Sandy Bridge

Sandy Bridge is the codename for Intel's 32 nm microarchitecture used in the second generation of the Intel Core processors (Core i7, i5, i3). The Sandy Bridge microarchitecture is the successor to Nehalem and Westmere microarchitecture. Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor in 2009, and released first products based on the architecture in January 2011 under the Core brand.[2][3]

Sandy Bridge
General information
LaunchedJanuary 9, 2011; 10 years ago (January 9, 2011)
DiscontinuedSeptember 27, 2013 [1]
Product code80619 (extreme desktop)
80620 (server LGA1356)
80621 (server LGA2011)
80623 (desktop)
80627 (mobile)
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate1.60 GHz to 3.60 GHz
Cache
L1 cache64 KB per core
L2 cache256 KB per core
L3 cache1 MB to 8 MB shared
10 MB to 15 MB (Extreme)
3 MB to 20 MB (Xeon)
Architecture and classification
ArchitectureSandy Bridge x86
Instructionsx86, x86-64
Extensions
Physical specifications
Transistors
Cores
  • 1–4 (4-6 Extreme, 2-8 Xeon)
GPU(s)HD Graphics
650 MHz to 1100 MHz
HD Graphics 2000
650 MHz to 1250 MHz
HD Graphics 3000
650 MHz to 1350 MHz
HD Graphics P3000
850 MHz to 1350 MHz
Socket(s)
Products, models, variants
Model(s)
History
PredecessorNehalem (Tock)
Westmere (Tick)
SuccessorIvy Bridge (Tick)
Haswell (Tock)
Bottom view of a Sandy Bridge i7-2600k
Top of a Sandy Bridge i5

Sandy Bridge is manufactured in the 32 nm process and has a soldered contact with the die and IHS (Integrated Heat Spreader), while Intel's subsequent generation Ivy Bridge uses a 22 nm die shrink and a TIM (Thermal Interface Material) between the die and the IHS.

TechnologyEdit

Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor with A1 stepping at 2 GHz during the Intel Developer Forum in September 2009.[4]

Upgraded features from Nehalem include:

CPUEdit

  • Intel Turbo Boost 2.0[5][6][7]
  • 32 KB data + 32 KB instruction L1 cache and 256 KB L2 cache per core[8]
  • Shared L3 cache which includes the processor graphics (LGA 1155)
  • 64-byte cache line size
  • New µOP cache, up to 1536-entry
  • Improved 3 integer ALU, 2 vector ALU and 2 AGU per core[9][10]
  • Two load/store operations per CPU cycle for each memory channel
  • Decoded micro-operation cache,[11] and enlarged, optimized branch predictor
  • Sandy Bridge retains the four branch predictors found in Nehalem: the branch target buffer (BTB), indirect branch target array, loop detector and renamed return stack buffer (RSB). Sandy Bridge has a single BTB that holds twice as many branch targets as the L1 and L2 BTBs in Nehalem.[12]
  • Improved performance for transcendental mathematics, AES encryption (AES instruction set), and SHA-1 hashing
  • 256-bit/cycle ring bus interconnect between cores, graphics, cache and System Agent Domain
  • Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) 256-bit instruction set with wider vectors, new extensible syntax and rich functionality[13]
  • Up to 8 physical cores, or 16 logical cores through hyper-threading (From 6 core/12 thread)
  • Integration of the GMCH (integrated graphics and memory controller) and processor into a single die inside the processor package. In contrast, Sandy Bridge's predecessor, Clarkdale, has two separate dies (one for GMCH, one for processor) within the processor package. This tighter integration reduces memory latency even more.
  • A 14- to 19-stage instruction pipeline, depending on the micro-operation cache hit or miss[14]
  • Increased ROB to 168 entries (From 128)[15]
  • Larger Scheduler buffer (54-entry, up from 26-entry)

GPUEdit

  • Intel Quick Sync Video, hardware support for video encoding and decoding
  • Integrated graphics is now integrated on the same die

