SAE J1772 (IEC 62196 Type 1), also known as a J plug, is a North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles maintained by the SAE International and has the formal title "SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler".[1] It covers the general physical, electrical, communication protocol, and performance requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler. The intent is to define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector.

SAE J1772
SAE J1772 7058855567.jpg
SAE J1772-2009 electric vehicle connector.
Type Automotive power connector
Production history
Manufacturer Yazaki, others
Produced 2009
General specifications
Length 33.5 millimetres (1.32 in)
Diameter 43.8 millimetres (1.72 in)
Pins 5
Electrical
Signal single-phase AC
Pinout
J1772 (CCS1).svg
Pinouts for CCS Combo 1, looking at end of plug (attached to EVSE cord)
L1 Line 1 single-phase AC
N Neutral single-phase AC
CP Control pilot post-insertion signalling
PP Proximity pilot pre-insertion signalling
PE Protective earth full-current protective earthing system
CCS Combo 1 extension adds two extra high-current DC pins underneath, and the two Alternating Current (AC) pins for Neutral and Line 1 are not populated.

The J1772 5-pin standard supports a wide range of single-phase alternating current (AC) charging rates from 1.44 kW (12 amps @ 120 volts) via portable devices connected to a household NEMA 5-15 outlet up to 19.2 kW (80 amps @ 240 volts)[2][better source needed] from an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment, more commonly referred to as a charging station). There is also a 7-pin Combo Coupler that has both a 5-pin J1772 connector and a CCS 2-pin connector that supports DC fast charging up to 350 kW.

HistoryEdit

 
The older Avcon connector, featured here on a Ford Ranger EV

The main stimulus for the development of SAE J1772 came from the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Formerly electric vehicles like the General Motors EV1 had used inductive charger couplers. These were ruled out in favor of conductive coupling to supply electricity for recharging with the board settling upon the SAE J1772-2001 standard [3] as the charging interface for electric vehicles in California in June 2001.[4] Avcon manufactured a rectangular connector compliant with specification SAE J1772 REV NOV 2001, capable of delivering up to 6.6 kW of electrical power.[5][6]

The California regulations of 2001 mandated the usage of SAE J1772-2001 beginning with the 2006 model year. Later requirements asked for higher currents to be used than the 6.6 kW that the 2001 J1772 standard supported. This process led to the proposal of a new round connector design by Yazaki which allowed for an increased power delivery of up to 19.2 kW delivered via single phase 120–240 V AC at up to 80 amperes. In 2008 the CARB published a draft amendment to Title 13 section 1962.2 that mandated the usage of the oncoming SAE J1772 REV JAN 2010 standard beginning with the 2010 model year;[7] this was approved in 2012.[8]

 
Type 1 “J1772” (Japan/US) AC connector

The Yazaki plug that was built to the new SAE J1772 plug standard successfully completed certification at UL. The standard specification was subsequently voted upon by the SAE committee in July 2009.[9] On January 14, 2010 the SAE J1772 REV 2009 was adopted by the SAE Motor Vehicle Council.[10] The companies participating in or supporting the revised 2009 standard include smart, Chrysler, GM, Ford, Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Rivian, and Tesla.

The SAE J1772-2009 connector specification was subsequently added to the international IEC 62196-2 standard (“Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact-tube accessories”) with voting on the final specification slated to close in May 2011.[11][needs update] The SAE J1772 connector is considered a “Type 1” implementation providing a single phase coupler.[12]

Vehicle equipmentEdit

The SAE J1772-2009 was adopted by the car manufacturers of post-2000 electric vehicles[inconsistent] like the third generation of the Chevrolet Volt and Nissan Leaf as the early models. The connector became standard equipment in the U.S. market due to the availability of charging stations with that plug type in the nation's electric vehicle network (with the help of funding such as ChargePoint America program drawing grants from provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act).[citation needed]

