Ruthin (// (listen) RITH-in; Welsh: Rhuthun) is the county town of Denbighshire in north Wales and a community in the southern part of the Vale of Clwyd. The older town, the castle and St Peter's Square lie on a hill, but many newer parts in the flood plain of the River Clwyd. This emerged several times in the late 1990s – flood-control works costing £3 million were completed in autumn 2003. Ruthin is skirted by villages such as Pwllglas and Rhewl. The name comes from the Welsh words rhudd (red) and din (fort), reflecting the colour of the sandstone bedrock, of which the castle was built in 1277–1284. The original name was Castell Coch yng Ngwern-fôr (Red Castle in the Sea Swamps). The mill is nearby. Maen Huail is a registered ancient monument attributed to the brother of Gildas and King Arthur, located outside Barclays Bank in St Peter's Square.
The Old Court House built in 1401
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The population at the 2001 Census was 5,218, of whom 47 per cent were male and 53 per cent female. The average age of the population was 43.0 years and the population is 98.2 per cent "white". According to the 2011 census, 68 per cent were born in Wales and 25 per cent in England. Welsh speakers account for 42 per cent of the town's population.
There is evidence of Celtic and later Roman settlements in the area. However, little is known of the history of the town before the construction of Ruthin Castle was started in 1277 by Dafydd, the brother of prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. However, he forfeited the castle when he rebelled against King Edward I with his brother; Edward's queen, Eleanor, was in residence in 1281. The Marcher Lord, Reginald de Grey, Justiciar of Chester, was given the Cantref (an administrative district) of Deffrencloyt (Dyffryn Clwyd, the Welsh for Vale of Clwyd), and his family ran the area for the next 226 years. The third Baron de Grey's land dispute with Owain Glyndŵr triggered Glyndŵr's rebellion against King Henry IV, which began on 16 September 1400, when Glyndŵr burned Ruthin to the ground, reputedly leaving only the castle and a few other buildings standing.
The Lord de Grey established a Collegiate Church in 1310. Now the Collegiate and Parish Church of St Peter, it dominates the Ruthin skyline. It has a double nave and boasts two medieval carved roofs. These days it is known for its musical tradition. It has a large choir of children and adults and a four-manual Wadsworth-Willis organ. Behind the church can be seen the old college buildings, school and Christ's Hospital.
The half-timbered Old Court House (built in 1401), on the square, features the remains of a gibbet last used to execute a Franciscan priest, Charles Meehan, also known as Mahoney. He was shipwrecked on the Welsh coast at a time when Catholicism was equated with treason — Meehan was hanged, drawn, and quartered in 1679. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1987 as one of the Eighty-five martyrs of England and Wales.
During the English Civil War, the castle survived an eleven-week siege, after which it was demolished by order of Parliament. It was rebuilt in the 19th century as a country house, which has now been turned into the Ruthin Castle Hotel. From 1826 until 1921 the castle was the home of the Cornwallis-West family, members of Victorian and Edwardian high society.
In its 18th-century heyday as a town on drovers' routes from Wales into England, Ruthin was reputed to have "a pub for every week of the year". By 2007, however, there were only eleven pubs in the town. The public records of 23 October 1891 show 31 such establishments serving a population of 3,186; most have been converted into housing or shops. The Ruthin Union Workhouse was built in 1834.
In 1863 the Denbigh, Ruthin and Corwen Railway, which linked in Denbigh with the Vale of Clwyd Railway (later part of the London and North Western Railway, the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, and British Rail) reached the town. The route ran from Rhyl along the north coast through Denbigh and Ruthin to Corwen, before joining a route from Ruabon through Llangollen, Corwen and Bala to Barmouth. The railway and Ruthin railway station closed in 1963 under the Beeching Axe. The site of the station is now occupied by a large road roundabout (Brieg Roundabout) and the Ruthin Craft Centre, which opened in 1982, but was rebuilt and reopened in 2008.
