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A salted bomb is a nuclear weapon designed to function as a radiological weapon, producing enhanced quantities of radioactive fallout, rendering a large area uninhabitable.[1] The term is derived both from the means of their manufacture, which involves the incorporation of additional elements to a standard atomic weapon, and from the expression "to salt the earth", meaning to render an area uninhabitable for generations. The idea originated with Hungarian-American physicist Leo Szilard, in February 1950. His intent was not to propose that such a weapon be built, but to show that nuclear weapon technology would soon reach the point where it could end human life on Earth.[1][2] No intentionally salted bomb has ever been atmospherically tested, and as far as is publicly known, none have ever been built.[1] However, the UK tested a 1 kiloton bomb incorporating a small amount of cobalt as an experimental radiochemical tracer at their Tadje testing site in Maralinga range, Australia, on September 14, 1957.[3] The triple "taiga" nuclear salvo test, as part of the preliminary March 1971 Pechora–Kama Canal project, produced substantial amounts of Co-60, with this fusion generated neutron activation product being responsible for about half of the gamma dose now (2011) at the test site.[4][5]

A salted bomb should not be confused with a dirty bomb, which is an ordinary explosive bomb containing radioactive material which is spread over the area when the bomb explodes. A salted bomb is able to contaminate a much larger area than a dirty bomb.

Contents

DesignEdit

Salted versions of both fission and fusion weapons can be made by surrounding the core of the explosive device with a material containing an element that can be converted to a highly radioactive isotope by neutron bombardment.[1] When the bomb explodes, the element absorbs neutrons released by the nuclear reaction, converting it to its radioactive form. The explosion scatters the resulting radioactive material over a wide area, leaving it uninhabitable far longer than an area affected by typical nuclear weapons. In a salted hydrogen bomb, the radiation case around the fusion fuel, which normally is made of some fissionable element, is replaced with a metallic salting element. Salted fission bombs can be made by replacing the neutron reflector between the fissionable core and the explosive layer with a metallic element. The energy yield from a salted weapon is usually lower than from an ordinary weapon of similar size as a consequence of these changes.

The radioactive isotope used for the fallout material would be a high intensity gamma ray emitter, with a half-life long enough that it remains lethal for an extended period. It would also have to have a chemistry that causes it to return to earth as fallout, rather than stay in the atmosphere after being vaporized in the explosion. Another consideration is biological: radioactive isotopes of elements normally taken up by animals as nutrition would pose a special threat to organisms that absorbed them, as their radiation would be delivered from within the body of the organism.

One example of a possible salted bomb would be a cobalt bomb, which would produce the radioactive isotope cobalt-60 (60Co). Other radioactive isotopes that have been suggested for salted bombs include gold-198 (198Au), tantalum-182 (182Ta) and zinc-65 (65Zn).[2] Sodium-24 has also been proposed as a salting agent.[6]

In popular cultureEdit

This concept is best known from the Soviet "Doomsday Machine" in the 1964 satirical Cold War film Dr. Strangelove. In the 1957 novel On the Beach by Nevil Shute, the death of all humanity is brought about by the detonation of cobalt bombs in the Northern Hemisphere. In the 1964 James Bond film Goldfinger, the villain's plan is to detonate a “particularly dirty” atomic device, salted with cobalt and iodine inside the United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox, thereby rendering the U.S.’s gold reserves radioactive for almost six decades. The 1970s movie Beneath the Planet of the Apes featured an atomic bomb that was hypothesized to use a cobalt casing. The use of a salted bomb is a component to the plot of Frank Miller's graphic novel series The Dark Knight Returns and 2008 TV programme Ultimate Force Slow Bomb episode. Also, in the ABC show The Whispers season 1 episode 5, a "salted bomb" was referred to as a nuclear bomb laced with Arsenic, also known as "A.S. 33". The final level of Metro Exodus takes place in the city of Novosibirsk, which the main characters surmise was devastated by a nuclear device salted with cadmium, based on the lack of physical damage to the city yet massive levels of radioactive contamination.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Bhushan, K.; G. Katyal (2002). Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare. India: APH Publishing. pp. 75–77. ISBN 81-7648-312-5.
  2. ^ a b Sublette, Carey (July 2007). "Types of nuclear weapons". FAQ. nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  3. ^ "British Nuclear Testing".
  4. ^ Ramzaev, V. (2011). "Radiological investigations at the "Taiga" nuclear explosion site: Site description and in situ measurements". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 102: 672–680. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.04.003.
  5. ^ Ramzaev, V. (2012). "Radiological investigations at the "Taiga" nuclear explosion site, part II: man-made γ-ray emitting radionuclides in the ground and the resultant kerma rate in air". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 109: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.12.009.
  6. ^ "Science: fy for Doomsday". Time. November 24, 1961.