The European versions were equipped with a SAE J1772-2009 inlet as well until the automotive industry settled on the IEC Type 2 “Mennekes” connector as the standard inlet – since all IEC connectors use the same SAE J1772 signaling protocol the car manufacturers are selling cars with either a SAE J1772-2009 inlet or an IEC Type 2 inlet depending on the regional market. There are also (passive) adapters available that can convert J1772-2009 to IEC Type 2 and vice versa. The only difference is that most European versions have an on-board charger that can take advantage of three-phase electric power with higher voltage and current limits even for the same basic electric vehicle model (such as Chevrolet Volt / Opel Ampera).[citation needed]

Combined Charging System (CCS)Edit

 
Type 1 CCS AC and fast DC combination connector (Combo 1)

In 2011, SAE developed a J1772/CCS Combo Coupler variant of the J1772-2009 connector in order to also support the Combined Charging System standard for direct current (DC) fast charging, which includes the standard 5-pin J1772 connector along with an additional two larger pins to support fast DC charging. Combo 1 accommodates charging at 200–920 volts DC and up to 350 kW.[1][needs update] The combination coupler will also use power-line communication technology to communicate between the vehicle, off-board charger, and smart grid.[13] Seven car makers (Audi, BMW, Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Hyundai, Porsche, Volvo, and Volkswagen) agreed in late 2011 to introduce the Combined Charging System in mid-2012.[14] The first vehicles using the SAE Combo plug were the BMW i3 released in late 2013, and the Chevrolet Spark EV released in 2014.[15]

In Europe, the combo coupler is based on the Type 2 (VDE) AC charging connector (Combo 2) maintaining full compatibility with the SAE specification for DC charging and the HomePlug Green PHY PLC protocol.[16] In 2019 Tesla introduced the Model 3 with a CCS Combo 2 plug in Europe, but has not introduced models with CCS in the US. With the introduction of the Model 3 in Europe, Tesla added CCS charging cables to V2 Superchargers (supporting both CCS Combo 2 and Tesla DC Type 2). European V3 Tesla Superchargers include only a CCS charging cable.[citation needed]

PropertiesEdit

ConnectorEdit

 
J1772 connector (facing end of plug)

The J1772-2009 connector is designed for single phase alternating current electrical systems with 120 V or 240 V such as those used in North America and Japan. The round 43-millimetre (1.7 in) diameter connector is keyed and has five pins:[17]

SAE J1772 / IEC 62196-2-1 Type 1
Row Position Function Notes
Top[a] 1 L1 "AC Line 1"
2 N "AC Neutral" for 120 V Level 1 charging or "AC Line 2" for 208–240 V Level 2 charging
Bottom[b] 3 PE "Protective Earth" aka Ground
Middle[c] 4 PP "Proximity Pilot" aka "plug present", which provides a signal to the vehicle's control system so it can prevent movement while connected to the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE; i.e., the charging station), and signals the latch release button to the vehicle.[citation needed]
5 CP "Control Pilot" is a communication line used to signal charging level between the car and the EVSE, and can be manipulated by vehicle to initiate charging as well as other information.[18] The signal is a 1 kHz square wave at ±12 volts generated by the EVSE to detect the presence of the vehicle, communicate the maximum allowable charging current, and control charging begin/end.[19]
  1. ^ Top row is spaced 6.8 mm (0.27 in) above the centerline of the connector and the pins are spaced 15.7 mm (0.62 in) apart about the centerline.
  2. ^ Bottom row is spaced 10.6 mm (0.42 in) below the centerline of the connector.
  3. ^ Middle row is spaced 5.6 mm (0.22 in) below the centerline of the connector and the pins are spaced 21.3 mm (0.84 in) apart about the centerline.

