SDF insurgency in Northern Aleppo
The SDF insurgency in Northern Aleppo refers to a series of armed guerilla and insurgent attacks carried out by factions aligned or affiliated with the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), following the defeat of the SDF in the early 2018 Operation Olive Branch carried out by the Turkish Armed Forces and allied Syrian rebel groups.
Shortly after the defeat of Kurdish forces in Afrin, the spokeswoman of Rojava's ruling party the PYD had already announced that SDF would fight Turkish and allied opposition forces using guerilla tactics. The PYD's armed branch the People's Protection Units (YPG) also declared that they would target the families of rebel fighters active in the Afrin region, as well as refugees displaced from other parts of Syria in Afrin. Following these events the "Wrath of Olives" operation room was established in early summer, 2018, however YPG has denied affiliation with the group.
By May 2018, an insurgency had broken out in the Afrin District, as YPG  along with allied militants, as well as an armed insurgent group called the "Afrin Falcons", which have been carrying out bombings, ambushes and assassinations against the Turkish army, allied opposition forces, and civilians sympathetic or affiliated with them. Other areas with pro-SDF guerilla activity include, Azaz and al-Bab, along with guerilla activities clashes regularly occur between Syrian opposition factions allied with Turkey and pro-SDF and at times Syrian governmental forces in nearby areas with pro-SDF insurgents at times operating from these locations.
By mid-2018, the insurgency was mostly focused on the rural areas and Afrin city's outskirts, causing the Turkish Air Force to bombarded guerilla holdouts in between May and July. In May, YPG killed the former leader of the Free East Ghouta Police, Jamal al-Zaghloul, who had been tasked with police duties in Afrin, he was killed by a mine in al-Basouta, south of Afrin city. Following his death, YPG claimed that "anyone in cooperation with the invasion forces is our target" in response to assassinating him.
On 9 August 2018, The National Front for Liberation clashed with YPG in Kafr Nabu and Ba'ai in the southern part of the Afrin district near the border with the Idlib Governorate, during the clashes 4 fighters belonging to YPG were killed and several light weapons and explosives were seized by the National Front for Liberation afterwards from YPG, a representative from the National Front for Liberation told journalists that the group had been monitoring the YPG cell in the area for months as the area had seen heightened levels of violence, mainly being assassinations targeting fighters and civilians with links to the Free Syrian Army on behalf of YPG cells active in the region.
On October 23 2018, the Gathering of the Eastern Martyrs, a group affiliated with Ahrar al-Sharqiya, posted a video on its Facebook page showing a captured smuggler affiliated with SDF near Manbij, and displayed a number of captured weapons including machine guns and rocket launchers.
On 3 November 2018, YPG published a statement on its website claiming to have carried out 19 guerilla operations against Turkish and allied forces in Afrin during the previous month of October, the statement also claimed that during the operations 3 Turkish soldiers had been killed, 10 allied opposition fighters had been killed and that 10 others were injured and 9 vehicles had been destroyed. YPG also claimed that 2 Self-Defense Forces (HXP) fighters had been killed by Turkish forces and that a 6 year old girl was killed as well, along with 4 civilians.
On 28 November 2018, YPG claimed that an insurgent cell belonging to the group had destroyed a Hamza Division vehicle on the road between Afrin city and Basuta with an IED, hours later on the same day YPG also claimed to have destroyed a vehicle belonging to the Levant Front with an anti-tank guided missile reportedly killing a member of the Levant Front standing next to the vehicle.
On 21 December 2018, the Afrin Liberation Forces, a pro-YPG insurgent group, was established and released a press statement laying out the group's goals; the group stated that they seek to end the "occupation of their areas" and that they will carry out operations as part of a "justified war" until the region is "liberated". The statement also claimed responsibility for two attacks: one occurring on 18 December involving the detonation of an improvised explosive device against Turkish soldiers, claiming as many as 6 men had been injured and killed, and another attack on the same date the detonation of another IED on forces belonging to the Hamza Division.
On 20 January 2019, a bombing carried out by pro-YPG insurgents killed and injured dozens of individuals in Afrin city. A health source claimed that the attack resulted in the deaths of 3 and the injury of 12 others. On the same day, the Afrin Liberation Forces claimed to have attacked construction equipment belonging to Turkish forces used for building trenches and tunnels, further claiming Jihadist fighters allied with the Turkish military had been killed during the attack.
On 23 January 2019, two bombings occurred outside the headquarters of Ahrar al-Sharqiya in the town of Rajo in the Afrin district of the Aleppo Governorate, no group claimed responsibility for the attack, 3 members of the group were killed by the bombings.
On 21 February 2019, a car bombing occurred near a hospital in Afrin city during a Syrian National Army parade, pro-YPG media outlets claimed that casualties occurred as a resulting of the bombing.
On 8 April 2019, the Turkish military began training allied rebel forces on air landing via helicopters in Afrin in anticipation of possible planned operations against SDF.
On 11 April 2019, clashes broke out between Turkish backed forces and Kurdish fighters from YPG in northern Aleppo, the Free Syrian Army fired artillery and mortars at YPG lines and heavy machine gun fire was also used, the clashes reportedly came after a series of heightened tension between SDF and Turkey with the Turkish military recently sending reinforcements to Jarabulus and areas near Manbij which is currently under SDF control.
On 12 April 2019, Turkish forces shelled YPG positions near Tell Rifaat, YPG responded by shelling positions under Turkish and allied rebel control, prior to the attack Russian military police had withdrawn from the location two days before.
On 4 May 2019, Clashes erupted between Turkish and allied Free Syrian Army forces with YPG over the death of two Turkish soldiers, during the fighting the Free Syrian Army captured three villages in the northern part of the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict from YPG, and later withdrew.
On 5 August 2019, the Afrin Liberation Forces (HRE) claimed to have attacked and killed 8 fighters belonging to Ahrar al-Sham and Suqour al-Sham at a base near Mare' and injuring another 4, using AK47 rifles and PK light machine guns as well as RPG-7s, on the same day HRE also claimed to have attacked a Hamza Division base near al-Bab, claiming that 3 Hamza Division members were killed and 3 were injured.
On 9 August 2019, HRE claimed to have killed 7 Turkish soldiers during an attack on a Turkish military checkpoint.
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