The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 Триумф – Triumf; translation: Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300 PMU-3,[4] is a mobile surface-to-air missile (SAM) system developed in the 1990s by Russia's NPO Almaz as an upgrade to the S-300 family of missiles. The S-400 was approved for service on 28 April 2007 and the first battalion of the systems assumed combat duty on 6 August 2007. The system is complemented by its successor, the S-500.

S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
TypeMobile long-range surface-to-air/anti-ballistic missile system
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service6 August 2007 – present
Used byPrimary user: Russia
See Operators section for others
Production history
DesignerAlmaz-Antey
ManufacturerFakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Unit costDomestic: ~US$500 million for a battery and reserve missiles.
Export: US$1–1.25 billion for a battery and reserve missiles (2021)[1][2]
Specifications

EngineYaMZ-8424.10 diesel V12
400 hp (300 kW)
TransmissionYaMZ
SuspensionLeaf spring
Ground clearance485 mm (19.1 in)
Operational
range
  • 400 km (250 mi) – 40N6E missile[3]
  • 150 km (93 mi) – 48N6(E) missile
  • 200 km (120 mi) – 48N6M(E2) missile
  • 240 km (150 mi) – 48N6DM(E3) missile
  • 40 km (25 mi) – 9M96 missile
  • 120 km (75 mi) – 9M96M(E2)) missile
Guidance
system
SARH with all missile model,and ARH in 40N6E, 9M96E2, 9M96E and 9M96 missiles

Development

 
The 48N6E3 missile used by the S-400

The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1980s and was announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1993.[5] On 12 February 1999 successful tests were reported at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan, and the S-400 was scheduled for deployment by the Russian army in 2001.[6] Alexander Lemanskiy of Almaz-Antey was the Chief Engineer on the S-400 project.

In 2003, it became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment. In August, two high-ranking military officials expressed concern that the S-400 was being tested with older interceptors from the S-300P system and concluded that it was not ready for deployment.[6] The completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM missile.[7][8] The system was approved for service by the government on 28 April 2007.[9] Russia had accepted for service the 40N6 long-range missile for the S-400 air-defence system, a source in the domestic defense industry told TASS news agency in October 2018.[10]

The S-400 Triumf and Pantsir missile system can be integrated into a two-layer defense system.[11][12]

Structure

 
PBU 55K6E command centre

S-400 missile systems are organized around the 30K6E administration system, which can coordinate eight divizions (battalions).[13][14][15] The 55K6E is a command and control center based on the Ural-532301 vehicle. The 91N6E[13] is a panoramic radar detection system with a 340 km (210 mi) range and protection against jamming, and is mounted on an MZKT-7930 vehicle.[16][better source needed] Six battalions of 98ZH6E surface-to-air missile systems (an independent combat system)[17] can track no more than six targets on their own,[18] with an additional two battalions if they are within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) range. The 92N6E (or 92N2E) is a multi-functional radar with a 340-kilometre (210 mi) range, which can track 20 targets.[19][20] The 5P85TE2 transporter-erector-launcher and the 5P85SE2 on a trailer (up to 12 launchers) are used for launch. The 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2, and the ultra-long-range 40N6E missiles have been authorized by a Russian presidential decree.[21]

 
S-400 92N2 radar and 5P85T2

Optional elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E)[17][22] include the 15I6ME–98ZH6E, which extends coverage 30, 60, and 90 km (19, 38, and 57 mi) from that provided by the 30K6E. The 96L6E[23] has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. The 40B6M is housing for the 92N6E or 96L6E radar. The Protivnik-GE is an anti-stealth UHF radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range.[24] The Moscow-1 passive sensor is 2+12 times more effective than the Protivnik, with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range[25] Orion[26] for a target-designation on-the-air defense system, and the Avtobaza-M[27] and Orion+ Avtobaza add high-precision detection. The 1RL220BE[17][28] versions were reportedly used for jamming.[29] The 400-kilometre (250 mi)-range S-200D Dubna (SA-5c) missiles and S-300 P-family radar systems can be used without additional command-and-control centers.[30] S-300 (SA-20A, SA-20B) missiles may also be guided.[31] A-50 and A-50U[13] aircraft provide early warning and command-and-control target designation.[32]

