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Saint Valentine (Italian: San Valentino, Latin: Valentinus), officially Saint Valentine of Rome,[3] was a widely recognized 3rd-century Roman saint, commemorated in Christianity on February 14 and since the High Middle Ages is associated with a tradition of courtly love.

Saint Valentine
Saint Valentine - facial reconstruction.jpg
3D facial resconstruction[1] of Saint Valentine
Bishop and Christian Martyr
BornAD 226
Terni
Died14 February 269[2]
Rome
Venerated inCatholic Church,
Anglican Communion,
Eastern Orthodox Church,
Lutheranism
FeastFebruary 14 (Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran Churches)
July 6 and July 30 (Eastern Orthodox)
AttributesBirds; roses; bishop with a cripple or a child with epilepsy at his feet; bishop with a rooster nearby; bishop refusing to adore an idol; bishop being beheaded; priest bearing a sword; priest holding a sun; priest giving sight to a blind girl[2]
PatronageAffianced couples, against fainting, beekeepers, happy marriages, love, plague, epilepsy[2]

Saint Valentine of Rome was a priest and bishop in the Roman Empire who ministered to persecuted Christians.[4] He was martyred and his body buried at a Christian cemetery on the Via Flaminia close to the Ponte Milvio to the north of Rome, on February 14, which has been observed as the Feast of Saint Valentine (Saint Valentine's Day) since 496 AD. Relics of him were kept in the Church and Catacombs of San Valentino in Rome, which "remained an important pilgrim site throughout the Middle Ages until the relics of St. Valentine were transferred to the church of Santa Prassede during the pontificate of Nicholas IV".[5] His skull, crowned with flowers, is exhibited in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome; other relics of him were taken to Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland, where they remain; this house of worship continues to be a popular place of pilgrimage, especially on Saint Valentine's Day, for those seeking love.[6][7] For Saint Valentine of Rome, along with Saint Valentine of Terni, "abstracts of the acts of the two saints were in nearly every church and monastery of Europe", according to Professor Jack B. Oruch of the University of Kansas.[8]

Saint Valentine is commemorated in the Anglican Communion[9] and the Lutheran Churches on February 14.[10] In the Eastern Orthodox Church, he is recognized on July 6; in addition, the Eastern Orthodox Church observes the feast of Hieromartyr Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, on July 30.[11][12] In 1969, the Roman Catholic Church removed his name from the General Roman Calendar, leaving his liturgical celebration to local calendars, though use of the pre-1970 liturgical calendar is also authorized under the conditions indicated in the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum of 2007.[13] The Roman Catholic Church continues to recognize him as a saint, listing him as such in the February 14 entry in the Roman Martyrology,[14] and authorizing liturgical veneration of him on February 14 in any place where that day is not devoted to some other obligatory celebration, in accordance with the rule that on such a day the Mass may be that of any saint listed in the Martyrology for that day.[15]

Contents

IdentificationEdit

Saint Valentine does not occur in the earliest list of Roman martyrs, the Chronography of 354, although the patron of the Chronography's compilation was a wealthy Roman Christian named Valentinus.[16] However, it is found in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum,[17] which was compiled between 460 and 544 from earlier local sources. The feast of St. Valentine of February 14 was first established in 496 by Pope Gelasius I, who included Valentine among all those "... whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to God." As Gelasius implies, nothing was then known about his life.

The Catholic Encyclopedia[18] and other hagiographical sources[19] speak of three Saint Valentines that appear in connection with February 14. One was a Roman priest, another the bishop of Interamna (modern Terni, Italy) both buried along the Via Flaminia outside Rome, at different distances from the city. The third was said to be a saint who suffered on the same day with a number of companions in the Roman province of Africa, of whom nothing else is known.

