Sanandaj (Persian: سنندج, pronounced [sænænˈdædʒ] (listen); Kurdish: سنە, romanized: Sine; Southern Kurdish pronunciation: [səˈna] (listen), often romanized as Senneh,[3] previously known as Senah Dezh (meaning; Land of Eagles) [4][5][6] is the capital of Kurdistan Province in Iran. With a population of 414,069,[7] Sanandaj is the twenty third largest city in Iran and the second largest Kurdish city. Sanandaj's founding is fairly recent, (about 250 years ago), yet under its short existence it has grown to become one of the centers of Kurdish culture.[8][9] During the Iraq-Iran War the city was attacked by Iraqi planes and saw disturbances.[10] From 2019 UNESCO has recognized Sineh (Sanandaj) as Creative City of Music.[11]

Sanandaj
سنە / Sine  (Kurdish)
City
Sanandaj from Abidar.jpg
Official seal of Sanandaj
Sanandaj is located in Iran
Sanandaj
Sanandaj
Coordinates: 35°18′52″N 46°59′32″E / 35.31444°N 46.99222°E / 35.31444; 46.99222Coordinates: 35°18′52″N 46°59′32″E / 35.31444°N 46.99222°E / 35.31444; 46.99222
Country Iran
ProvinceKurdistan
CountySanandaj
BakhshCentral
Government
 • MayorSeyed Anwar Rashidi[1]
Area
 • City3,033 km2 (1,171 sq mi)
Elevation
1,538 m (5,046 ft)
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
412,767 [2]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Area code(s)087
ClimateCsa
Websitee-sanandaj.ir
Sanandaj city center
Sanandaj Zagros Town.jpg

NameEdit

The city of Sanandaj was originally called Saneh, and because it was located near an important castle it was later called Sanehdaj, meaning castle at the foot of a mountain. This presumably turned into Sanandaj over time.[12]

PeopleEdit

The population of Sanandaj is mainly Kurdish. The city also had an Armenian minority who gradually emigrated from the city. Until the Iranian Revolution (1979), the city had a small Aramaic-speaking Jewish community of about 4,000 people.[8] The city boasted a sizable Assyrian community that spoke a unique dialect of Aramaic called Senaya, they are mostly members of the Chaldean Catholic Church.[13] The economy of Sanandaj is based upon the production of carpets, processed hides and skins, milled rice, refined sugar, woodworking, cotton weaving, metalware and cutlery.[14][15]

Most of the people of Sanandaj follow the Shafi‘i branch of Sunni Islam.[16][17]

LanguageEdit

The linguistic composition of the city:[18]

Sanandaj linguistic composition
Language percent
Central Kurdish
86%
Hawrami
7%
New Persian
4.95%
Southern Kurdish
2%
Aramaic
0.05%

ClimateEdit

Sanandaj has a humid continental climate (Dsa) according to the Köppen climate classification with cold and wet winters and hot and dry summers.

Climate data for Sanandaj
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
6.9
(44.4)
13.1
(55.6)
19.1
(66.4)
25.2
(77.4)
32.3
(90.1)
36.8
(98.2)
36.1
(97.0)
31.6
(88.9)
23.9
(75.0)
15.6
(60.1)
8.5
(47.3)
21.2
(70.1)
Average low °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
0.1
(32.2)
4.5
(40.1)
8.2
(46.8)
12.2
(54.0)
17.1
(62.8)
16.4
(61.5)
10.4
(50.7)
5.8
(42.4)
1.1
(34.0)
−3
(27)
5.1
(41.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 71.8
(2.83)
67.7
(2.67)
86.9
(3.42)
73.1
(2.88)
42.5
(1.67)
1.8
(0.07)
0.4
(0.02)
0.7
(0.03)
0.8
(0.03)
29.2
(1.15)
57.3
(2.26)
58.4
(2.30)
490.6
(19.33)
Average precipitation days 12.4 12.0 13.3 12.0 9.0 1.0 0.3 1.0 0.8 5.8 8.2 10.9 86.7
Source: World Meteorological Organisation

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "سید انور رشیدی شهردار سنندج". IRNA. Retrieved 27 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home".
  3. ^ Senneh rug
  4. ^ "دانشگاه کردستان | اولین کنفرانس بین المللی گردشگری و توسعه: چالش ها و راهبردها | City of Sanandaj".
  5. ^ https://conf.uok.ac.ir/_JiroConference/Files/Conference/21/Common/ContentPage/Visit%20these%20attractions%20in%20Kurdistan.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  6. ^ "Weather in Sanandij - accurate and detailed weather forecast in Sanandij for today, tomorrow and week. Sanandij, Kordestan, Islamic Republic of Iran".
  7. ^ "آمار جمعیتی شهرستان سنندج :: فرمانداری سنندج".
  8. ^ a b Geoffrey Khan, The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sanandaj, Piscataway NJ: Gorgias Press, p. 1.
  9. ^ Sanandaj Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 16 July 2014.
  10. ^ "Sanandaj | Iran | Britannica".
  11. ^ "Sanandaj one-year anniversary as a UNESCO Creative City of Music | Creative Cities Network". en.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020.
  12. ^ حدیدی، عبدالعلی. «سنندج». در دانشنامه جهان اسلام. 21/10/1387. بازبینی‌شده در 2012-07-20.
  13. ^ Khan, Geoffrey (2009). The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sanandaj. Gorgias Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-60724-134-8.
  14. ^ "کردستان از نظر نرخ بیکاری در جایگاه دوم کشور قرار گرفت". yjc.ir. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  15. ^ "سرمایه‌گذاری در صنعت و معدن کردستان، 4 برابر کمتر از متوسط کشوری است". sanayenews.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  16. ^ "Intelligence Ministry "Invites" Rouhani Campaign Manager to Stop Advocating for Sunni Muslim Rights". 17 November 2017.
  17. ^ BC.Diakonoff, I. M. (1985), "Media", The Cambridge History of Iran, 2 (Edited by Ilya Gershevitch ed.), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-20091-2
  18. ^ "Language distribution: Kordestan Province". Iran Atlas. Retrieved 25 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

SourcesEdit

  • Yamaguchi, Akihiko (2021). "The Kurdish frontier under the Safavids". In Matthee, Rudi (ed.). The Safavid World. Routledge. pp. 556–571.

External linksEdit