The connector is designed to withstand 10,000 mating cycles (a connection and a disconnection) and exposure to the elements. With 1 mating cycle per day, the connector's lifespan should exceed 27 years.[20]

ChargingEdit

The SAE J1772-2017 standard defines four levels of charging: AC Level 1, AC Level 2, DC Level 1, and DC Level 2.[21] Earlier released revisions of J1772 also listed a never-implemented AC Level 3, which was[when?] moved to an appendix.[clarification needed]

Charge method Voltage, AC (V) Phase Max. current,
continuous (A)
Branch circuit
breaker rating (A)[a]
Max. power (kW)
AC Level 1 120 1-phase 12 or 16 15 or 20 1.44 or 1.92
AC Level 2 208 or 240 1-phase 24–80 30–100 5.0–19.2
AC Level 3[b] 208–600 3-phase 63–160 80-200 22.7–166
Charge method EVSE DC output voltage (V) Max. current (A) Max. power (kW)
DC Level 1 50 to 1000 80 80
DC Level 2 50 to 1000 400 400
  1. ^ Per NEC article 625.41, branch circuit rating must be at least 125% of EVSE maximum continuous amperage
  2. ^ As noted in Appendix M of the SAE J1772 standard document, a third AC charge method was considered but never implemented for light vehicles. For heavy and industrial vehicles, this was left to the SAE J3068 Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Conductive Charging Task Force Committee which permits the J1772 protocol at 400 VAC or less and requires a newer LIN protocol above 400 VAC (LIN is recommended at all voltages). J3068 uses the Type 2 (Mennekes connector) possibly supplying up to 166 kW.[22] The J1772 AC Level 3 mode using single phase power would have provided up to 96 kW at a nominal voltage of 240 V AC and a maximum current of 400 A. This power level is closer to what J3068 implemented a decade later at up to 600 VAC, although J3068 version 1 only supports up to 250 amps.

For example, the 2020 Chevrolet Bolt has a 66-kWh lithium-ion battery and a 7.2-kW onboard charging module (OBCM); with an EPA range of 259 miles (417 km) and energy efficiency of 118 mpg‑e (29 kW⋅h/100 mi; 18.1 kW⋅h/100 km),[23] it can use its portable charge cord charge at AC Level 1 (120 V, 12 A) to get up to 4 mi (6.4 km) of range per hour or go off a AC Level 2 charging unit (240 V, 32 A) to get up to 25 mi (40 km) of range per hour. Using an optional DC fast charging (DCFC) port, this model can also charge at up to 55 kW to get up to 90 mi (140 km) of range per half hour.

Some EVs have extended J1772 to allow 120 V charging at greater than 16 amps. This is useful, for example, at RV parks where TT-30 ("Travel Trailer" - 120 V, 30 A) receptacles are common. These allow charging at up to 24 amps. However this level of 120 V charging has not been codified into J1772.

Another extension, notably supported by Tesla, is Level 2 charging at 277 V. Like 208 V, 277 V is commonly found in North American commercial three-phase circuits.

SafetyEdit

The J1772 standard includes several levels of shock protection, ensuring the safety of charging even in wet conditions. Physically, the connection pins are isolated on the interior of the connector when mated, ensuring no physical access to those pins. When not mated, J1772 connectors have no power voltages at the pins; [24] they are not energized until commanded by the vehicle.[25]

The proximity detection pin is connected to a switch in the connector release button. Pressing the release button causes the vehicle to stop drawing current. As the connector is removed, the shorter control pilot pin disconnects first, causing the EVSE to drop power to the plug. This also ensures that the power pins will not be disconnected under load, causing arcs and shortening their life. The ground pin is longer than the other pins, so it breaks last.

SignalingEdit

 
J1772 signaling circuit

The signaling protocol has been designed so that[25]

  • supply equipment signals presence of AC input power
  • vehicle detects plug via proximity circuit (thus the vehicle can prevent driving away while connected) and can detect when latch is pressed in anticipation of plug removal.
  • Control Pilot (CP) functions begin
    • supply equipment detects plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)
    • supply equipment indicates to PEV readiness to supply energy
    • PEV ventilation requirements are determined
    • supply equipment current capacity provided to PEV
  • PEV commands energy flow
  • PEV and supply equipment continuously monitor continuity of safety ground
  • charge continues as determined by PEV
  • charge may be interrupted by disconnecting the plug from the vehicle

The technical specification was described first in the 2001 version of SAE J1772 and subsequently the IEC 61851-1 and IEC TS 62763:2013. The charging station puts 12 V on the Control Pilot (CP) and the Proximity Pilot (AKA Plug Present: PP) measuring the voltage differences. This protocol does not require integrated circuits, which would be required for other charging protocols, making the SAE J1772 robust and operable through a temperature range of −40 °C to +85 °C.