Though the extant accounts of the martyrdoms of the first two listed saints are of a late date and contain legendary elements, a common nucleus of fact may underlie the two accounts and they may refer to a single person.[20] According to the official biography of the Diocese of Terni, Bishop Valentine was born and lived in Interamna and while on a temporary stay in Rome he was imprisoned, tortured, and martyred there on February 14, 269. His body was hastily buried at a nearby cemetery and a few nights later his disciples retrieved his body and returned him home.[21]

Τhe Roman Martyrology, the Catholic Church's official list of recognized saints, for February 14 gives only one Saint Valentine: a martyr who died on the Via Flaminia.[22]

Other saints with the same nameEdit

The name "Valentine" derived from valens (worthy, strong, powerful), was popular in Late Antiquity. About eleven other saints having the name Valentine are commemorated in the Roman Catholic Church.[23] Some Eastern Churches of the Western rite may provide still other different lists of Saint Valentines.[24] The Roman martyrology lists only seven who died on days other than February 14: a priest from Viterbo (November 3); a bishop from Raetia who died in about 470 (January 7); a 5th-century priest and hermit (July 4); a Spanish hermit who died in about 715 (October 25); Valentine Berrio Ochoa, martyred in 1861 (November 24); and Valentine Jaunzarás Gómez, martyred in 1936 (September 18). It also lists a virgin, Saint Valentina, who was martyred in 308 (July 25) in Caesarea, Palestine.[25]

Hagiography and testimonyEdit

 
Saint Valentine of Terni oversees the construction of his basilica at Terni, from a 14th-century French manuscript (BN, Mss fr. 185)

The inconsistency in the identification of the saint is replicated in the various vitae that are ascribed to him.

A common hagiography describes Saint Valentine as a priest of Rome or as the former Bishop of Terni, an important town of Umbria, in central Italy. While under house arrest of Judge Asterius, and discussing his faith with him, Valentinus (the Latin version of his name) was discussing the validity of Jesus. The judge put Valentinus to the test and brought to him the judge's adopted blind daughter. If Valentinus succeeded in restoring the girl's sight, Asterius would do whatever he asked. Valentinus, praying to God, laid his hands on her eyes and the child's vision was restored.[26] Immediately humbled, the judge asked Valentinus what he should do. Valentinus replied that all of the idols around the judge's house should be broken, and that the judge should fast for three days and then undergo the Christian sacrament of baptism. The judge obeyed and, as a result, freed all the Christian inmates under his authority. The judge, his family, and his forty-four member household (family members and servants) were baptized.[27] Valentinus was later arrested again for continuing to evangelize and was sent to the prefect of Rome, to the emperor Claudius Gothicus (Claudius II) himself. Claudius took a liking to him until Valentinus tried to convince Claudius to embrace Christianity, whereupon Claudius refused and condemned Valentinus to death, commanding that Valentinus either renounce his faith or he would be beaten with clubs and beheaded. Valentinus refused and Claudius' command was executed outside the Flaminian Gate February 14, 269.[28]

 
Saint Valentine is said to have ministered to the faithful amidst the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.[4]

An embellishment to this account states that before his execution, Saint Valentine wrote a note to Asterius's daughter signed "from your Valentine", which is said to have "inspired today's romantic missives".[29]

The Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de Voragine, compiled about 1260 and one of the most-read books of the High Middle Ages, gives sufficient details of the saints for each day of the liturgical year to inspire a homily on each occasion. The very brief vita of St Valentine states that he was executed for refusing to deny Christ by the order of the "Emperor Claudius"[30] in the year 269. Before his head was cut off, this Valentine restored sight and hearing to the daughter of his jailer. Jacobus makes a play with the etymology of "Valentine", "as containing valor".