IOEdit

  • Integrated PCIe Controller
Translation lookaside buffer sizes[16][17]
Cache Page Size
Name Level 4 KB 2 MB 1 GB
DTLB 1st 64 32 4
ITLB 1st 128 8 / logical core none
STLB 2nd 512 none none
All translation lookaside buffers (TLBs) are 4-way associative.[citation needed]

Models and steppingsEdit

All Sandy Bridge processors with one, two, or four cores report the same CPUID model 0206A7h[18] and are closely related. The stepping number cannot be seen from the CPUID but only from the PCI configuration space. The later Sandy Bridge-E processors with up to eight cores and no graphics are using CPUIDs 0206D6h and 0206D7h.[19] Ivy Bridge CPUs all have CPUID 0306A9h to date, and are built in four different configurations differing in the number of cores, L3 cache and GPU execution units:

Die codename CPUID Stepping Cores GPU
EUs
L3
cache
Sockets
Sandy Bridge-HE-4 0206A7h D2 04 012 08 MB LGA 1155, Socket G2,
BGA-1023, BGA-1224
Sandy Bridge-H-2 J1 02 04 MB LGA 1155, Socket G2,
BGA-1023
Sandy Bridge-M-2 Q0 006 03 MB
Sandy Bridge-EP-8 0206D6h C1 08 none 20 MB LGA 2011
0206D7h C2
Sandy Bridge-EP-4 0206D6h M0 04 10 MB LGA 2011
0206D7h M1

PerformanceEdit

  • The average performance increase, according to IXBT Labs and Semi Accurate as well as many other benchmarking sites, at clock to clock is 11.3% compared to the Nehalem generation, which includes Bloomfield, Clarkdale, and Lynnfield processors.[20]
  • Around twice the integrated graphics performance compared to Clarkdale's (12 EUs comparison).

List of Sandy Bridge processorsEdit

1Processors featuring Intel's HD 3000 graphics are set in bold. Other processors feature HD 2000 graphics, HD graphics (Pentium and Celeron models) or no graphics core (Graphics Clock rate indicated by N/A).

  • This list may not contain all the Sandy Bridge processors released by Intel. A more complete listing can be found on Intel's website.

Desktop platformEdit

[21][22][23]

