Sinatruces of Parthia

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Sinatruces (also spelled Sinatrukes or Sanatruces) was king of the Parthian Empire from ca. 78/7 (or 75/4) to 70/69 BC.[a] He was presumably a son of the Parthian ruler Mithridates I (r. 171–132 BC). Sinatruces was succeeded by his son Phraates III.

Sinatruces
Great King
Coin of Sinatruces, Ray mint (2).jpg
Coin of Sinatruces, Ray mint
King of the Parthian Empire
Reign78/7 (or 75/4) – 70/69 BC
PredecessorOrodes I
SuccessorPhraates III
Bornc. 158 BC
Died70/69 BC (aged 89–90)
IssuePhraates III
DynastyArsacid dynasty
FatherMithridates I (?)
ReligionZoroastrianism

ReignEdit

The Parthian Empire had since the death of Mithridates II (r. 124–88 BC) fallen into a state of turmoil and decline; the authority of the crown had decreased, while the empire lost lands to its neighbours.[2] Sinatruces, who originally resided amongst the Saka of Central Asia, took advantage of the chaotic situation in the empire, and with the aid of the Saka captured Parthian throne at in 78/7 (or 75/4) BC, at the age of eighty.[3] The name of the Arsacid branch established by Sinatruces on the Parthian throne has been coined by the modern historian Marek Jan Olbrycht as the "Sinatrucids", which ruled the Parthian Empire till 12 AD.[4] The Sinatrucid family was notably supported by the Suren clan of Sakastan.[5]

During Sinatruces' reign, the Artaxiad king of Armenia, Tigranes the Great (r. 95–55 BC), took advantage of the weakness of the Parthians, and retook the "seventy valleys" he had previously ceded to Mithridates II, and also went to conquer the Parthian domains of Media Atropatene, Gordyene, Adiabene, Osroene, and northern Mesopotamia.[6] Tigranes had also made campaigns into other kingdoms, adding Syria, Cilicia and Coele-Syria to his vast kingdom.[7]

Sinatruces died in 70/69 BC and was succeeded by his son Phraates III.[8] The modern historian Saghi Gazerani has come up with the hypothesis that the story of the legendary Iranian monarch Zav Tahmasp includes echoes of the life of Sinatruces.[9]

CoinageEdit

On the observe of his coins, Sinatruces is portrayed with a tiara decorated with a line of stags.[10]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to Assar (2006, pp. 52–53), Sinatruces reigned twice, from 93/2 to 88/7 BC, and then from 77/6 to 70/69 BC. However, this is not supported by other scholars, who state that Sinatruces only reigned once during the 70s BC.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kia 2016, p. 195; Dąbrowa 2012, p. 169; Olbrycht 2016, pp. 23–24; Shayegan 2011, p. 235; Curtis 2012, p. 69; Simonetta 2001, p. 86
  2. ^ Dąbrowa 2012, p. 171.
  3. ^ Olbrycht 2015, pp. 362–363; Olbrycht 2016, pp. 23–24; Shayegan 2011, p. 235
  4. ^ Olbrycht 2016, p. 3.
  5. ^ Gazerani 2015, p. 20.
  6. ^ Garsoian 2005; Shayegan 2011, pp. 245, 320; Dąbrowa 2012, p. 171
  7. ^ Shayegan 2011, p. 316.
  8. ^ Kia 2016, p. 195; Dąbrowa 2012, p. 169; Olbrycht 2015, p. 363; Shayegan 2011, p. 235
  9. ^ Gazerani 2015, pp. 87–88.
  10. ^ Olbrycht 2015, p. 363.

SourcesEdit

Sinatruces of Parthia
Preceded by
Orodes I
King of the Parthian Empire
78/7 (or 75/4) – 70/69 BC
Succeeded by
Phraates III