SM U-93 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy in World War I. U-93 was engaged in the naval warfare and took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic.[3]

History
German Empire
NameU-93
Ordered15 September 1915
BuilderGermaniawerft, Kiel
Yard number257
Laid down12 January 1916
Launched15 December 1916
Commissioned10 February 1917
FateLost to unknown cause off Hardelot, France in January 1918[1]
General characteristics [2]
Class and typeGerman Type U 93 submarine
Displacement
  • 838 t (825 long tons) surfaced
  • 1,000 t (980 long tons) submerged
Length
Beam
  • 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in) (o/a)
  • 4.15 m (13 ft 7 in) (pressure hull)
Height8.25 m (27 ft 1 in)
Draught3.94 m (12 ft 11 in)
Installed power
  • 2 × 2,400 PS (1,765 kW; 2,367 shp) surfaced
  • 2 × 1,200 PS (883 kW; 1,184 shp) submerged
Propulsion2 shafts, 2 × 1.66 m (5 ft 5 in) propellers
Speed
  • 16.8 knots (31.1 km/h; 19.3 mph) surfaced
  • 8.6 knots (15.9 km/h; 9.9 mph) submerged
Range
  • 9,020 nmi (16,710 km; 10,380 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) surfaced
  • 52 nmi (96 km; 60 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) submerged
Test depth50 m (160 ft)
Complement4 officers, 32 enlisted
Armament
Service record[3]
Part of:
  • IV Flotilla
  • 5 April 1917 – 15 January 1918
Commanders:
Operations: 5 patrols
Victories:
  • 33 merchant ships sunk
    (87,637 GRT)
  • 1 auxiliary warship sunk
    (235 GRT)
  • 2 merchant ships damaged
    (12,429 GRT)
  • 1 warship damaged
    (199 tons)

DesignEdit

German Type U 93 submarines were preceded by the shorter Type U 87 submarines. U-93 had a displacement of 838 tonnes (825 long tons) when at the surface and 1,000 tonnes (980 long tons) while submerged.[2] She had a total length of 71.55 m (234 ft 9 in), a pressure hull length of 56.05 m (183 ft 11 in), a beam of 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in), a height of 8.25 m (27 ft 1 in), and a draught of 3.94 m (12 ft 11 in). The submarine was powered by two 2,400 metric horsepower (1,800 kW; 2,400 shp) engines for use while surfaced, and two 1,200 metric horsepower (880 kW; 1,200 shp) engines for use while submerged. She had two propeller shafts. She was capable of operating at depths of up to 50 metres (160 ft).[2]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 16.8 knots (31.1 km/h; 19.3 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 8.6 knots (15.9 km/h; 9.9 mph).[2] When submerged, she could operate for 52 nautical miles (96 km; 60 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 9,020 nautical miles (16,710 km; 10,380 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). U-93 was fitted with six 50 centimetres (20 in) torpedo tubes (four at the bow and two at the stern), twelve to sixteen torpedoes, and one 8.8 cm (3.5 in) SK L/30 deck gun. She had a complement of thirty-six (thirty-two crew members and four officers).[2]

Operational historyEdit

 
HMS Prize Q-ship attacking U-93

After February 1917 she was commanded by the late author of books (e.g. U boat 202. The war diary of a German submarine, 1919) and experienced submarine commander Edgar von Spiegel von und zu Peckelsheim

On 30 April 1917 about 180 nautical miles (330 km; 210 mi) south of Ireland, in the Atlantic, U-93 attacked HMS Prize, a three-masted topsail schooner (one of the Q ships) commanded by Lieutenant William Edward Sanders (who received a Victoria Cross for the action). HMS Prize was damaged by shellfire. After the 'panic party' had taken to the boats and the ship appeared to be sinking, the U-boat approached to within 80 yards (73 m) of her port quarter, whereupon the White Ensign was hoisted and the Prize opened fire.

Within a few minutes the submarine was on fire and her bows rose in the air, whilst the Prize was further damaged. The U-boat disappeared from sight, and was believed to have been sunk by the crew of the Prize and by several of the German crew (including her captain) who had been blown or jumped into the sea.

Neither of the crippled ships had sunk, with the Prize being towed in flames back to Kinsale, while the U-93 struggled back to the Sylt nine days later after a dramatic escape effort through the British mine and destroyer barrages off Dover.

U 93 after repairs operated in the English channel. She was lost to unknown cause off Hardelot, France in January 1918. The wreck was located by divers in 2003.[1]

Summary of raiding historyEdit

Date Name Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate[4]
15 April 1917 Fram   Denmark 105 Sunk
18 April 1917 Troldfos   Norway 1,459 Sunk
18 April 1917 West Lothian   Norway 1,887 Sunk
22 April 1917 Vestelv   Norway 1,729 Sunk
28 April 1917 Diana   Denmark 207 Damaged
29 April 1917 Comedian   United Kingdom 4,889 Sunk
29 April 1917 Ikbal   United Kingdom 5,434 Sunk
30 April 1917 Ascaro   Italy 3,245 Sunk
30 April 1917 Horsa   United Kingdom 2,949 Sunk
30 April 1917 Parthenon   Greece 2,934 Sunk
30 April 1917 HMS Prize   Royal Navy 199 Damaged
19 June 1917 Louise   Norway 645 Sunk
27 June 1917 Baron Ogilvy   United Kingdom 4,570 Sunk
4 July 1917 Kodan   Denmark 308 Sunk
12 August 1917 Bestum   Norway 3,520 Sunk
14 August 1917 Asti   Italy 5,300 Sunk
20 August 1917 Elswick Lodge   United Kingdom 3,558 Sunk
21 August 1917 Volodia   United Kingdom 5,689 Sunk
23 August 1917 Carl F. Cressy   United States 898 Sunk
25 August 1917 Heatherside   United Kingdom 2,767 Sunk
25 August 1917 Ovar   Portugal 1,650 Sunk
26 August 1917 Marmion   United Kingdom 4,066 Sunk
26 August 1917 Minas Queen   Canada 492 Sunk
29 August 1917 Treloske   United Kingdom 3,071 Sunk
18 October 1917 Macao   Brazil 3,557 Sunk
27 October 1917 D. N. Luckenbach   United States 2,929 Sunk
28 October 1917 USAT Finland   United States Army 12,222 Damaged
29 October 1917 La Epoca   Uruguay 2,432 Sunk
30 October 1917 Liff   Norway 2,521 Sunk
2 January 1918 Veda   United Kingdom 25 Sunk
4 January 1918 Goeland I   French Navy 235 Sunk
6 January 1918 Kanaris   Greece 3,793 Sunk
6 January 1918 Harry Luckenbach   United States 2,798 Sunk
6 January 1918 Henri Lecour   France 2,488 Sunk
6 January 1918 Dagny   Denmark 1,220 Sunk
14 January 1918 Babin Chevaye   France 2,174 Sunk
15 January 1918 War Song   United Kingdom 2,535 Sunk

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b Innes McCartney (2015). The Maritime Archaeology of a Modern Conflict: Comparing the Archaeology of German Submarine Wrecks to the Historical Text. New York: Routledge. pp. 117–119. ISBN 978-1138814356.
  2. ^ a b c d e Gröner 1991, pp. 12–14.
  3. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U 93". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U 93". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 14 December 2014.

BibliographyEdit

  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. Vol. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.