The town's principal school is Ysgol Brynhyfryd (Brynhyfryd School), a comprehensive school for 11 to 18 year olds. Its Grade II listed building was built about 1830 as the home of local solicitor, before becoming in 1898 Ruthin County School for Girls. (The town's boys travelled five miles by train to Denbigh High School.) The school went co-educational in 1938, with feeder junior schools up to around six miles away. Building work in the 1950s and the early 1970s increased the number of pupils from 700 to 1000 in a few years, as the minimum school-leaving age rose from 15 to 16). In 2001–2002 the listed building became the Sixth Form Centre. The school's sports facilities, including the swimming pool, are used as the town's Leisure Centre. It also features a theatre and arts complex, Theatr John Ambrose, named after a headmaster of the school in the 1980s and 1990s. This was opened by the actor Rhys Ifans, a former pupil of Ysgol Pentrecelyn and Ysgol Maes Garmon in Mold, but brought up in Ruthin.
In 1574 Dr Gabriel Goodman re-founded Ruthin School which was founded in 1284, making it one of the oldest private schools in the United Kingdom. In 1590, Goodman established Christ's Hospital for 12 poor persons around St Peter's Church on the square, and was Dean of Westminster for 40 years (1561–1601). Ruthin School is now a co-educational boarding and day school, with 227 pupils overall, 145 of them boarders in 2014. In September 2013, the school bought Ye Old Anchor, after its closure as a hotel in November 2012, and converted it into a boarding house for 30 upper sixth-form students.
Ruthin has daytime bus services on Mondays to Saturdays, with the last bus on most routes leaving between 5.30 and 7.30 pm. There is no service on Sundays or public holidays. Routes serving Ruthin are Stagecoach 1 and 2 to Mold (1 via Llanarmon and Llanferres, 2 via Llanarmon, Graianrhyd, and Erryrys), X1 runs three times a day to Chester via Llanferres and Mold – frequency of the buses to Mold varies throughout the day between 30 minutes and 2 hours. Route X51 by Arriva runs basically hourly between Rhyl, St Asaph, Denbigh, Ruthin, and Wrexham (Rhyl bus station is next to the railway station, providing Ruthin's most convenient access to the national rail network, while Wrexham railway station is a short distance from its bus station.) Route 55, by Llew Jones Coaches, operates to Corwen at intervals of 50–135 minutes through the day, with three buses extended to Llangollen, and two of these via Llangollen to Wrexham. Route 76, by M & H Coaches, runs six times a day between Denbigh and Ruthin via Llandyrnog, Llangynhafal, and Llanbedr DC; two of these also serve Llanfair DC, Graigfechan, and Pentrecelyn. Less regular services include a weekly route 71 on Fridays between Corwen, Cerrigydrudion, Ruthin, and Morrisons' supermarket in Denbigh, and route 72 on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays for Cyffylliog, Clocaenog, Bontuchel, Betws Gwerfil Goch, Melin-y-Wig, Derwen, and Clawddnewydd. Ruthin town has route 73, operating three buses a day around Ruthin on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.
In 1858, it was intended to extend the Vale of Clwyd line from Denbigh to Ruthin, running alongside the race-course in the town park (now Parc-y Dre housing) to the Station Hotel. However the West family prevented the line crossing the Castle Park towards Corwen. The route was diverted to the north alongside the road to Wrexham and the Station Hotel renamed the Park Place Hotel. Opposite Station Road lies Railway Terrace, a row of Grade II listed buildings, built in 1864 with evidence of trains running in a cutting in front. The first sod was cut in September 1860 by Mrs Florence West, with an inaugural service starting on St David's Day 1862. To mark this, a song was composed with words by T. Ab Gwilym, music by B. Williams and published by Isaac Clarke. The line ran 6.75 miles (10.9 km), with stations at Rhewl and Llanrhaiadr.
The 17th-century Crown House, on Well Street, houses the head office of The Broadcasting Company, Europe's largest radio sports agency.
