The SIAI-Marchetti S.211 (later Aermacchi S-211) is a turbofan-powered military trainer aircraft designed and originally marketed by Italian firm SIAI-Marchetti. Some 60 aircraft have been sold to air forces around the world. Aermacchi bought the production rights in 1997. The redesigned M-311 (now M-345) is currently[when?] under development by Alenia Aermacchi.
|Role||jet trainer / Light attack aircraft|
|First flight||10 April 1981|
|Status||Active service with the Philippine Air Force|
|Primary users||Republic of Singapore Air Force (historical)|
Philippine Air Force
Haitian Air Force (historical)
$1.2 million (1981), $3.3 million today
|Developed into||Alenia Aermacchi M-345|
Design and developmentEdit
SIAI-Marchetti began work on the aircraft in 1976 as a private venture basic trainer, hoping to offer it to the company's existing customer base of small air forces operating their piston-engined SF.260. Formally announced in Paris the following year, interest was strong enough to justify the construction of two prototypes, the first of which flew on 10 April 1981. The Singapore Air Force placed the first order for ten aircraft in 1983.
The S-211 is a small tandem two-seat shoulder-wing monoplane with a retractable tricycle landing gear and powered by a single Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-4C turbofan. Also, the aircraft was designed for a secondary close air support capability with four underwing hardpoints for the carriage of weapons and other external stores.
The S-211A was a slightly modified and updated variant of the S-211, was a losing contender in the USA's Joint Primary Aircraft Training System (JPATS) aircraft selection. Among the seven to enter, the Raytheon/Pilatus entry won, which became the T-6 Texan II. The S-211 team was initially partnered with Grumman, and then Northrop Grumman after 1994.
Philippine Air Force S-211 DevelopmentsEdit
Since the 1990s, the Philippine Air Force has been using the S-211 as a Trainer with secondary Attack Capability. These were redesignated as AS-211s and nicknamed as "Warriors". With the retirement of the F-5 fighters in 2005, the additional task of air defense was assigned to it as well. Because of this, the Philippine Air Force initiated some improvements to the AS-211s to improve its combat capability through a series of programs and innovations.
The first program was called "Project Falcon" which installed the Norsight Optical Sight from retired F-5s into the AS-211. The program was initiated by Lieutenant Colonel Enrique Dela Cruz, the Group Commander of the 5th Tactical Fighter Group. This was followed by the "Project Falcon Uniform" program which repainted the aircraft with a 2-tone Light and Dark Ghost Gray paint scheme along with low visibility markings to reduce their overall visibility.
The "Project Falcon Hear" program saw the optimizing of air-ground communications on the AS-211 by upgrading and installing the AN/ARC-34 UHF radios from the F-5A/B. These aircraft were also fitted with a Belly Gun Pod designed, developed and manufactured by Philippine company Aerotech Industries Philippines, Inc. (AIPI). Each Pod is equipped with an M3 .50 cal Machine Gun, an automatic charger and approximately 240 rounds of .50 cal ammunition.
- Original production version with total of approximately sixty built and was operated by the air forces of Haiti, Philippines and Singapore.
- Proposed version developed with input from Grumman for the JPATS (two prototypes, converted from two former Haitian S-211 aircraft).
- Served as trainers with secondary combat capability with the Philippine Air Force and were nicknamed as "Warriors". Starting in 2005, these aircraft were upgraded by fitting the Norsight Optical Sight and AN/ARC-34s from retired F-5s. It is also equipped with a .50 caliber belly gun pod made by Aerotech.
- Haitian Air Force (HAF) – Four aircraft were delivered in June 1985, they were retired and put up for sale on 23 April 1990.
- Philippine Air Force (PAF) – 25 aircraft, including one partially completed airframe for spare parts and 15 assembled locally by Philippine Aerospace Development Corporation. Due to accidents, 13 remain in inventory, 5 in active service as of September 2013 (Tail numbers 001,002,021,801 and 802). Another aircraft with tail number 008 is planned to be overhauled and brought back to service in 2014.
- Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) – total of 32 aircraft including 24 assembled locally by Singapore Aircraft Industries and two former Haitian aircraft were acquired as attrition replacements. The aircraft were based in, and flight training undertaken, in Australia.
- 130 Sqn – 25 airframes in operational use (7 airframes were write-offs due to accidents). These were replaced by the Pilatus PC-21 from end 2008. After retirement, four were shipped back to Singapore being preserved for museum display and as educational/instructional airframes, while the remaining 21 airframes (including one airframe that had been used for spare parts) were sold off to International Air Parts (IAP) Group Australia Pty Ltd in 2009.
- 131 Sqn – disbanded in 1996, following the move of RSAF Flight Training School to RAAF Base Pearce in Bullsbrook, Western Australia, all remaining aircraft transferred to the former.
- 21 ex-RSAF S-211s were retired and sold to the IAP Group Australia in December 2009 (including a cannibalised airframe), fifteen have since been sold off and placed on the Australian civil registry.
Accidents and incidentsEdit
- On 14 January 2002, Philippine Air Force S-211 #017 crashed into houses inside the National Food Authority compound in Brgy. M.S.Garcia, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, due to mechanical problems after making several low passes over Cabanatuan during a contact proficiency flight from Basa AB. Both pilots and 3 civilians on the ground were killed.