Processor
branding and model
Cores
(threads)
CPU clock rate Graphics clock rate L3
Cache
TDP Release
date (Y-M-D)
Price
(USD)
Motherboard
Normal Turbo Normal Turbo Socket Interface Memory
Core i7
Extreme
3970X 6 (12) 3.5 GHz 4.0 GHz N/A 15 MB 150 W 2012-11-12 $999 LGA
2011
DMI 2.0
PCIe 2.0[24]
Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600[25]
3960X 3.3 GHz 3.9 GHz 130 W 2011-11-14
Core i7 3930K 3.2 GHz 3.8 GHz 12 MB $583
3820 4 (8) 3.6 GHz 10 MB 2012-02-13[26] $294
2700K 3.5 GHz 3.9 GHz 850 MHz 1350 MHz 8 MB 95 W 2011-10-24 $332 LGA
1155
DMI 2.0
PCIe 2.0
Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1333
2600K 3.4 GHz 3.8 GHz 2011-01-09 $317
2600 $294
2600S 2.8 GHz 65 W $306
Core i5 2550K 4 (4) 3.4 GHz N/A 6 MB 95 W 2012-01-30 $225
2500K 3.3 GHz 3.7 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 2011-01-09 $216
2500 $205
2500S 2.7 GHz 65 W $216
2500T 2.3 GHz 3.3 GHz 650 MHz 1250 MHz 45 W
2450P 3.2 GHz 3.5 GHz N/A 95 W 2012-01-30 $195
2400 3.1 GHz 3.4 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 2011-01-09 $184
2405S 2.5 GHz 3.3 GHz 65 W 2011-05-22 $205
2400S 2011-01-09 $195
2380P 3.1 GHz 3.4 GHz N/A 95 W 2012-01-30 $177
2320 3.0 GHz 3.3 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 2011-09-04
2310 2.9 GHz 3.2 GHz 2011-05-22
2300 2.8 GHz 3.1 GHz 2011-01-09
2390T 2 (4) 2.7 GHz 3.5 GHz 650 MHz 3 MB 35 W 2011-02-20 $195
Core i3 2120T 2.6 GHz N/A 2011-09-04 $127
2100T 2.5 GHz 2011-02-20
2115C 2.0 GHz N/A 25 W 2012-05 $241 BGA
1284
2130 3.4 GHz 850 MHz 1100 MHz 65 W 2011-09-04 $138 LGA
1155
2125 3.3 GHz $134
2120 2011-02-20 $138
2105 3.1 GHz 2011-05-22 $134
2102 Q2 2011 $127
2100 2011-02-20 $117
Pentium G870 2 (2) 2012-06-03 $86
G860 3.0 GHz 2011-09-04
G860T 2.6 GHz 650 MHz 35 W 2012-06-03 $75
G850 2.9 GHz 850 MHz 65 W 2011-05-24 $86
G840 2.8 GHz $75
G645 2.9 GHz 2012-09-03 $64 Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1066
G640 2.8 GHz 2012-06-03
G632 2.7 GHz Q3 2011
G630 2011-09-04 $75
G622 2.6 GHz Q2 2011
G620 2011-05-24 $64
G645T 2.5 GHz 650 MHz 35 W 2012-09-03
G640T 2.4 GHz 2012-06-03
G630T 2.3 GHz 2011-09-04 $70
G620T 2.2 GHz 2011-05-24
Celeron G555 2.7 GHz 850 MHz 1000 MHz 2 MB 65 W 2012-09-02 $52
G550 2.6 GHz 2012-06-03
G540 2.5 GHz 2011-09-04
G530 2.4 GHz $42
G550T 2.2 GHz 650 MHz 35 W 2012-09-02
G540T 2.1 GHz 2012-06-03
G530T 2.0 GHz 2011-09-04 $47
G470 1 (2) 1.5 MB 2013-06-09 $37 Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1333
G465 1.9 GHz 2012-09-02 Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1066
G460 1.8 GHz 2011-12-11
G440 1 (1) 1.6 GHz 1 MB 2011-09-04

Suffixes to denote:

  • K – Unlocked (adjustable CPU ratio up to 57 bins)
  • P – Versions clocked slightly higher than similar models, but with onboard-graphics deactivated
  • S – Performance-optimized lifestyle (low power with 65W TDP)
  • T – Power-optimized lifestyle (ultra low power with 35-45W TDP)
  • X – Extreme performance (adjustable CPU ratio with no ratio limit)

NOTE: 3970X, 3960X, 3930K, and 3820 are actually of Sandy Bridge-E edition.

Server platformEdit

Sandy Bridge-EP
Socket Model Cores
(threads)
L3
Cache
CPU clock rate Interface Supported
memory
TDP Release
date
Price
(USD)
Base Turbo
LGA 2011

Quad Socket

Xeon

E5

4650 8 (16) 20MB 2.7GHz 3.3GHz 2× 8.0GT/s QPI

(DMI 2.0

40× PCIe 3.0)

DDR3-1600

130W May 14, 2012 $3616
4650L 2.6GHz 3.1GHz 115W
4640 2.4GHz 2.8GHz 95W $2725
4620 16MB 2.2GHz 2.6GHz 2× 7.2GT/s QPI 4× DDR3-1333 $1611
4617 6 (6) 15MB 2.9GHz 3.4GHz 4× DDR3-1600 130W
4610 6 (12) 2.4GHz 2.9GHz 4× DDR3-1333 95W $1219
4607 12MB 2.2GHz N/A 2× 6.0GT/s QPI 4× DDR3-1066 $885
4603 4 (8) 10MB 2.0GHz $551
LGA 2011

Dual Socket

Xeon

E5

2687W 8 (16) 20MB 3.1GHz 3.8GHz 2× 8.0GT/s QPI

(DMI 2.0

40× PCIe 3.0)