Ruthin Leisure Centre Mold Road. Swimming pool, Fitness Suite.  Telephone 01824 703880
Llanfwrog Community Centre Mwrog Street.Tennis, Golf driving range, Bowls, Cafe. Telephone 01824 702885 
Ruthin Gaol ceased to be a prison in 1916 when the prisoners and guards were transferred to Shrewsbury. The County Council bought the buildings in 1926 and used part of them for offices, the county archives, and the town library. During the Second World War the prison buildings were used as a munitions factory, before being handed back to the County Council, when it was the headquarters of the Denbighshire Library Service. In 2004 the Gaol was extensively renovated and reopened as a museum.
The first House of Correction, or Bridewell, was built at the bottom of Clwyd Street, next to the river, in 1654, to replace the Old Court House, where able-bodied idlers and the unemployed were sent to work. Following John Howard's investigations into prison conditions the Denbighshire justices resolved to build a new model prison in Ruthin on the site of the old Bridewell. Work began in January 1775. In 1802 the prison had four cells for prisoners and nine rooms for debtors. By 1837 it could hold 37 inmates. The Prisons Act of 1865 set new standards for the design of prisons – as the Ruthin County Gaol did not meet the standards, plans were drawn up for a new four-storey wing. The new prison for up to 100 prisoners was built in the style of London's Pentonville Prison at a cost of £12,000. On 1 April 1878 the Ruthin County Gaol became HM Prison Ruthin, covering the counties of Denbighshire, Flintshire, and Merionethshire. As far as is known, only one person was ever executed in the prison: William Hughes of Denbigh, aged 42, who was hanged on 17 February 1903 for the murder of his wife, his plea of insanity having failed. Another prison personality was John Jones, known as Coch Bach y Bala – who was a kleptomaniac and poacher who had spent more than half his 60 years in all the prisons of north Wales and many in England; he twice escaped from Ruthin Gaol, first on 30 November 1879 when he walked out of prison with three others while the staff were having supper – a £5 reward was offered for his capture, which happened on the following 3 January. On 30 September 1913 he tunnelled out of his cell and using a rope made out of his bedding he climbed over the roof of the chapel and kitchen and got over the wall; after seven days living rough on the Nantclwyd Estate several miles away, Jones was shot in the leg by one of his pursuers, 19-year-old Reginald Jones-Bateman. Jones died of shock and blood loss, while Jones-Bateman was charged with manslaughter, though the charges were subsequently dropped.
The Craft CentreEdit
The Craft Centre had ten studios occupied by craftsmen who could be watched while they worked at glass blowing, ceramic manufacture, painting, furniture restoration, etc. The original Craft Centre was demolished early in 2007, and a new Craft Centre opened in July 2008 in a £4.3 million scheme, which contains six craft workshops, larger galleries and an expanded craft retail gallery, two residency studios, an education space and a tourist information centre, and a restaurant.
Nantclwyd y DreEdit
Nantclwyd y Dre (previously known as Tŷ Nantclwyd), in Castle Street, was built about 1435 by a local merchant Gronw ap Madoc. The building was sold to the county council in 1982, restored from 2004, and opened to the public in 2007. It contains seven rooms which have been restored to represent various periods in the building's history. Visitors can also observe a colony of Lesser horseshoe bats in the attic rooms.
Behind the house are two gardens, the 13th-century inner garden and the outer Lord's Garden, itself believed to have been part of a 13th-century developed castle garden. Restored in the 18th century, Lord's Garden is now itself Grade II listed. In December 2013, the council successfully applied for a grant of £177,600 from the Heritage Lottery Fund, which will see Lord's Garden restored and opened to the public by 2015.
This is Ruthin's main park area, which includes a children's play area, a lake, walks and picnic area. A skate park was built in 2007 and a zip wire and trim trail added later. The River Clwyd runs through the park.
According to the historian Peter Smith, "Until the 18th century most towns in Wales had many black-and-white houses (such as Tŷ Nantclwyd y Dre). Ruthin is the only example we have left. It should be carefully conserved, as the last memory we have of these towns." Seven Eyes is a Grade II* listed building of some importance situated in St Peter's Square.
