Samuel Eusebius McCorkle
Samuel Eusebius McCorkle (August 23, 1746 – January 21, 1811) was a pioneer Presbyterian preacher, teacher, advocate for public and private education in North Carolina, and the interceptor and progenitor of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who first promoted the idea of establishing a university in the state.
Samuel Eusebius McCorkle
|Born||23 August 1746|
Harris's Ferry Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
|Died||21 January 1811 (aged 64)|
Millbridge, Rowan County, North Carolina
|Resting place||Thyatira Church Cemetery, Salisbury, Rowan County, North Carolina|
|Nationality||(prior to 1776) Kingdom of Great Britain; (after 1776) USA|
|Spouse||Margaret Gillespie McCorkle|
|Alma mater||College of New Jersey, present day Princeton University|
|Known for||private and public education advocate in North Carolina, USA|
|Church||Thyatira Presbyterian Church|
Samuel Eusebius McCorkle was born on August 23, 1746, the eldest child of ten in the family of Alexander McCorkle and Agness Margaret "Nancy" Montgomery McCorkle near Harris's Ferry (present day Harrisburg) in Lancaster County in the Province of Pennsylvania. Both of his parents were born in Ulster in the families of Scottish Presbyterian descent. They were brought to American during the wave of Scotch-Irish migration in the early 18th century. Samuel's parents took great care in naming him: Samuel for a prophet of God and Eusebius for an early Greek Church historian. At the age of four Samuel was put into an English public school where he learned how to read, write, cipher, and recite Bible verses. This education, very typical of the times, could be summed up at the five R's - Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic, self-Restraint, and Religion. Samuel's schooling continued for five years, till he was nine.
In 1756 McCorkles followed the Great Wagon Trail to North Carolina where they bought Messauge Tenement Plantation. The tract of land lay on Back Creek, in the vicinity of present day Mount Ulla near the border of Rowan and Iredell Counties west of Salisbury, North Carolina. There were no schools on the frontier, hence Samuel's schooling was briefly interrupted. During this time he became a very young teacher to his siblings - an experience that would chart the course for the rest of his life. On Sabbath McCorkles would travel a distance to Cathy's Meeting House (present day Thyatira Presbyterian Church), a substantial log church in the vicinity of Mill Bridge. Sermons were red by the elders of the church with an occasional visit from travelling ministers.
In 1760 Crowfield Academy opened in Rowan County (present day Iredell County. Samuel went to Crowfield for a year or two in 1764-65. Around 1766-67 Samuel became one of the first students in the of Dr.David Caldwell's Log College, a theological and classical school for young men. The period of study under Dr.Caldwell had a profound influence on Samuel McCorkle in both religious and scholarly ways.
College of New Jersey (Princeton) YearsEdit
After completing the studies under Dr.CaIdwell, Samuel McCorkle left Rowan County in 1768 to study for the ministry at the College of New Jersey (present day Princeton). The same year John Witherspoon, an influential figure in the development of the United States' national character and forging future religious and civic leaders, became the president of the College of New Jersey.
The influence of John Witherspoon upon the lifelong education of Samuel McCorkle was direct and pervasive. Many of the ideas which Witherspoon articulated in his writings and lectures later appeared in the sermons of Samuel McCorkle. The favorite words of Witherspoon~dignity, diligence, true religion, Zion, and piety~became an integral part of McCorkle's vocabulary.— William R. Enger, "Sameul Eusebius McCorkle: North Carolina Educator" (1973)
McCorkle was admitted to membership in Cliosophic Society, a literary and debating club at the College of New Jersey, where he was known under the fictitious name "Virgil". Membership in the society made him a principle target in the "Paper War" of 1771-1772 - a literary battle of polemics in doggerel, hudibrastic, and prose- from the rival Whig Society members Hugh Henry Brackenridge, Philip Freneau, and James Madison. Frequent references to the humble origins of the Cliosophians - the manual labors, the poverty, the piety - indicate there may have been a social class distinction between the two societies.
Samuel McCorkle graduated from the College of New Jersey (Princeton) with a Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) degree in 1772.