 
Protivnik-GE model at the 2013 MAKS Airshow

The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the[17] S-400 Triumf 98ZH6E system; the S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system); the S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system); the Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery-command post; the Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle. The Protivnik-GE and Gamma-DE radars, integrated with the 92H6E radar system, enables communication between each battery with Baikal-E senior command posts and similar types; nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е and 83М6Е2 administration systems; the Polyana-D4М1 command post; fighter-aircraft command post, and mobile long-range radars. The system's VHF component provides sector search-and-tracking, with the X- and L-band components providing fine-tracking capability. Good placement of the radars relative to the threat axis enables the L- and X-band components to illuminate the incoming target from angles where the target radar cross-section (RCS) is sub-optimal. The RLM-S and RLM-D have better elevation-tracking accuracy than the RLM-M, and the Nebo-M should be capable of producing high-quality tracks suitable for mid-course guidance of modern surface-to-air missiles and trajectory guidance of legacy SAMs.[33]

 
92N6A radar for S-400

The Gamma-C1E SHF mobile radar station has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range.[34] The Nebo-M VHF mobile radar station and the Resonance-NE radar station have a detection range of 400 kilometres (250 mi), and 40 kilometres (25 mi) to an altitude of 500 metres (1,600 ft). All Nebo-family locators are doubled for army air defense.[35] During the 1970s, the long-range mobile UHF 5H87, and SHF 5H69 low-altitude locators were used.[36] A goal of the 1980s was detection at an altitude of 10 metres (33 ft) at a distance of 40 km (25 mi).[37] The Elbrus-90 computer is used to control the system.[38]

Components

According to the Almaz-Antey product brochure,[39][better source needed] the 92N6E multi-function radar acts as the primary radar with an actual detection range of 340 km. An interceptor missile is highly dependent on 92N6E multi-function radar rather than Nebo-SVU high-altitude VHF radar.

The 91N6E panoramic radar[40] has a declared targeting range of 150 km (93 mi)[41] Maximum targeting ranges (detection ranges are wider) are:

  • For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a RCS of 0.4 square metres): 200 km (120 mi)
  • For a target with RCS of 4 square metres: 340 km (210 mi)[42][better source needed]
  • For targeting of strategic-bomber sized types: 340 km (210 mi)[43][better source needed]
 
96L6 high-altitude radar

The 96L6 high-altitude detector (TSBS)[44][45] radar and equipment operates independently of the 96L6E low-level radar detector. The 96L6E2 export version can track a maximum of 20 targets,[46][better source needed] and is resistant to false returns of clutter in mountainous terrain. It can perform the functions of a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B)[47] or S-400. The 96L6-1[48] serves as command of S-400 and S-500 batteries.

  • PBU 55K6E command center[49] with a maximum distance between the command center and the battalion of 98ZH6E when re-transmitters are being used is 100 km (62 mi).

Missiles are launched from 5P85TE2 self-propelled launchers or 5P85SE2 trailer launchers operating in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. A new type of transporter was introduced in 2014 to improve mobility while reducing fuel consumption. The cost of transporters in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles.[50] The MAZ launcher chassis are reportedly of higher quality than the domestic equivalent.[51]

