritage Sandy Springs
- The City of Sandy Springs, Georgia historical marker
- The History of the City of Sandy Springs, Georgia historical marker
- The Sandy Springs historical marker
- Sandy Springs UMC Cemetery historical marker