McCorkle was influenced by revival in the spring of 1772 at Princeton and McCorkle began to study for the ministry under his uncle, the Reverend Joseph Montgomery, his mother's brother.
Marriage and ChildrenEdit
On July 2, 1776 Samuel McCorkle married Margaret Gillespie, the daughter of Robert and Elizabeth Gillespie (later Steele in second marriage), a prominent Salisbury, N.C. family. They had eight children, six of which lived into adulthood: one son, Alexander "Sandy", and five daughters, Nancy, Elizabeth, Sophia, Peggy, and Harriet.
University of North CarolinaEdit
Samuel McCorkle spearheaded the founding of a university in North Carolina. A university historian Kemp Battle acknowledged McCorkle as "one of the best friends the University had; worked for it, begged for it; preached for it". After the first constitution of the state of North Carolina was adopted in 1776 after the United States declared its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, work began to establish the independent state of North Carolina. Article 41 of North Carolina Constitution set forth to establish affordable schools and universities for the instruction of the young people in the state. Samuel McCorkle made the first attempt to implement article 41. In November 1784 he introduced a bill the North Carolina General Assembly to establish a state university. The bill was rejected due to financial restraints and political turmoil. In 1789 McCorkle became an original trustee of the insitution, the only one who was a clergyman and who had taught. McCorkle procured $42 from Thyatira congregation when an appeal for subscriptions for the foundation of the university was announced. It was the only congregational contribution made in the early history of the university.
McCorkle wrote the first university by-laws that were sent to a committee, amended and adopted in 1795.
In 1793 McCorkle started advertising a new academy that would prepare men for future university study. The school was to open within Thyatira congregation and enroll ten students. In January 1794 the academy named Zion-Parnassus began teaching students. McCorkle chose the name to signify the importance of both religious and classical education. Zion referred to a hill in Jerusalem and symbolized the heights of religion. Parnassus was a mountain in Greece, home to a god of truth, prophecy, and music Apollo and his companion goddesses of literature, science, and the arts - the Muses. The academy was modeled on the school of Dr.David Caldwell where McCorkle received his classical education. Students were housed in the neighborhood. The instruction would be in basic languages and science, using such instruments as globes, a barometer, a thermometer, a microscope, prismatic glass, and surveying instruments. McCorkle was a pioneer in introducing such innovations as asagriculture and laboratory method in science into a school curriculum.
In 1787 McCorkle requested and received a collection of books on teaching and pedagogy from Germany that allowed him to introduce teacher training at Thyatira Church. Zion-Parnassus was well known for its normal department, which was the first attempt at teacher-training in North Carolina and one of the first in this country, and for its assistance with tuition and books to worthy students. The school maintained a high order of scholarship and had an extensive influence. Six of the seven members of the first graduating class of the University of North Carolina in 1798 received their college preparation in this academy. Forty-five of his students entered the ministry, others became lawyers, judges, and officers of the state.
Philosophical and Religious ViewsEdit
Samuel Eusibius McCorkle was a moderate Calvinist who valued religious and classical education. During the course of his life he worked to bridge the gap between the Olde and New Side within the Presbyterian Church in Colonial America. Half of McCorkle's published sermons addressed the problems of church division and deism.
Samuel McCorkle possessed an impressive and admirable collection of books for back country frontier settlement when books were expensive, minister's salary small, and books were very hard to procure.
Authors and books in McCorkle Library
On theology: Calvin, Turretin, Stackhouse, Stillingfleet and Owen ; in church history, as Owen, Shuckford, Prideaux, and Mosheim (in Latin); on law and civil government, as Puffendorf, Burlemaqui, Montesquieu, and Blackstone, besides the Universal History, Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- F. G. Resewitz's Education for Citizenship
- J. C. F. Rist's Suggestions for School Teachers of the Lower Grades
- F. A. Wiedeburg's Fundamental Principles, Plan, Discipline, and Teaching Methods for the Ducal Institute of Pedagogy at Helmstaedt
- J. H. Campe's Elementary Psychology for Children
- G. F. Seller's Book of School Methods
- J. B. Basedow's Elementary Work
- Characterization of Educational Works in Germany
- The Magazine for Philology and Pedagogy for 1791, edited by Wiedeburg.