Missiles

 
9M100E SAM at the 2017 MAKS airshow

One system comprising eight divizion (battalions) can control 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles[52] (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km [160 mi]).[53][54][55][better source needed] A gas system launches missiles from launch tubes. At 30 metres (98 ft) downrange rocket motor ignition activates.[31] In April 2015, a successful test firing of the missile was conducted at an airborne target at a range of 400 km (250 mi);[56][57] Transporter Erector Launchers (TELs) carrying the long-range 40N6 may only hold two missiles instead of the typical four due to their large size.[58] Another test recorded a 9M96 missile using an active radar homing head that reached a altitude of 56 km (35 mi).[59] All missiles are equipped with directed explosion warheads, which increases the probability of complete destruction of aerial targets but are less effective against ballistic targets.[60] In 2016, Russian anti-aircraft missile troops received upgraded guided missiles for S-300 and S-400 defense systems.[61] The anti-aircraft version of the missile system, designed to destroy aircraft, cruise, and ballistic missiles, can also be used against ground targets.[62] The S-400 is able to intercept cruise missiles at a range of only about 40 km (25 mi) due to their low-altitude flight paths.[63]

Missile specifications
GRAU index Range Altitude Maximum velocity Maximum target velocity Weight Warhead Guidance Notes
40N6E[64] 380 km (240 mi)[64] 30 km (98,000 ft)[64] 1,190 m/s (2,700 mph; Mach 3.5)[65] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)[64] 1,893 kg[66] Semi-active radar homing or
active radar homing
With an active radar homing head, climbs to designated altitude then guidance switches to search & destroy mode.[31]


48N6DM/
48N6E3
240 km (150 mi)[67] 27 km (89,000 ft) 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)[67] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)[67] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[67] 180 kg (400 lb)[67] Semi-active radar homing[17]
48N6E2 200 km (120 mi)[67] 27 km (89,000 ft) 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)[67] 2,800 m/s (6,300 mph; Mach 8.2)[67] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[67] 180 kg (400 lb)[67] Semi-active radar homing[17]
9M96 and
9M96E2
120 km (75 mi)[68] 30 km (98,000 ft)[68] 1,000 m/s (2,200 mph; Mach 2.9)[68] 420 kg (930 lb)[68] 24 kg (53 lb)[68] Active radar homing[68] Claimed high hit probability with one missile against fast, maneuvering targets. Aircraft = 0.9; UAV = 0.8; Cruise missile = 0.7.[13][68]
Load factor of more than 20 g at 30 km (19 mi) altitude greatly increases the probability to destroy short- to medium-range ballistic missiles.[30]
9M96E 40 km (25 mi)[68][69] 20 km (66,000 ft)[69] 900 m/s (2,000 mph; Mach 2.6)[70] 333 kg (734 lb)[69] 24 kg (53 lb)[69] Active radar homing[71]
9M100E
  • The anti-ballistic missile (ABM) capabilities of the S-400 system are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2022 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the S-500 system and are too large for SA-20.[72] The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-BM role.[73]

S-300 system family tree

S-300 family
S-300VS-300PS-300F
S-300V1S-300V2S-300PTS-300PSFortRif
S-300VMS-300PT-1S-300PMS-300PMUFort-MRif-M
Favorit-S
S-300VM1S-300VM2S-300PT-1AS-300PM1S-300PMU1
Antey 2500S-300PM2S-300PMU2Russian Ver.
S-300V4FavoritExport Ver.
S-300VMDS-400

Morpheus defence system

  • A separate independent air defense system, the 42S6 Morfey (Morpheus) is being developed. This system is designated as a short-range air defense system to protect the S-400 from various threats during its terminal phase, and will also act together with the S-350E as a supplement to the S-400. Together, these systems form part of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.[74]
  • Development of Morfey started in 2007 and was planned to be introduced in 2013, but was delayed until at least 2015, in 2023 the development is not completed.[75][76][77] The missile system consists of omnidirectional 29YA6 radar and 36 missiles.[74] The missiles have up to 10 km (6.2 mi) range and an altitude of up to 3500 m.[74][78]
  • An external independent target system is in the works (RLS "Niobium"). Mobility looks to be in the 5 minute range. It uses multiple frequency capability (band S and UHF) with a declared detection parameter of a 1 square meter RCS at 430 km (270 mi) including a target speed of 8000 km/h (4791 mph, Mach 6.35). The detection system requires the operator to transfer command of targeting to subordinate systems; in this application, the maximum target speed is obtained by use of the subordinate systems.[79]