4× DDR3-1600 150W March 6, 2012 $1885
2690 2.9GHz 3.8GHz 135W $2057
2680 2.7GHz 3.5GHz 130W $1723
2689 2.6GHz 3.6GHz 115W OEM
2670 3.3GHz $1552
2665 2.4GHz 3.1GHz $1440
2660 2.2GHz 3.0GHz 95W $1329
2658 2.1GHz 2.4GHz $1186
2650 2.0GHz 2.8GHz $1107
2650L 1.8GHz 2.3GHz 70W
2648L 2.1GHz $1186
2667 6 (12) 15MB 2.9GHz 3.5GHz 130W $1552
2640 2.5GHz 3.0GHz 2× 7.2GT/s QPI 4× DDR3-1333 95W $884
2630 2.3GHz 2.8GHz $612
2620 2.0GHz 2.5GHz $406
2630L 60W $662
2628L 1.8GHz N/A July 22, 2013 OEM
2643 4 (8) 10MB 3.3GHz 3.5GHz 2× 8.0GT/s QPI 4× DDR3-1600 130W March 6, 2012 $884
2637 2 (4) 5MB 3.0GHz 80W
2618L 4 (8) 10MB 1.8GHz N/A 2× 6.4GT/s QPI 4× DDR3-1333 50W July 22, 2013 OEM
2609 4 (4) 2.4GHz 4× DDR3-1066 80W March 6, 2012 $246
2603 1.8GHz $202
LGA 2011 Xeon

E5

1660 6 (12) 15MB 3.3GHz 3.9GHz No QPI

(DMI 2.0

40× PCIe 3.0)

4× DDR3-1600 130W March 6, 2012 $1080
1650 12MB 3.2GHz 3.8GHz $583
1620 4 (8) 10MB 3.6GHz $294
1607 4 (4) 3.0GHz N/A 4× DDR3-1066 $244
1603 2.8GHz $198
Sandy Bridge-EN
Socket Model Cores
(threads)
L3
Cache
CPU clock rate Interface Supported
memory
TDP Release
date
Price
(USD)
Standard Turbo
LGA 1356

Dual Socket

Xeon E5 2470 8 (16) 20MB 2.3GHz 3.1GHz QPI

DMI 2.0

24× PCI-E 3.0

3× DDR3-1600 95W May 14, 2012 $1440
2450 2.1GHz 2.9GHz $1106
2450L 1.8GHz 2.3GHz 70W
2448L 2.1GHz $1151
2449L 1.4GHz 1.8GHz 50W OEM
2440 6 (12) 15MB 2.4GHz 2.9GHz 3× DDR3-1333 95W $834
2430 2.2GHz 2.7GHz $551
2420 1.9GHz 2.4GHz $388
2430L 2.0GHz 2.5GHz 60W $662
2428L 1.8GHz 2.0GHz $628
2418L 4 (8) 10MB 2.0GHz 2.1GHz 50W $387
2407 4 (4) 2.2GHz N/A 3x DDR3-1066 80W $250
2403 1.8GHz $192
LGA 1356 1428L 6 (12) 15MB 1.8GHz 3x DDR3-1333 60W $395
1410 4 (8) 10MB 2.8GHz 3.2GHz 80W N/A
Pentium 1407 2 (2) 5MB 2.8GHz N/A 3x DDR3-1066
1403 2.6GHz
1405 1.2GHz 1.8GHz 40W 2012-08 $143
Sandy Bridge Xeon
Socket Model Cores

(threads)

CPU clock rate L3Cache Integrated Graphics Interface Supported

memory

TDP Release

date

Price

(USD)

Standard Turbo
LGA 1155 Xeon

E3

1290 4 (8) 3.6Ghz 4.0Ghz 8MB N/A No QPI

(DMI 2.0

40× PCIe 3.0)