A popularly ascribed hagiographical identity appears in the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493). Alongside a woodcut portrait of Valentine, the text states that he was a Roman priest martyred during the reign of Claudius Gothicus. He was arrested and imprisoned upon being caught marrying Christian couples and otherwise aiding Christians who were at the time being persecuted by Claudius in Rome. Helping Christians at this time was considered a crime. Claudius took a liking to this prisoner. However, when Valentinus tried to convert the Emperor, he was condemned to death. He was beaten with clubs and stones; when that failed to kill him, he was beheaded outside the Flaminian Gate. Various dates are given for the martyrdom or martyrdoms: 269, 270, or 273.[31]

There are many other legends behind Saint Valentine. One is that in the 3rd century AD[citation needed] it is said that Valentine, who was a priest, defied the order of the emperor Claudius and secretly performed Christian weddings for couples, allowing the husbands involved to escape conscription. The legend claims that soldiers were sparse at this time so this was a big inconvenience to the emperor.[32] The account mentions that in order "to remind these men of their vows and God’s love, Saint Valentine is said to have cut hearts from parchment", giving them to these soldiers and persecuted Christians, a possible origin of the widespread use of hearts on St. Valentine's Day.[33]

Another legend is that Valentine refused to sacrifice to pagan gods. Being imprisoned for this, Valentine gave his testimony in prison and through his prayers healed the jailer's daughter who was suffering from blindness. On the day of his execution, he left her a note that was signed, "Your Valentine".[29]

Churches named after Saint ValentineEdit

 
St Valentine Kneeling in Supplication (David Teniers III, 1600s) – Valentine kneels to receive a rosary from the Virgin Mary

Saint Valentine was not exceptionally more venerated than other saints and it seems that in England no church was ever dedicated to him.[34] There are many churches containing the name of Valentine in other countries such as Italy.

A 5th- or 6th-century work called Passio Marii et Marthae made up a legend about Saint Valentine's Basilica being dedicated to Saint Valentine in Rome. A later Passio repeated the legend and added the adornment that Pope Julius I (357–352) had built the ancient basilica S. Valentini extra Portam on top of his sepulchre, in the Via Flaminia.[35] This church was really named after a 4th-century tribune called Valentino, who donated the land on which it is built.[35] It hosted the martyr's relics until the 13th century, when they were transferred to Santa Prassede, and the ancient basilica decayed.[36]

Saint Valentine's Church in Rome, built in 1960 for the needs of the Olympic Village, continues as a modern, well-visited parish church.

Saint Valentine's DayEdit

Saint Valentine of Rome was martyred on February 14 in AD 269.[37] The Feast of Saint Valentine, also known as Saint Valentine's Day, was established by Pope Gelasius I in AD 496 to be celebrated on February 14 in honour of the Christian martyr.[38]

 
Shrine of St. Valentine in Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland
 
Relic of St. Valentine in the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome.

February 14 is also celebrated as St. Valentine's Day in many Christian Churches. The calendar of saints used in the Lutheran Churches celebrates Saint Valentine on February 14.[10] In the Church of England, the hallow was included in Calendars before the Reformation, and S.Valentine, Bishop and Martyr, was restored to the Church's Calendar in the 1661–62 Book of Common Prayer. He remains in the Calendars of the Church of England and in those of most other parts of the Anglican Communion.[39].[40] Saint Valentine remains in the Roman Catholic Church's official list of saints, the Roman Martyrology, but, in view of the scarcity of information about him, his commemoration was removed from the General Roman Calendar, when this was revised in 1969. It is included in local calendars of places such as Balzan in Malta. Some Traditionalist Catholics observe earlier calendars of the Roman Rite, in which Saint Valentine was celebrated as a Simple Feast until 1955, when Pope Pius XII reduced the mention of him to a commemoration in the Mass of the day, a position it kept in the General Roman Calendar of 1960 incorporated in the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, use of which, as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, is still authorized in accordance with Pope Benedict XVI's 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, St. Valentine is recognized on July 6, in which Saint Valentine, the Roman presbyter, is honoured; in addition, the Eastern Orthodox Church observes the feast of Hieromartyr Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, on July 30.[41][42] Members of the Greek Orthodox Church named Valentinos (male) or Valentina (female) may observe their name day on the Western ecclesiastical calendar date of February 14.[43]