Specifications

Main characteristics of the S-400[80]
Max. target speed 4.8 km/s (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)[22]or

lower than 850 metres per second (3,100 km/h; 1,900 mph; Mach 2.5)[81]

Target detection distance (km) 400
Range against aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum
400[82]
2[53]
Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
  • maximum
  • minimum
27[22] (easily)/30[54]
Range against tactical ballistic targets (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum
60
5[17]
The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full system) 36[83]
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full system) 72, can use 2 missile to attack 1 target[84]
Ready for operation on a signal from driving on the march 5 min;[85] 10–15 min during development[86]
Ready for operation on a signal from standby ready and enabled 35 sec; ready 3 min[40]
Time between major overhauls 10,000 hours
Service life
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

At least 20 years
10 years
  • Types of targets:[87]
    • Aerial targets
    • Ballistic missiles with low probability (range up to 3,500 km)[69][81]
  • All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14); absolute limit 5 kilometres per second (18,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 15),[69] the minimum target speed is zero.[17]
  • System response time 9–10 seconds.[88]
  • The complex can move on roads at 60 km/h (37 mph) and off-road at speeds up to 25 km/h (16 mph).[89]
  • According to the Pravda state newspaper, the price of one battalion (about 7–8 launchers) is US$200 million.[90]

Deployment history

Russia

 
S-400 crew on duty

On 21 May 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 systems would be put on combat duty near the town of Elektrostal in Moscow Oblast, to defend Moscow and Central Russia, by 1 July 2007.[91] On 6 August 2007 the first regiment equipped with S-400 systems entered active service near Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. The regiment was the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[92]

On 8 February 2008 Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia would be replacing the S-300 systems in the northwest of Russia with the S-400. Military experts expect Russia's use of the system as a major component of their ballistic missile defense until 2020.[93]

In September 2006 Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced the purchase of 18 S-400 battalions for internal defense for the period 2007–2015.[94]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems which went into operational status in April 2012.[95] One S-400 divizion is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city of Nakhodka.[96]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[97][needs update]

Russia plans to recommission the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov in 2023. Plans called for the installation of the 48N6DMK anti-aircraft missile derived from the land-based S-400. This will extend the Kirov's air defense from 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi) to 250 km (160 mi; 130 nmi).[98][needs update] Adm. Vladimir Korolev stated at that time that Russia's Northern Fleet's Coastal Forces had deployed S-400s.[99][100]

On 1 March 2016 the acting commander of the 14th Air Force and Air Defense Army, major general Vladimir Korytkov, said that six S-400 units had been activated at the air defense formation in Russia's Novosibirsk Oblast.[101] TASS also reported that as of the end of 2015, a total of eleven Russian missile regiments were armed with S-400, and by the end of 2016 their number was expected to increase to sixteen.[101]

2015 – Syria

It was reported in November 2015 that S-400s would be deployed to Syria along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces in support of the Syrian government.[102] However, those claims were refuted by Russia.[103] On 25 November 2015 the Russian government announced it would deploy S-400s in Syria as a response to the downing of its Su-24M jet by Turkey.[104] By the next day, deployment of S-400 air defense systems to Syria was underway.[105] The first S-400 unit was activated at the Khmeimim Air Base in Latakia Governorate.[106] In April and July 2017 a second S-400 unit was activated 13 km (8.1 mi) northwest of Masyaf, Hama Governorate.[106] Although these systems are located in Syria, they are under the command of the Russian military and not the Syrian (nor Iranian) military,[107] making the Russian government liable if used against another state (that is, its use would be considered an attack by Russia rather than Syria).