2× DDR3-1333 95W May 29, 2011 $885
1280 3.5Ghz 3.9Ghz April 3, 2011 $612
1270 3.4Ghz 3.8Ghz 80W $328
1240 3.3Ghz 3.7Ghz $250
1230 3.2Ghz 3.6Ghz $215
1220 4 (4) 3.1Ghz 3.4Ghz $189
1220L 2 (4) 2.2Ghz 3.4Ghz 3MB 20W $189
1275 4 (8) 3.4Ghz 3.8Ghz 8MB HD Graphics P3000 95W $339
1245 3.3Ghz 3.7Ghz $262
1235 3.2Ghz 3.6Ghz $240
1225 4 (4) 3.1Ghz 3.4Ghz 6MB $194
1265L 4 (8) 2.4Ghz 3.3Ghz 8MB 45W OEM
1260L 2.4Ghz 3.3Ghz HD Graphics 2000 $294

Mobile platformEdit

Target
segment
Processor
branding and model
Cores /
threads
CPU clock rate Graphics clock rate L3
cache
TDP Release
date
Price
(USD)
Motherboard
Normal Turbo
(1C/2C/4C)
Normal Turbo Interface Socket
Extreme Core i7
Extreme
2960XM 4 (8) 2.7 GHz 3.7/3.6/3.4 GHz 650 MHz 1300 MHz 8 MB 55 W 2011-09-04 $1096 *DMI 2.0
*Memory: Up to
dual channel
DDR3-1600 MHz
*PCIe 2.0
Socket G2 /
BGA-1224 (in embedded products)[27]
2920XM 2.5 GHz 3.5/3.4/3.2 GHz 2011-01-05
Performance Core i7 2860QM 2.5 GHz 3.6/3.5/3.3 GHz 45 W 2011-09-04 $568
2820QM 2.3 GHz 3.4/3.3/3.1 GHz 2011-01-05
2760QM 2.4 GHz 3.5/3.4/3.2 GHz 6 MB 2011-09-04 $378
2720QM 2.2 GHz 3.3/3.2/3.0 GHz 2011-01-05
2715QE 2.1 GHz 3.0/2.9/2.7 GHz 1200 MHz
2710QE
2675QM 2.2 GHz 3.1/3.0/2.8 GHz 1200 MHz 2011-10-02 *DMI 2.0
*Memory: Up to
dual channel
DDR3-1333 MHz
*PCIe 2.0
2670QM 1100 MHz
2635QM 2.0 GHz 2.9/2.8/2.6 GHz 1200 MHz 2011-01-05
2630QM 1100 MHz
Mainstream 2640M 2 (4) 2.8 GHz 3.5/3.3 GHz 1300 MHz 4 MB 35 W 2011-09-04 $346 Socket G2 /
BGA-1023 (in embedded products)[27]
2620M 2.7 GHz 3.4/3.2 GHz 2011-02-20
2649M 2.3 GHz 3.2/2.9 GHz 500 MHz 1100 MHz 25 W
2629M 2.1 GHz 3.0/2.7 GHz $311
2655LE 2.2 GHz 2.9/2.7 GHz 650 MHz 1000 MHz $346
2677M 1.8 GHz 2.9/2.6 GHz 350 MHz 1200 MHz 17 W 2011-06-20 $317
2637M 1.7 GHz 2.8/2.5 GHz $289
2657M 1.6 GHz 2.7/2.4 GHz 1000 MHz 2011-02-20 $317
2617M 1.5 GHz 2.6/2.3 GHz 950 MHz $289
2610UE 2.4/2.1 GHz 850 MHz $317
Core i5 2557M 1.7 GHz 2.7/2.4 GHz 1200 MHz 3 MB 2011-06-20 $250
2537M 1.4 GHz 2.3/2.0 GHz 900 MHz 2011-02-20
2467M 1.6 GHz 2.3/2.0 GHz 1150 MHz 2011-06-19
2540M 2.6 GHz 3.3/3.1 GHz 650 MHz 1300 MHz 35 W 2011-06-20 $266
2520M 2.5 GHz 3.2/3.0 GHz $225
2515E 3.1/2.8 GHz 1100 MHz $266
2510E
2450M 1300 MHz 2012-01 $225
2435M 2.4 GHz 3.0/2.7 GHz 2011-10-02 OEM
2430M 1200 MHz $225
2410M 2.3 GHz 2.9/2.6 GHz 2011-06-20
Core i3 2370M 2.4 GHz N/A 1150 MHz 2012-01
2350M 2.3 GHz 2011-10-02
2348M 2013-01 OEM
2330E 2.2 GHz 1050 MHz 2011-06-19 $225
2330M 1100 MHz
2328M 2012-09
2312M 2.1 GHz Q2 2011 OEM
2310E 1050 MHz 2011-02-20
2310M 1100 MHz
2377M 1.5 GHz 350 MHz 1000 MHz 17 W Q3 2012 $225
2375M 2012-03
2367M 1.4 GHz 2011-10-02 $250
2365M 2012-09 $225
2357M 1.3 GHz 950 MHz 2011-06-19 OEM
2340UE 800 MHz $250
Pentium B915C 1.5 GHz N/A 15 W 2012-05 $138
997 2 (2) 1.6 GHz 350 MHz 1000 MHz 2 MB 17 W 2012-09-30 $134
987 1.5 GHz Q3 2012
977 1.4 GHz 2012-01
967 1.3 GHz 2011-10-02
957 1.2 GHz 800 MHz 2011-06-19
B980 2.4 GHz 650 MHz 1150 MHz 35 W 2012-09 $125
B970 2.3 GHz 2012-01
B960 2.2 GHz 1100 MHz 2011-10-02 $134
B950 2.1 GHz 2011-06-19
B940 2.0 GHz
Celeron B840 1.9 GHz 1000 MHz 2011-09-04 $86
B830 1.8 GHz 1050 MHz 2012-09-30
B820[28] 1.7 GHz 2012-07-29
B815[29] 1.6 GHz 2012-01
B810E 1000 MHz 2011-06-19
B810 950 MHz 2011-03-13
B800 1.5 GHz 1000 MHz 2011-06-19 $80
887 350 MHz 17 W 09-30-2012 $86
877 1.4 GHz 2012-07-29
867 1.3 GHz January 2012 $134
857 1.2 GHz 2011-07-03
847 1.1 GHz 800 MHz 2011-06-19
847E
807 1 (2) 1.5 GHz 950 MHz 1.5 MB 2012-07-29 $70
725C 1.3 GHz N/A 10 W 2012-05 $74
827E 1 (1) 1.4 GHz 350 MHz 800 MHz 17 W 2011-07-03 $107
797 950 MHz 2012-01
787 1.3 GHz 2011-07-03
B730 1.8 GHz 650 MHz 1000 MHz 35 W 2012-07-29 $70
B720[30] 1.7 GHz 2012-01
B710 1.6 GHz 2011-06-19
807UE 1.0 GHz 350 MHz 800 MHz 1 MB 10 W 2011-11 $117