English 18th-century antiquarians Alban Butler and Francis Douce, noting the obscurity of Saint Valentine's identity, suggested that Saint Valentine's Day was created as an attempt to supersede the pagan holiday of Lupercalia (mid-February in Rome). This idea has lately been dismissed by other researchers, such as Professor Jack B. Oruch of the University of Kansas, Henry Ansgar Kelly of the University of California, Los Angeles[44] and Associate Professor Michael Matthew Kaylor of the Masaryk University.[45] Many of the current legends that characterize Saint Valentine were invented in the 14th century in England, notably by Geoffrey Chaucer and his circle, when the feast day of February 14 first became associated with romantic love.[46]

Oruch charges that the traditions associated with "Valentine's Day", documented in Geoffrey Chaucer's Parlement of Foules and set in the fictional context of an old tradition, did not exist before Chaucer.[47] He argues that the speculative explanation of sentimental customs, posing as historical fact, had their origins among 18th-century antiquaries, notably Alban Butler, the author of Butler's Lives of Saints, and have been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars. In the French 14th-century manuscript illumination from a Vies des Saints (illustration above), Saint Valentine, bishop of Terni, oversees the construction of his basilica at Terni; there is no suggestion here that the bishop was a patron of lovers.[48]

During the Middle Ages, it was believed that birds paired in mid-February. This was then associated with the romance of Valentine. Although these legends differ, Valentine’s Day is widely recognized as a day for romance and devotion.

Associated Christian relicsEdit

The flower-crowned alleged skull of St. Valentine is exhibited in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome.

St. Valentine's remains are deposited in St Anton's Church, Madrid, where they have lain since the late 1700s. They were a present from the Pope to King Carlos IV, who entrusted them to the Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (Piarists). The relics have been displayed publicly since 1984, in a foundation open to the public at all times in order help people in need.

St. Valentine's remains are also claimed to be in Dublin. In 1836, some relics that were exhumed from the catacombs of Saint Hippolytus on the Via Tiburtina, then near (rather than inside) Rome, were identified with St Valentine; placed in a casket, and transported to the procession to the high altar for a special Mass dedicated to young people and all those in love. Also in 1836, Fr. John Spratt, an Irish priest and famous preacher, was given many tokens of esteem following a sermon in Rome. One gift from Pope Gregory XVI were the remains of St. Valentine and "a small vessel tinged with his blood." The Reliquary was placed in Whitefriar Street Church in Dublin, Ireland, and has remained there until this day. This was accompanied by a letter claiming the relics were those of St. Valentine.[49] On Saint Valentine's Day in Ireland, many individuals who seek true love make a Christian pilgrimage to the Shrine of St. Valentine in Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, which is said to house relics of Saint Valentine of Rome; they pray at the shrine in hope of finding romance.[50] There lies a book in which foreigners and locals have written their prayer requests for love.[6]

Another relic was found in 2003 in Prague in Church of St Peter and Paul at Vyšehrad.[51]

A silver reliquary containing a fragment of St. Valentine's skull is found in the parish church of St. Mary's Assumption in Chełmno, Poland.[52][53]

Relics can also be found in Mytilene on the Greek island of Lesbos.[54]

Another set of relics can also be found in Savona, in the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta.[55]