On 22 May 2018 Israeli Air Force commander Major General Amikam Norkin reported that Israel became the first country in the world to use the F-35I Adir in combat during recent clashes with Iran in Syria.[108] In mid-2020, several media outlets, including Turkish media, questioned the combat capability of the S-400 air defense system.[109] In late December 2021, the Israeli Air Force flew military jets over areas protected by S-400 and Pantsir SAM in Syria and bombed Iran-backed Hezbollah militia based in Latakia.[110][better source needed] Russia operates a naval base in the port of Tartus, 85 km (53 mi) to the south near the port of Latakia.[111][112] Considering the engagement range advertised by the Russians, the S-400 could have engaged Israeli aircraft but did not. Neither Russian fighter jets nor the S-400 systems attempted to intercept the Israeli aircraft.[107] It is widely believed that Russia and Israel have an agreement that Israel will guarantee the safety of Russian personnel and assets during its strikes on non-Russian targets in Syria and in return, Russia will not target Israeli aircraft nor repel Israeli strikes.[107]

2022 – Ukraine

Initial Ukrainian sources claimed that, on 25 February 2022, the Su-27 of Ukrainian Colonel Oleksandr Oksanchenko was shot down by an S-400 over Kyiv.[113]

On 14 April 2022, the Russian Defence Ministry claimed that a Ukrainian Mi-8 was shot down by a S-400 near Horodnia, Chernihiv Oblast on its way to an air base following an attack on Russian territory near Klimovo, Bryansk Oblast.[114][115]

In August 2022, Ukraine claimed that a 92N6E radar used in the S-400 SAM system was destroyed in Kherson region.[116]

On 15 October 2022, a S-400 missile crashed or was shot down in the Grayvoronsky District of Belgorod Oblast, Russia.[117]

On 16 October 2023, units from the Ukrainian Special Operations Forces carried out precision strikes targeting two key Russian airbases in Berdiansk and Luhansk destroying S-400 surface-to-air missiles.[118]

On 30 October 2023, Ukraine launched ATACMS missiles with M39 munition[119] that destroyed Russia's S-400 surface-to-air missile in Luhansk Oblast.[120]

On 23 August 2023, GRU released a video of two alleged elements of an S-400 battery being destroyed in Olenivka, Crimea, 120 km (75 mi) south of Kherson, by a barrage of Ukrainian missiles.[121][122][123] Ukrainian forces, according to Ukrainian media, used a R-360 Neptune and a drone to destroy the missile’s radar.[124] [125]

On 14 September 2023, Ukraine claimed to have destroyed a Russian S-400’s radar near Yevpatoria, Crimea.[126] On 4 October 2023, Ukrainian kamikaze drone destroyed one radar and a missile launcher of S-400 system in Belgorod region.[127]

In late October 2023, Russian sources claimed that the S-400 was used in conjunction with the Beriev A-50 flying radar to shoot at Ukrainian air targets with new warheads of anti-aircraft guided missiles.[128][129]

On 9 November 2023, the UK MoD intelligence assessment indicated that due to the destruction of "several" Russian S-400s in Ukraine, Russia may have to redeploy S-400 systems from "distant parts" of Russia's borders to Ukraine.[130][131]

On 19 April 2024, Ukraine launched ATACMS missiles at Russian military airfield in Crimea and destroyed Russia's S-400 launchers, three radars and Fundament-M air surveillance system.[132][133][134]

On 23 April 2024, Ukraine's Tivaz Artillery Battery launched American-made HIMARS at Russia's S-400 missile system's 92N2 radar and 96L6 high-altitude radar and destroyed both of the radar system.[135][136][137]

On 28 April 2024, Ukraine launched multiple ATACMS missiles at Russian based in the occupied Crimean peninsula and destroyed Russian S-400 air defence systems.[138][139]

On 6 May 2024, Ukrainian forces reportedly destroyed a tracked version of Russian S-400 missile launcher in the occupied Zaporizhzhia region.[140][133]

On 22 May 2024, Ukrainian forces destroyed Russia's S-400 launchers using American-supplied ATACMS missile at the Mospyne airbase.[141][142]