St Peter's SquareEdit
- St Peter's Church
- The Myddleton Arms
The Myddleton Arms is also known as the Seven Eyes. It is said to have been built in the 14th century. The Dutch style design, long, steeped roof is attributed to Sir Richard Clough, an Elizabethan merchant. It has four tiers of dormer windows, each at a different elevation, known locally as the seven eyes of Ruthin. The property was acquired in 1595 by Sir Hugh Myddleton, who provided London with it first fresh water supply. The view of The Myddleton on the square is in fact of the rear of the building. The front of the building looked out over the Clwydian hills.
- HSBC Bank
Formerly a confectionery and bakery shop rented by Mr Thomas Trehearne, the property was owned by the Castle estate. The property also served as a chemist's shop, and later Dick's boot store. On 1 May 1898 Mr Harris Jones took the lease of the property for 21 years as a draper, hosier, glover and dressmaker; he also sold oilcloths, linoleum and other floor coverings. The shop and house were put up for sale in the 1913 by the castle estate along with the Castle Hotel and the Myddleton Arms, which were purchased by Mr William Owen. His lease expired in 1919 with Mr Jones transferring to what is now Gayla House, where he converted the ground floor from residential to retail premises in 1923. The premises are now owned by HSBC Bank.
- Exmewe House
Formerly the Beehive, which served for 75 years as general drapery and millinery shop. The exact date of the building is not known, but remains of timber framing with wattle and daub indicate that the building is very old. An advertisement claimed the building to be constructed prior to 1397. The main section of the building was demolished to make way for the bank. Ruthin Court Rolls refer to a man named Telemann in Ruthin and to a house "in the high St." The rolls record that, in 1397, Howell de Rowell passed it to John Le Sergant. Little is known of the family – possibly a retainer of Edward 1st or Reginald de Grey, probably of Norman French descent. On 24 February, Sergant surrendered tenancy to his daughter Sibilia. The property passed to the Exmewe family by the marriage of Sibilia to Richard Exmewe, their son Thomas was Lord Mayor of London in 1517. Little is known of Exmewe family. Thomas moved to London, deciding to sell his Ruthin Estate of Exmewe House.
He sold the house to a fellow mercer, Edward Goodman. Exmewe House or Nant Clwyd-y-Dre may have been the birthplace of Gabriel Goodman, as the family had connections with both properties.
Details of the next 200 years are unclear: it became the King's Arms in the occupation of John Price. It then became the Queen's Arms (during the reign of Queen Anne, 1702–1714). The property was purchased for £300 on 5 November 1718 by Robert Myddleton of Chirk. During the 19th century, the property was used as a chemist's until 1913. It was then sold as part of the Castle Estate sales in 1913/1919, for £1275 to Mr Lecomber, who in turn sold it to Barclays Bank, which modernised it to what can be seen today.
- The Post Office
Now trading as the Celtic Hair Studio at 2 Well Street. Originally a public house, reputedly built in 1401, possibly the oldest pub in Ruthin. Lewis Jones, in his 1884 "Handbook For Ruthin and the Vicinity", states that the old property, formerly the Ruth Inn, was adapted to the business of a post office about 25 years previously. It ceased trading in 1773. In 1850, the building was transformed into a draper's, later becoming the town post office until 1904.
The site of the present post office was possibly a medieval Carmelite priory of White Friars said to be founded and built by Reginald de Grey and partly destroyed by the Reformation. De Grey also provided a large piece of land close to the castle known as Whitefriars. During the 1860s and 1870s the site housed the Queen's Head public house and a horse-feed chandler; both buildings were destroyed by the 1904 fire when the new post office was built in 1906.
Located at 33, 35 and 37 Clwyd Street opposite the gaol. Now a florist, it was originally the Red Lion public house. In 1824 the hangman, Sam Burrows, was staying at the Red Lion on the night before the execution of John Connor, a highway robber. He gave a detailed demonstration of how he actually hanged a man, unfortunately the stool was accidentally kicked away and Burrows almost hanged himself. The public house ceased trading in 1905.
- The Royal Oak
Now flats, the Royal Oak is one of the finest buildings in Ruthin, having three cruck frames, it is a Grade II* listed building.