Alleged relics of St. Valentine also lie at the reliquary of Roquemaure, Gard, France, in the St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, in Balzan in Malta and also in Blessed John Duns Scotus' church in the Gorbals area of Glasgow, Scotland. There is also a gold reliquary bearing the words "Corpus St. Valentin, M" (Body of St. Valentine, Martyr) at Birmingham Oratory, UK, in one of the side altars in the main church.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Scientists reveal what St Valentine really looked like". Mail Online. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Jones, Terry. "Valentine of Terni". Patron Saints Tom. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  3. ^ 6 surprising facts about St Valentine
  4. ^ a b Cooper, J. C. (2013). Dictionary of Christianity. Routledge. p. 278. ISBN 9781134265534..
  5. ^ Webb, Matilda (2001). The churches and catacombs of early Christian Rome: a comprehensive guide. Sussex Academic Press. p. 254. ISBN 9781902210575. It remained an important pilgrim site throughout the Middle Ages until the relics of St. Valentine were transferred to the church of Santa Prassede (Itinerary 3) during the pontificate of Nicholas IV (1288-92).
  6. ^ a b Hecker, Jurgen (February 11, 2010). "Irish priests keep a candle for Saint Valentine". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018. A book in the church is filled with countless wishes addressed to the patron saint of lovers, while a steady stream of locals and visitors alike pray here for help in their amorous quests. "God has someone in mind for me, and I obviously haven't met him yet. So I just hope that Saint Valentine will assist me, that I will find him," said one female visitor. Another added: "We just prayed to find the right one, and I believe I will be led to him when the time is right."
  7. ^ Meera, Lester (2011). Sacred Travels. Adams Media. p. When Father John Spratt, an Irish Carmelite returned to his parish in Dublin from preaching in a Jesuit church in Gesu, Italy, he brought the sacred relics of Saint Valentine, given to him by Pope Gregory XVI. ISBN 978-1440525469.
  8. ^ Chapman, Alison (2013). Patrons and Patron Saints in Early Modern English Literature. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 9781135132316.
  9. ^ "Holy Days". Church of England (Anglican Communion). 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2012. February 14 Valentine, Martyr at Rome, c.269
  10. ^ a b Pfatteicher, Philip H. (August 1, 2008). New Book of Festivals and Commemorations: A Proposed Common Calendar of Saints. Fortress Press. p. 86. ISBN 9780800621285. Retrieved October 27, 2012. IO
  11. ^ "St. Valentine". pravmir.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013.
  12. ^ Coptic Orthodox Church – From Where Valentine's Day Comes From Archived May 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Calendarium Romanum Libreria Editrice Vaticana (1969), p. 117
  14. ^ Roman Martyrology, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001, p. 141
  15. ^ General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 355
  16. ^ Roger Pearse, The Chronography of 354 in "Early Church Fathers" online. Retrieved September 27, 2012
  17. ^ "XVI kalendas Martii Interamnae Via Flaminia miliario ab Urbe Roma LXIII natale Valentini." In J. B. de Rossi, p. 20 (XVI KL. MAR.). See also M. Schoepflin, p. 40: "the original text".
  18. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Valentine". newadvent.org.
  19. ^ René Aigrain, Hagiographie: Ses sources, ses méthodes, son histoire, (Paris 1953, pp 268–69; Agostino S. Amore, "S. Valentino di Roma o di Terni?", Antonianum 41.(1966), pp 260–77.
  20. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 1983, p. 1423
  21. ^ San Valentino: Biografia. Archived December 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Diocese of Terni. 2009. English version, written probably after examining all previous sources.
  22. ^ Martyrologium Romanum 2001, February 14, p. 141.
  23. ^ "Saints A to Z: V". Catholic Online.
  24. ^ "Latin saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome". Archived from the original on July 17, 2012.
  25. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001. Index, p. 768; Saint Valentina okay finep. 390.
  26. ^ Palacios-Sánchez, Leonardo; Díaz-Galindo, Luisa María; Botero-Meneses, Juan Sebastián (October 2017). "Saint Valentine: Patron of lovers and epilepsy". Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía. 26 (4): 253–255. doi:10.1016/j.reper.2017.08.004. Valentine placed his hands over her eyes, prayed to God, and Julia was able to see. Asterius, in awe of Valentine's power, converted to Christianity, along with 46 members of his family. He then also freed all Christians who were confined in his prison.