Control PilotEdit

Control Pilot (Mode): The charging station sends a 1 kHz square wave on the control pilot that is connected back to the protected earth on the vehicle side by means of a resistor and a diode (voltage range ±12.0±0.4 V). The live wires of public charging stations are always dead if the CP-PE (Protective Earth) circuit is open, although the standard allows a charging current as in Mode 1 (maximum 16 A). If the circuit is closed, then the charging station can also test the protective earth to be functional. The vehicle can request a charging state by setting a resistor; using 2.7 kΩ a Mode 3 compatible vehicle is announced (vehicle detected) which does not require charging. Switching to 880 Ω the vehicle is ready to be charged and switching to 240 Ω the vehicle requests with ventilation charging in which case charging power is only supplied if the area is ventilated (i.e., outdoors).

The Control Pilot line circuitry examples in SAE J1772:2001 show that the current loop CP-PE is connected permanently on the vehicle side via a 2.74 kΩ resistor, making for a voltage drop from +12 V to +9 V when a cable is hooked up to the charging station, which activates the wave generator. The charging is activated by the vehicle by adding parallel 1.3 kΩ resistor resulting in a voltage drop to +6 V or by adding a parallel 270 Ω resistor for a required ventilation resulting in a voltage drop to +3 V. Hence the charging station can react by only checking the voltage range present on the CP-PE loop.[26] Note that the diode will only make for a voltage drop in the positive range; any negative voltage on the CP-PE loop will shut off the current as being considered a fatal error (like touching the pins).

Base status Charging status Resistance, CP-PE Resistance, R2 Voltage, CP-PE
Status A Standby Open, or ∞ Ω +12 V
Status B Vehicle detected 2740 Ω +9±1 V
Status C Ready (charging) 882 Ω 1300 Ω +6±1 V
Status D With ventilation 246 Ω 270 Ω +3±1 V
Status E No power (shut off) 0 V
Status F Error −12 V

Control Pilot (Current limit): The charging station can use the wave signal to describe the maximum current that is available via the charging station with the help of pulse-width modulation: a 16% PWM is a 10 A maximum, a 25% PWM is a 16 A maximum, a 50% PWM is a 32 A maximum and a 90% PWM flags a fast charge option.[27]

The PWM duty cycle of the 1 kHz CP signal indicates the maximum allowed mains current. According to the SAE it includes socket outlet, cable and vehicle inlet. In the US, the definition of the ampacity (ampere capacity, or current capacity) is split for continuous and short term operation.[27] The SAE defines the ampacity value to be derived by a formula based on the 1 ms full cycle (of the 1 kHz signal) with the maximum continuous ampere rating being 0.6 A per 10 µs up to 850 µs (with the lowest 100 µs × 0.6 A = 6 A). Above 850 µs, the formula requires subtraction of 640 µs and multiplying the difference by 2.5. For example (960 µs − 640 µs) × 2.5 A = 80 A.[26]

PWM duty cycle indicating ampere capacity[27]
PWM SAE continuous SAE short term
50% 30 A 36 A peak
40% 24 A 30 A peak
30% 18 A 22 A peak
25% 15 A 20 A peak
16% 9.6 A
10% 6 A

Proximity PilotEdit

The proximity pin, PP (also known as plug present), as shown in the SAE J1772 example pinout, describes the switch, S3, as being mechanically linked to the connector latch release actuator. During charging, the EVSE side connects the PP-PE loop via S3 and a 150 Ω R6; when opening the release actuator a 330 Ω R7 is added in the PP-PE loop on the EVSE side which gives a voltage shift on the line to allow the electric vehicle to initiate a controlled shut off prior to actual disconnection of the charge power pins. However, many low-power adapter cables do not offer that locking actuator state detection on the PP pin.