Suffixes to denote:

  • M – Mobile processors
    • XM – Unlocked
    • QM – Quad-core
  • E – Embedded mobile processors
    • QE – Quad-core
    • LE – Performance-optimized
    • UE – Power-optimized

Cougar Point chipset flawEdit

On 31 January 2011, Intel issued a recall on all 67-series motherboards due to a flaw in the Cougar Point Chipset.[31] A hardware problem exists, in which the chipset's SATA II ports may fail over time, causing failure of connection to SATA devices, though data is not at risk.[32] Intel claims that this problem will affect only 5% of users over 3 years; however, heavier I/O workloads can exacerbate the problem.

Intel stopped production of flawed B2 stepping chipsets and began producing B3 stepping chipsets with the silicon fix. Shipping of these new chipsets started on 14 February 2011 and Intel estimated full recovery volume in April 2011.[33] Motherboard manufacturers (such as ASUS and Gigabyte Technology) and computer manufacturers (such as Dell and Hewlett-Packard) stopped selling products that involved the flawed chipset and offered support for affected customers. Options ranged from swapping for B3 motherboards to product refunds.[34][35]

Sandy Bridge processor sales were temporarily on hold, as one cannot use the CPU without a motherboard. However, processor release dates were not affected.[36] After two weeks, Intel continued shipping some chipsets, but manufacturers had to agree to a set of terms that will prevent customers from encountering the bug.[37]