  27. ^ Castleden, Rodney, "The Book of Saints". 2006, p.28.
  28. ^ "St. Valentine". Catholic Online.
  29. ^ a b Kithcart, David (September 25, 2013). "St. Valentine, the Real Story". CBN. In the year 269 AD, Valentine was sentenced to a three-part execution of a beating, stoning, and finally decapitation all because of his stand for Christian marriage. The story goes that the last words he wrote were in a note to Asterius' daughter. He inspired today's romantic missives by signing it, "from your Valentine."
  30. ^ Under the circumstances, Emperor Claudius was a detail meant to enhance verisimilitude. Attempts to identify him with the only 3rd-century Claudius, Claudius Gothicus, who spent his brief reign (268–270) away from Rome winning his cognomen, are illusions in pursuit of a literary phantom: "No evidence outside several late saints' legends suggests that Claudius II reversed the policy of toleration established by the policy of his predecessor Gallienus", Jack Oruch states, in "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Speculum 56.3 (July 1981), p 536, referencing William H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (New York, 1967, p 326.
  31. ^ Jack Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Speculum 56.3 (July 1981 pp 534–565) p 535.
  32. ^ Christensen, Max L. (1997). Heroes and Saints: More Stories of People Who Made a Difference. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664257026.
  33. ^ Frank Staff, The Valentine & Its Origins, 1969, Frederick A. Praeger.
  34. ^ Henry Ansgar Kelly, in Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine. 1986, p. 62, says: As Thurston has noted, no English church is known to have been dedicated to St. Valentine (Thurston, Butler's Lives, 2:217). I should add that we have no record of a large number of churches in England.
  35. ^ a b Ansgar, 1986, pp. 49–50
  36. ^ Christian Hülsen, Chiese di Roma nel Medio Evo (Florence: Olschki, (On-line text).
  37. ^ Butler, Alban (1981). Butler's Lives of the saints. Burns & Oates. ISBN 9780860121121.
  38. ^ Chanchreek, K. L.; Jain, M. K. (2007). Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Shree Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788183291910.
  39. ^ See February calendar listed here on the Church of England website.
  40. ^ http://prayerbook.ca/resources/bcponline/calendar/
  41. ^ "St. Valentine". pravmir.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013.
  42. ^ Coptic Orthodox Church – From Where Valentine's Day Comes From Archived May 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Glav. "Greek name days of the year 2015 – month of celebration : February". Εορτολόγιο Ελληνικών Ονομάτων – Orthodox Greek Namedays.
  44. ^ Henry Ansgar Kelly (1986). Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine. BRILL. pp. 58–63. ISBN 978-90-04-07849-9.
  45. ^ Michael Matthew Kaylor (2006). Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians: Hopkins, Pater and Wilde (electronic ed.). Masaryk University Press. p. footnote 2 in page 235. ISBN 978-80-210-4126-4.
  46. ^ Jack Oruch identified the inception of this possible connection in Butler's Lives of the... Saints, 1756, and Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, and of Ancient Manner, see Oruch, Jack B. (July 1981). "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February". Speculum. 56 (3): 534–565. doi:10.2307/2847741. JSTOR 2847741.
  47. ^ Oruch, Jack B. (July 1981). "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February". Speculum. 56 (3): 534–565. doi:10.2307/2847741. JSTOR 2847741.
  48. ^ BN, Mss fr. 185. The book of Lives of the Saints, with illuminations by Richard de Montbaston and collaborators, was among the manuscripts that Cardinal Richelieu bequeathed to the King of France.
  49. ^ Shrine of St Valentine, Whitefriar Street Church, Irish Province of the Order of Carmelites Archived January 26, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ "Love-seekers show up at St. Valentine's resting place in Dublin". IrishCentral. February 10, 2017. Archived from the original on February 14, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  51. ^ "Radio Praha – Ostatky sv.Valentýna jsou uloženy na pražském Vyšehradě". radio.cz.
  52. ^ "Chełmno – miasto zabytków i zakochanych". chelmno.pl. Archived from the original on January 23, 2015.
  53. ^ "Skull bits of St. Valentine in Chelmno". Atlas Obscura.
  54. ^ "The Holy Relics of St. Valentine Lie on Lesbos Island". Greek Reporter.
  55. ^ http://www.informagiovani-italia.com/savona.htm

BibliographyEdit