- On 26 November 2007, Philippine Air Force S-211 #804 went missing after it failed to return to Palawan base after a security patrol and search mission over the disputed Kalayaan Islands in the south China sea, both pilots still missing and their fate remains unknown.
- On July 19, 2010, Philippine Air Force S-211 #024 crashed in Concepcion, Tarlac. The 2 pilots, Maj. Wilfredo Donato and 1Lt. Jose Wilbert Leonides Martinez, ejected and landed safely. The aircraft was reportedly low on fuel, which could have caused the crash.
- On 28 April 2011, Philippine Air Force S-211 #020 crashed in Bagac, Bataan after making several aerobatic maneuvers over the shoreline during a contact proficiency flight from Clark Air Base. Investigators later found out that the aircraft entered into a high-G recovery maneuver from a loop that caused the engine to go into a high-G stall and crashed less than a hundred meters from the shoreline with no survivors.
Aircraft on displayEdit
- S-211 (9V-341), instructional airframe at Temasek Polytechnic.
- S-211 (9V-343), instructional airframe at ITE College Central (Ang Mo Kio campus).
- S-211 (9V-383), instructional airframe at Paya Lebar Air Base.
- S-211 (9V-384), gate guard at RSAF Museum.
- S-211, gate guard at Volandia Museum, Malpensa, Italy
Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988–89
- Crew: 2
- Length: 9.31 m (30 ft 7 in)
- Wingspan: 8.43 m (27 ft 8 in)
- Height: 3.8 m (12 ft 6 in)
- Wing area: 12.6 m2 (136 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: 5.1
- Airfoil: root: NYU/KU 15% ; tip: NYU/KU 13%
- Empty weight: 1,850 kg (4,079 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 2,750 kg (6,063 lb) (trainer, clean)
- 3,150 kg (6,940 lb) (armed version)
- Fuel capacity: 800 l (210 US gal; 180 imp gal) internal with provision for 540 l (140 US gal; 120 imp gal) in two underwing drop tanks
- Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-4D turbofan
- Maximum speed: Mach 0.8
- Cruise speed: 667 km/h (414 mph; 360 kn) maximum at 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
- Stall speed: 138 km/h (86 mph; 75 kn) flaps down
- Never exceed speed: 740 km/h (460 mph; 400 kn)
- Range: 1,668 km (1,036 mi; 901 nmi) maximum on internals with 30 minutes reserve fuel
- Ferry range: 2,483 km (1,543 mi; 1,341 nmi) with max internal and external fuel, at 3,150 kg (6,940 lb) at 500 km/h (310 mph; 270 kn) at 9,150 m (30,020 ft)
- Endurance: 3 hours 50 minutes with 30 minutes fuel reserve
- Service ceiling: 12,200 m (40,000 ft)
- g limits: +6 -3 clean ; +5 -2.5 with external stores
- maximum sustained load at 4,575 m (15,010 ft): 3.4g
- Rate of climb: 21.333 m/s (4,199.4 ft/min)
- Time to altitude: 6,100 m (20,000 ft) in 6 minutes 12 seconds
- Take-off run: 390 m (1,280 ft) ISA at sea level
- Landing run: 361 m (1,184 ft) ISA at sea level
- Take-off run to 15 m (49 ft): 512 m (1,680 ft)
- Landing run from 15 m (49 ft): 705 m (2,313 ft)
- Guns: gun pods
- Hardpoints: 4 with a capacity of 660 kg (1,460 lb) maximum,
- Rockets: rocket launchers (such as the SNEB 68 mm rocket pods
- Bombs: unguided bombs
Standard avionic fits for comms and navigation
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Orbis 1985, page 2854
- "SIAI-Marchetti AS-211 Warrior"
- "Belly Pod for PAF's S-211"
- "SIAI-MARCHETTI S.211 production list". www.siai-marchetti.nl.
- "World Air Forces – Haitian Air Force – SIAI-Machetti S-211 status". www.aeroflight.co.uk.
- Chronological Listing of Philippine Air Force Ejections Archived 2008-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-30. Retrieved 2013-10-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)""Jet 14–16" ADW Journal Number 7, September 2013"
- "RSAF Pilatus PC-21 Makes its Maiden Flight". MINDEF.
- "Australia – Singapore Defence Relationship". MINDEF.
- International Air Parts: Aircraft Availability Archived 2009-10-24 at the Wayback Machine
- International Air Parts: SIAI MARCHETTI S211 JET TRAINERS FOR SALE Archived 2009-11-22 at the Wayback Machine
- Federal Aviation Authority Aircraft Inquiries for N48SM Archived 2009-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
- Federal Aviation Authority Aircraft Inquiries for N852TC Archived 2009-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
- "APS Offers High-altitude Upset Training in S211". Aviation International News. November 1, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
-  news about the crash
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-12-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) news update about the accident.
- "Another AS-211 plane crashes in Concepcion, Tarlac". 20 July 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "School of Engineering: Diploma in Aerospace Electronics". Temasek Polytechnic. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "Aeroplane in a Carpark?". ITE College Central. 20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- Taylor 1988, pp. 157–158.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.