Under IEC 62196 the Proximity Pin is also used to indicate the cable capacity – this is relevant for non-tethered EVSEs.

The resistor is coded to the maximum current capability of the cable assembly. The EVSE interrupts the current supply if the current capability of the cable is exceeded as detected by the measurement of the Rc (shown as R5 in the J1772 signaling circuit above), as defined by the values for the recommended interpretation range.

Rc is placed between the PP and PE, within the detachable cable assembly.

Current capability of the cable assembly Rc (±3%) Recommended interpretation range by the EVSE
13 A 1.5 kΩ / 0.5 W 1–2.7 
20 A 680 Ω / 0.5 W 330 Ω – 1 kΩ
32 A 220 Ω / 1 W 150–330 Ω
70 A single phase / 63 A three phase 100 Ω / 1 W 50–150 Ω

[28]

P1901 powerline communicationEdit

In an updated standard due in 2012, SAE proposes to use power line communication, specifically IEEE 1901, between the vehicle, off-board charging station, and the smart grid, without requiring an additional pin; SAE and the IEEE Standards Association are sharing their draft standards related to the smart grid and vehicle electrification.[29]

P1901 communication is compatible with other 802.x standards via the IEEE 1905 standard, allowing arbitrary IP-based communications with the vehicle, meter or distributor, and the building where chargers are located. P1905 includes wireless communications. In at least one implementation, communication between the off-board DC EVSE and PEV occurs on the pilot wire of the SAE J1772 connector via HomePlug Green PHY power line communication (PLC).[30][31][32]

CompatibilityEdit

In North America and Japan, the Chevrolet Volt,[33] Nissan Leaf,[34] Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Smart electric drive, Ford Focus EV, Ford Fusion Energi, Ford Mustang Mach-E, Honda Clarity (Electric and Plug-in Hybrid), Kia Soul EV, Fiat 500e, and Mercedes-Benz GLC 350e PHEV all come with 120 V portable charging leads that couple a 120 V mains plug to the car's J1772 receptacle; in the countries where 220–230 V domestic mains electricity is common, the portable EVSE leads commonly supplied with the vehicle can perform a level 2 charge from a domestic mains plug, albeit at a lower current than a dedicated high-current charging station.