- A Sermon for the Anniversary of American Independence, July 24, 1786
- A Sermon on the Law of God Delivered at Superior Court in Salisbury, September 20, 1789
- "A Sermon: The Creation of Man; Prepared for Society at Hopewell, January 6, 1790
- A Sermon of Sacrifices (1792)
- A Charity Sermon (1793)
- A Sermon preached at the laying of the corner-stone of the University of North Carolina (1793)
- A National Thanksgiving Sermon, titled "The comparative happiness and duty of the United States of America, contrasted with other nations, particularly the Israelites" (1795)
- Four Discourses on the great first principles of Deism and Revelation, contrasted (1797)
- A Discourse, on Doctrine and Duty of Keeping the Sabbath (1798)
- A National Fast Sermon, titled "The work of God for the French Republick, and then her reformation and ruin; or, the novel and useful experiment of national deism, to us and all future ages (1798)
- Three Discourses on the Terms of Christian Communion (1798)
- The Angel's seal, set upon God's faithful servants, when hurtful winds are blowing in the Church militant
- The crime and curse of plundering. A sermon
- A Sermon from Deuteronomy
- Sermon on "The Death of General Washington"
McCorkle Place, a green square on campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, is named after Samuel Eusebius McCorkle in recognition of his efforts to establish the university. However there are no interpretative markers to education the public about the contribution of McCorkle to promote education in the state. McCorkle place is considered to be one of the most beautiful places in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Two UNC landmarks are located at McCorkle Place - the iconic symbol of the university, a neoclassical rotunda, nicknamed the Old Well, and an over 300-year-old tulip poplar tree, Davie Poplar.
- Powell, William (1979–1996). "Samuel Eusebius McCorkle, 23 Aug. 1746-21 Jan. 1811". Documenting the American South. Retrieved November 21, 2018.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
- Hurley, James F.; Eagan, Julia Goode (1934). The prophet of Zion-Parnassus, Samuel Eusebius McCorkle. Richmond: Presbyterian Committee of Publication.
- Enger, William R. (1973). "Samuel Eusebius McCorkle: North Carolina Educator" (PDF). Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- Harrison, Richard A. (1980). Princetonians, 1769-1775: A Biographical Dictionary. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 248. ISBN 9780691615387.
- National Historical Publications and Records Commission (n.d.). "Collegiate Doggerel, [June 1771–April 1772]". Founders Online. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- Beam, Jacob N. (1933). The American Whig society of Princeton university. Princeton, New Jersey: The Society.
- Battle, Kemp (1907). History of the University of North Carolina. Raleigh, North Carolina: Edwards & Broughton Printing Company.
- Lindemann, Erika (n.d.). "1795-1819: The Establishment of the University". Documenting the American South. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
- Henderson, Archibald (1941). North Carolina, the Old north state and the new. 1. Chicago: The Lewis publishing company.
- Knight, Edgar (1919). "The Academy Movement in the South". The High School Journal. University of North Carolina Press. 2 (7): 199–204. JSTOR 40360956.
- Taylor, Thomas (Winter 1985). "Samuel E. McCorkle and a Christian Republic, 1792-1802". American Presbyterians. Presbyterian Historical Society. 63 (4): 375–385. JSTOR 23330448.
- "McCorkle Place". UNC The Graduate School. n.d. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- "McCorkle Place". The Chancellor’s Task Force on the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill History. n.d. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
- "Samuel E.McCorkle". North Carolina Highway Historical Marker Program. n.d. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
Enger, William Randolph. (1973). Samuel Eusebius McCorkle: North Carolina Educator. Oklahoma State University.
Hurley, James F.; Eagan, Julia Good. (1934). The prophet of Zion-Parnassus, Samuel Eusibius McCorkle. Richmond, Published for the authors by Presbyterian Committee of Publication.