LimitationsEdit

OverclockingEdit

With Sandy Bridge, Intel has tied the speed of every bus (USB, SATA, PCI, PCI-E, CPU cores, Uncore, memory etc.) to a single internal clock generator issuing the basic 100 MHz Base Clock (BClk).[38] With CPUs being multiplier locked, the only way to overclock is to increase the BClk, which can be raised by only 5–7% without other hardware components failing. As a work around, Intel made available K/X-series processors, which feature unlocked multipliers; with a multiplier cap of 57 for Sandy Bridge.[39] For the Sandy Bridge-E platform, there is alternative method known as the BClk ratio overclock.[40]

During IDF (Intel Developer Forum) 2010, Intel demonstrated an unknown Sandy Bridge CPU running stably overclocked at 4.9 GHz on air cooling.[41][42]

ChipsetEdit

Non-K edition CPUs can overclock up to four bins from its turbo multiplier. Refer here for chipset support.

vPro remote-controlEdit

Sandy and Ivy Bridge processors with vPro capability have security features that can remotely disable a PC or erase information from hard drives. This can be useful in the case of a lost or stolen PC. The commands can be received through 3G signals, Ethernet, or Internet connections. AES encryption acceleration will be available, which can be useful for video conferencing and VoIP applications.[43][44]

Intel InsiderEdit

Sandy and Ivy Bridge processors contain a DRM technology that some video streaming web sites rely on to restrict use of their content. Such web sites offer 1080p streaming to users with such CPUs and downgrade the quality for other users.[45]

Software development kitEdit

With the introduction of the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture, Intel also introduced the Intel Data Plane Development Kit (Intel DPDK) to help developers of communications applications take advantage of the platform in packet processing applications, and network processors.[46]

RoadmapEdit

Intel demonstrated the Haswell architecture in September 2011, released in 2013 as the successor to Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge.[47]

FixesEdit

Microsoft has released a microcode update for selected Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge CPUs for Windows 7 and up that addresses stability issues. The update, however, negatively impacts Intel G3258 and 4010U CPU models.[48][49][50]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shvets, Gennadiy (September 26, 2012). "Intel discontinues second-generation Core i5 and i7 CPUs". CPU World. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
  2. ^ "The Man Behind 'Sandy Bridge'". December 28, 2010. Archived from the original on December 2, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  3. ^ Brooke Crothers (December 15, 2010). "CES: First Intel next-gen laptops will be quad core". The Circuits Blog. CNET.com. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  4. ^ Anand Lal Shimpi (September 22, 2009). "IDF 2009 – Intel Shows off 22nm & 32nm, Sandy Bridge Demoed". AnandTech. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  5. ^ http://www.hotchips.org/wp-content/uploads/hc_archives/hc23/HC23.19.9-Desktop-CPUs/HC23.19.921.SandyBridge_Power_10-Rotem-Intel.pdf
  6. ^ Chris Angelini. "The System Agent And Turbo Boost 2.0". Tom's Hardware.
  7. ^ "Intel Turbo Boost Technology 2.0". Intel.
  8. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand (October 12, 2011). "The Bulldozer Review: AMD FX-8150 Tested". Anandtech.
  9. ^ "Intel's Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture". RealWorldTech.com.
  10. ^ "Intel's Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture". RealWorldTech.com.
  11. ^ "Intel's Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture". RealWorldTech.com.
  12. ^ "Intel's Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture". RealWorldTech.com.
  13. ^ "Intel's Sandy Bridge Microarchitecture". RealWorldTech.com.
  14. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand (2012-10-05). "Intel's Haswell Architecture Analyzed". AnandTech. Retrieved 2013-10-20.
  15. ^ "Sandy Bridge (client) - Microarchitectures - Intel - WikiChip". en.wikichip.org. Retrieved 2021-02-09.
  16. ^ "Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Optimization Reference Manual". Intel.com. Intel. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
  17. ^ "Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Optimization Reference Manual" (PDF). Intel.com. Intel. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
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