Examples of Compatible EVSEEdit

  • ABB Lunic B, B+, Pro S, Pro M, with SAE J1772 @ 4.6 kW.
  • Atom Power Advanced Level 2
  • BlinkCharging IQ200 - Commercial Level2 J1772 EVSE - Configurable charging current, up to 80 A (19.2kW)[35]
  • BlinkCharging HQ150 - Residential Level2 J1772 EVSE - 32A(7.7kW)[36]
  • BTCPower (Broadband TelCom Power), the first commercially available SAE DC Fast Charger in the United States[37][38]
  • Bosch Power Max home charging stations
  • breez-EV breezEV-L2B - Commercial Level2 J1772 EVSE - Configurable charging current, up to 48 A (11.6kW)[39]
  • ClipperCreek products include CS-40,[40] LCS-25[41] and LCS-25p,[42] HCS-40.[43] The product with highest charging current is CS-100.[44]
  • ChargePoint CT4000 intelligent charger, cable management, driver services; CT500, CT2000, CT2100, and CT2020 families of ChargePoint Networked Charging Stations[45]
  • Eaton Pow-R-Station Family of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations[46]
  • ECOtality Blink home wall-mount and commercial stand-alone charging stations[47][48]
  • Electrify America charging stations
  • eMotorWerks JuiceBox Open Source 18 kW 75 A EVSE[49]
  • EverCharge AC Charge Station 208 - 240 Vac 30 A 7.2 kW max[50][51]
  • Evduty, Elmec inc. AC Charge Station 208 - 240 Vac 30 A 7.2 kW max
  • EVSEadapters EVSE240V16A] 240 V 16 A Portable Level 2 EVSE[52]
  • Easee Charging Robot [53]
  • EVoCharge – Retractable Reel EVSE's designed to support Residential, Commercial and Industrial Markets.
  • GE Wattstation, first available in 2011[54]
  • GoSmart Technologies ChargeSPOT line of charging stations
  • GRIDbot "UP" family of charging stations
  • Hubbell PEP Stations[55]
  • Leviton home charging stations at a range of power levels, with separate pre-wire kit that allows one to plug into a NEMA 6 240 V receptacle[56]
  • Siemens VersiCharge for cost effective residential, semi-public, and fleet level 2 EV charging.
  • SemaConnect ChargePro Charging Stations
  • TucsonEV - J1772 Adapter Boxes, J1772 Extension cords, Inlets and Plugs with and without cord, J1772 Compatible EVSE for 240 V/30 A, Zero Motorcycle to J1772 Adapter, Tesla UMC to J1772 conversion, 30A and 40A EV UL listed cord.
  • Circontrol Circarlife product range includes EV charging infrastructure with post and wall mount units with J1772 standard[57]
  • OpenEVSE - Open Source Design for EVSE.
  • Smart EVSE project - Open Source EVSE with multistation current sharing.
  • Vega eStation Level-2 Charger. Part of chargeNET network in Sri Lanka.
  • Webasto Residential charging stations.[58]
  • Zappi - Residential charging stations[59]
  • elyctrify EV charging - Public & Private ev charging stations in India. [60]
  • ECCharging - Commercial & WorkPlace charging stations in Ireland[61]


Competing standardsEdit

A competing proposal known as the Mennekes connector initiated by RWE and Daimler was standardized in 2011's IEC 62196 as its Type 2 connector. It has been widely adopted as the European Union's standard single and three phase coupler.[12][62] The connector adopted the same protocols for the pilot pin as J1772's J-Plug. The IEC specification allows for up to 63 A and 43.6 kW. In 2018, the SAE J3068 committee released an enhancement to the EU connector tailored for the North American industrial market allowing up to 160 A / 166 kW on 3φ power.

The same IEC 62196-2 standard also specified a pair of Type 3 connector from Scame Global providing a single and three phase coupler with shutters.[12] After a 2016 approval by the IEC for a small modification to the Mennekes connector optionally allowing shutters, Type 3 has been deprecated.

Tokyo Electric Power Company has developed a specification solely for automotive high-voltage DC fast charging using the JARI DC connector, and formed the CHAdeMO (charge de move, equivalent to "charge for moving") association with Japanese automakers Mitsubishi, Nissan and Subaru to promote it.[63]

See alsoEdit

  • SAE J3068 — Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using a Three-Phase Capable Coupler