On 23 May 2024, Ukrainian forces launched multiple ATACMS missiles at Russian position in Donetsk region destroying 96L6 radar and at least two of the launchers.[143][144]

On 30 May 2024, the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) destroyed a Russian Nebo-SVU long-range VHF surveillance radar system in Crimea.[145]The Nebo-SVU is surveillance radar deployed as part of the S-400 missile system.[146]

Russians have been reported to use reprogrammed S-400 missiles to launch ballistic ground-to-ground attacks. In such an attack on 13 December 2023 out of 10 missiles fired at Kyiv, all were supposedly downed, but falling debris still caused some damage in residential regions. The missiles were most likely reprogrammed 48N6.[147][148]

On 3 June 2024, Ukrainian forces destroyed for the first time an S-400 air defence missile system in Belgorod using a U.S.-supplied M142 HIMARS rocket launcher. Army Recognition published photos of a destroyed 5P85SM2-01 transporter erector launcher[149] and power generation unit from the S-400 system.[150][151]

On 10 June 2024, Ukrainian forces have struck Russian antiaircraft missile system, including S-400 missile launchers in the Dzhankoy area in Crimea.[152]

Belarus

In 2011 State Secretary of the Union State of Russia and Belarus Pavel Borodin stated that Russia will supply the S-400 air defense system to Belarus.[153] On 1 December 2021 Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko, in response to a reporter's question, replied that a Belarusian training center already has S-400 systems. The president said: "Yes. We train our guys in this training center. I'd like to ask the president [of Russia] to leave this system here."[154] In May 2022 Lukashenko further announced the country bought an undisclosed number of S-400 air defense missile systems.[155]

China

In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin had given authorization to sell the S-400 system to China.[156] On 13 April 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport confirmed that China secured a contract for the purchase of the S-400 air defense system.[157] Delivery of the system began in January 2018.[158] China test fired Russian S-400 systems for the first time in early August 2018.[159][160] Deliveries were reportedly postponed after the delivery of two S-400 units.[161]

The acquisition of S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, improves China's air space defense. A reported 400 km (250 mi) coverage range would allow China's defense to cover all of the Taiwan Straits and the Diaoyu Islands. Taiwan plans countermeasures using signals intelligence units to locate and destroy S-400 systems before they can be used.[162]

Turkey

In late 2017 Turkish and Russian officials signed a US$2.5 billion agreement for delivery of the S-400 air defense system to Turkey.[163][164] The US Secretary of State raised concerns over the deal,[165] which were rebuffed by President Erdogan and other Turkish officials, citing the US refusal to sell the upgraded MIM-104 Patriot to Turkey, considered to be an important American ally by the US. Turkey received its first installment of the Russian S-400 missile defense system on 12 July 2019.[166] On 17 July 2019, Turkey was suspended from the F-35 program, the US stating "F-35 cannot coexist with a Russian intelligence collection platform that will be used to learn about its advanced capabilities"[167] and on December 14, 2020, the US imposed CAATSA sanctions on Turkey.[168] As of 2020, 4 batteries consisting of 36 fire units and 192 or more missiles were delivered to Turkey.[169]

Turkey has tested the S-400 air defense system against drones and F-16 fighter jets at low altitudes. According to Turkish media, the Turkish military has identified some deficiencies against a slow-moving object at low altitude.[170][171][172]

India

On 15 October 2016, during the BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 regiments to India.[173] The US$5.43 billion deal (₹40,000 crore) was formally signed on 5 October 2018, ignoring the threat of US sanctions.[174] The deliveries were expected to commence by the end of 2020[175][176][177] and brought into service in October 2020.[178]

In March 2021, U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin discussed India's planned purchase of Russia's S-400 air missile system and warned that the purchase of S-400 could trigger CAATSA sanctions.[179]

