|Alternative names||Salmiak, salmiakki|
|Place of origin||Finland|
|Region or state||Scandinavia|
|Serving temperature||Room Temp|
|Main ingredients||Liquorice, ammonium chloride|
|Cookbook: Salty liquorice Media: Salty liquorice|
Salty liquorice, also known as salmiak or salmiakki (in Finland), is a variety of liquorice flavoured with ammonium chloride, common in the Nordic countries, the Netherlands, and northern Germany. Ammonium chloride gives salty liquorice an astringent, salty taste (hence the name), which has been described as "tongue-numbing" and "almost-stinging". Salty liquorice is an acquired taste and people not familiar with ammonium chloride might find the taste physically overwhelming and unlikeable. Salty liquorice candies are almost always black or very dark brown and can range from very soft to very hard and may be brittle. The other colours used are white and variants of grey. Salty liquorice is also used as a flavouring in other products, such as ice creams and alcoholic beverages.
The words salmiak and salmiakki are derived from an archaic Latin name for ammonium chloride, sal ammoniacus, meaning "salt of Ammon". "Ammon" in turn refers to the temple of Ammon at Siwa Oasis, where ancient Greeks found ammonium chloride. The word ammonia has the same origin. Ammonium chloride has a history of being used as a cough medicine, as it works as an expectorant. Finnish author Jukka Annala speculates that salty liquorice has its origins at drug stores that manufactured their own cough medicine. Where and when ammonium chloride and liquorice were first combined to produce salty liquorice is unclear, but by the 1930s it was produced in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands as a candy.
Different languages often refer to salty liquorice as either "salmiac liquorice" (such as salmiaklakrits in Swedish, or salmiaklakrids in Danish), or simply "salty liquorice". The Dutch refer to it as "Zoute Drop" or even a variety called "Dubbel Zoute Drop" (double salted liquorice). In addition to ammonium chloride, salty liquorice candies are sometimes flavoured with other strong flavours like table salt. A common shape for salty liquorice candies is a black diamond-shaped lozenge.
The strength of the confectionery depends on the amount of ammonium chloride used, which varies by country and what's considered a safe amount. In Sweden for example, the most popular types of salty liquorice contain an average of 7% of ammonium chloride. In 2012 there was a European Union proposal to limit the amount to 0.3%, which was met with wide opposition.  Although the European Union now regulate the use of ammonium chloride to 0.3% in most foodstuffs, there is no specific restriction for it in liquorice or ice cream.
- Christine S. (8 August 2011). "In Salmiak Territory". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Salammoniac: Salammoniac mineral information and data". Mindat.org. Hudson Institute of Mineralogy.
- Gategaeo Itkonen (25 February 2010). "Culinary stink bomb". Helsinki Times. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Ritva Korpimo (16 March 2005). "Mämmi Maestro". Helsingin Sanomat. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012.
- Benjamin M. Mills. "A-Level Textbooks: Section 13.8 Amines and amides". Archived from the original on 26 May 2012.
- "Winter Hazards". Hennepin County Medical Center. 2004. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012.
- "Mistä johtuu, että salmiakki on herkkua vain Pohjoismaissa?". Kysy.fi (in Finnish). Helsinki City Library. 17 October 2008.
- "Minun kuuluisi tehdä esitelmä Ranskassa salmiakista, enkä ole löytänyt tietoja...". Kysy.fi (in Finnish). Helsinki City Library. 25 October 2008.
- Oskar Forsberg (12 October 2012). "Saltlakritsen räddad efter beslut i EU" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet.
- "Commission implementing regulation (EU) No 872/2012 of 1 October 2012 adopting the list of flavouring substances provided for by Regulation (EC) No 2232/96 of the European Parliament and of the Council". Official Journal of the European Union. L267. 2 October 2012.
In category 5 [confectionery] – quantum satis
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Salmiak candy.|
- The Finnish Salmiakki Association (in Finnish)
- Descriptions and reviews of many Danish liquorice products (in Danish)
- Mark Bosworth (4 October 2013). "Salty liquorice: The not-so-sweet sweet". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2013.