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hybrid - EV Committee (2001-09-27). "SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler, SAE J1772, REV. MONTH01". SAE International. Archived from the original (DOC) on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2009-10-23. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ "80Amp EVSE CS-100 Hardwired with Liberty Plugin | ClipperCreek". store.clippercreek.com. Retrieved 2021-10-18.
  3. ^ "Rulemaking: 2001-06-26 Updated and Informative Digest ZEV Infrastructure and Standardization" (PDF). title 13, California Code of Regulations. California Air Resources Board. 2002-05-13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-06-15. Retrieved 2010-05-23. Standardization of Charging Systems
  4. ^ "ARB Amends ZEV Rule: Standardizes Chargers & Addresses Automaker Mergers" (Press release). California Air Resources Board. 2001-06-28. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-05-23. the ARB approved the staff proposal to select the conductive charging system used by Ford, Honda and several other manufacturers
  5. ^ California Air Resources Board; Alexa Malik. "Rulemaking: 2001-06-28 15 DAY NOTICE ZEV Infra 15day Ntc2-28.doc" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-06-13. Retrieved 2009-10-23. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ "SAE J1772-2001(older AVCON) Electric Vehicle Chargers". CarStations. 2013-01-24. Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  7. ^ "Report on the Current Situation and Future Direction of Electric Vehicle Charger Standardisation" Archived 2021-08-03 at the Wayback Machine, SMMT, July 2010
  8. ^ "Attachment B-5. Final Regulation Order, Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation: Electric Vehicle Charging Requirements, Title 13, California Code of Regulations" (PDF). title 13, California Code of Regulations. California Air Resources Board. 2012-03-22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-06-21. Section 1962.3. Electric Vehicle Charging Requirements
  9. ^ Sam Abuelsamid (2009-06-29). "Underwriters Laboratories approves SAE J1772 charging plug". Archived from the original on 2009-07-01. Retrieved 2009-10-10. Underwriters Laboratories has completed its certification testing on the connector developed by Yazaki. {{cite web}}: External link in |author= (help)
  10. ^ "SAE standard on EV charging connector approved". SAE International. 2010-01-15. Archived from the original on 2010-02-06. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  11. ^ "Document: 23H/250/CDV - : IEC 62196-2 Ed. 1: Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for a.c. pin and contact-tube accessories", IEC, 13 December 2010
  12. ^ a b c “IEC International Standard for EV charging — A step forward for global EV roll-out” Archived 2016-05-20 at the Wayback Machine, IEC Newslog, 3. February 2011
  13. ^ "New SAE International Quick-Charge EV Connector Standard Gaining Momentum" (Press release). SAE International. 2011-08-04. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
  14. ^ "Universal charging for electric cars". Auto123.com. 2011-11-15. Archived from the original on 2011-12-28. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  15. ^ Seabaugh, Christian (2013-09-13). "First Test: 2014 Chevrolet Spark EV 2LT SparkSS". Motor Trend. Archived from the original on 2015-09-16. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  16. ^ Dr. Heiko Doerr (2011-11-08). "Current Status of the Combined Charging System" (PDF). Coordination Office Charging Interface (Audi, VW, BMW, Daimler, Porsche). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-26.
  17. ^ Miles, Dennis (July 2010). "A Brief Outline of J1772 Operation and Configuration" (PDF). evdl.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  18. ^ Pratt, Rick (2014). "Vehicle Communications and Charging Control" (PDF). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  19. ^ "SAE EV Charging Systems Committee, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler". Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
  20. ^ 10,000 / 365 = 27.4
  21. ^ "SAE Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler". SAE International. 2017-10-13. Archived from the original on 2020-01-02. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  22. ^ McLaughlin, Jim (23 October 2017). SAE J3068TM 3-phase AC charging update (PDF). EPRI Truck and Bus meeting (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017. J3068 adopts the European Type 2 coupler, 5 wire with neutral and adds a simple, robust, inexpensive and established datalink: LIN pulse width is the same as 5% PWM, so filters do not change.
  23. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. "Compare Side-by-Side - 2020 Chevrolet Bolt EV". fueleconomy.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  24. ^ "Charging the Chevy Volt web chat". GM-Volt.com. 2009-08-20. Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2010-09-03. When a J1772 standard plug (like on the Volt) is disconnected from the vehicle, no voltage is present at the pins.
  25. ^ a b Gery Kissel, SAE J1772 Task Force Lead (2010-02-18). "SAE J1772 Update For IEEE Standard 1809 Guide for Electric-Sourced Transportation Infrastructure Meeting" (PDF). SAE International. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-03-04. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
  26. ^ a b "SAE J1772 - SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charger Coupler". August 2001. Appendix A, Typical Pilot Line Circuitry. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2012-04-09.
  27. ^ a b c Anro Mathoy (17 January 2008). "Definition and implementation of a global EV charging infrastructure". BRUSA Elektronik. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
  28. ^ TABLE 4-7: RESISTOR CODING FOR PLUGS (IEC 61851-22, ANNEX B)
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