The first squadron of S-400 was received by India in December 2021 and deployed in the Punjab sector.[180] Delivery of the second S-400 squadron began from April 2022 onwards and the system deployed on the border facing China in the eastern part of India.[181] Alexander Mikheyev, Rosoboronexport CEO, said "The contract with India is being implemented successfully. In the near future, we will supply a second regiment. The first one has been provided already. More than 200 specialists have been trained. All five regiments will be supplied by the end of 2023".[182] While delivery of the third squadron was planned for November 2022,[183] the third squadron was finally delivered in February 2023.[184]

Delivery of the remaining two systems are likely to be dependent on the resolution of issues such as insurance and establishment of mechanism for balance payments which are delayed due to sanctions on Russia following the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine.However, it was expected that these will be resolved and delivery of balance squadrons completed by late 2023 or early 2024,[185]later revised to August 2026.[186][187][188]

Foreign interest

Saudi Arabia

In September 2009 the S-400 was reportedly part of a US$2 billion arms deal between Russia and Saudi Arabia.[189] The Saudis wanted to acquire the S-400, but Russia was only willing to sell S-300 air defense system at the time.[190] By November 2019 the deal had still not been finalized.[191] Saudi Arabia is no longer considering the Russian S-400 air defense system, following the kingdom's deal for an American alternative. The American Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system has been cleared for sale to the Saudis by the U.S. State Department cleared the THAAD estimated at $15 billion in 2017 dollars.[192]

Iran

In June 2019 some Iranian officials expressed interest in procuring the S-400 missile system to further improve its defense capabilities along with the previously purchased S-300PMU2. Russia stated at the time it was ready to sell the S-400 system to Iran if an official request was made.[citation needed]

Egypt

In February 2017 Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Rostec, stated that Egypt was interested in the S-400 air defense system. He explained that Russia offered to sell Egypt either the Antey-2500 or S-400. According to Chemezov, the negotiations were delayed due to Egypt's financial issues.[193]

Iraq

In February 2018 Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim al-Jaafari confirmed ongoing rumors that his country had shown interest in the S-400 and that negotiations with Russia were underway.[194][195][196] In May 2019 Iraq's ambassador to Russia, Haidar Mandour Hadi, said the Iraqi government had decided to procure the S-400 air defense system.[197]

Qatar

In January 2018 Russian state media TASS reported that Qatar was in an advanced state of talks to procure the S-400 air defense system.[198][199]

United States

In June 2020 United States senator John Thune proposed an amendment to the (ultimately unsuccessful) Senate version of the 2021 National Defense Authorization Act to allow the US Department of Defense to purchase Turkey's S-400 system with funds from the U.S. Army's missile procurement account,[200] thus negating Turkey's contravention of the CAATSA sanctions.[201] This was an attempt to allow Turkey to re-enter the F-35 Lightning II acquisition and ownership program.[201]

Serbia

Serbia has also expressed interest in the system.[202][203]

Foreign variant

South Korea

South Korea is developing the KM-SAM, a medium-range SAM system based on technology from the 9M96 missile, with assistance from NPO Almaz. The prime contractor is Hanwha Group (formerly Samsung-Thales, a defunct joint venture between South Korea's Samsung and France's Thales).[204] The KM-SAM will consist of an X-band multifunction radar vehicle built by Hanwha in technical cooperation with Almaz,[205] with fire control and TEL vehicles built by Doosan.[206] Missiles will be provided by LIG Nex1.[207]

Operators

  Current operators: Algeria,[208] Belarus,[154] China,[209] India,[210][better source needed] Russia,[211] Turkey[212]

Current operators

  Algeria
  Belarus
  China
  India
  • Indian Air Force – A contract was signed in October 2018 during an official meeting between Russia's President Vladimir Putin and India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi. The deal, worth of $US5.43 billion, includes delivery of the 1st regiment of the S-400 beginning November 2021. India deployed the 1st regiment of the S-400 in April 2022. 3 regiments delivered, with 2 more to join by August 2026.[187][188]
  Russia
  Turkey

See also

References

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