Porth y DŵrEdit
At No. 65 Clwyd Street, this Grade II* listed building retains much of the medieval timber frame internally, the oak for which was felled in 1455 and 1456. Its original purpose is unknown, although it has a medieval arched doorway facing towards the 13th-century mill, and a 15th-century solar (private living quarters) with an open roof with cusped windbraces. It is said to have been converted for domestic use in 1586 and occupied by the Moyle family. A two-storey porch with glazed windows (previously described as a balcony) and internal timber panelling was added, possibly in 1655 when further alterations were made. The building was extensively altered in the 19th century, converting part to a shop. Porth y Dŵr originally formed a single building with No. 67 Clwyd Street (listed Grade II), and adjoined the medieval west gate to the town that was demolished in 1786.
All buildings on Castle Street are listed by Cadw. These are the earliest settlements outside the walls of the castle. Some have burgage plots at the back, established by de Grey in 1283. The plots and linear have barely changed since their foundation.
Whilst residential properties were at the castle end of the street, commercial properties were at the end close to St Peters Square. The one exception was the pub Yr Iwerddon at No. 15. The house retains a name referring to its connection with Irish drovers attending markets and fairs
Other establishments of interest include No. 1, now Boots, formerly the Raven Inn, which in 1560 may have been the birthplace of Bishop Richard Parry, pupil and master (1584) of Ruthin School. He was involved with Dean Gabriel Goodman and others in translating the Bible and prayer book into Welsh. The main contributor was Bishop William Morgan, but Parry's revision in 1620 became the accepted authorised version.
The Ruthin Royal Bowling Green used the Raven as their headquarters until the Cornwallis-Wests came to live in Ruthin Castle. The club met at the Raven for its annual and quarterly meetings. When competitions took place, the staff of the Raven would take "Cwrw Da" (good beer) to the players. With the arrival of the Wests, the bowling green inside the curtilage of the castle forced the club to find an alternative green. One of the options they accepted was the rear of No. 8 Castle street "Gorphwysfa", then called the "Constitutional Club", later renamed the Conservative Club.
- No. 2. The Wine Vaults with their six-column Tuscan colonnade was 'known as the Black Horse in the 1820s. This is verified by the Welsh Office survey.
- No. 7. Sir John Trevor House. This served as Totty's the Lawyers in the 1700s, later as an antique shop, tea shop and finally a private residence offering bed and breakfast accommodation. Sir John Trevor was Speaker of the House of Commons from 1690 to 1695, when he was dismissed for embezzlement. He was the only Speaker to be forced to resign until 19 May 2009, with the forced departure of Michael Martin.
- "Gorphwysfa" This property was part of the Castle estate until sold off by the Castle owners in 1919. The Rifle Volunteer Corps founded in 1859 stored their armoury at the house until the drill hall was built in Borthyn in 1885. As mentioned, this property became the Conservative Club in November 1885.
- No. 9. When known as "Corwen", this property was the offices of Phillips the Attorney's. It is now a private residence. *No. 11. Ardwyn is a private residence on three storeys, formerly the offices of the attorneys Smarts.
- No. 12. Plas-yn-Dre. The exact date of this house is unknown. It was rebuilt in 1823, as recorded by a stone above the front door. The premises housed the North and South Wales Bank. L. G. Thomas, prime mover in the founding the Presbyterian Church in Wynnstay Road in 1886, was bank manager and lived here.
- Nos 16 and 18 are wooden-framed buildings with a 19th-century frontage. They formed part of the Castle estate sales of 1913 and 1919. The properties display what is probably the first use of stucco in Ruthin.
- Old County Hall now Ruthin Library
This is a Grade II Listed Building, housed in Record Street and originally named Stryd y Chwain (Welsh: Flea St) due to its very low standard of living) The inferior housing was demolished to make way for the county court and much grander houses between 1785 and 1788. The present name reflects the storing of records from the assizes and shire hall. In 1860 it became the county court, with the portico added at that time. It housed the records of and served as an assize court until the 1970s. The library opened in the early 1990s.
- Police station
A Grade II listed building. Before the present police station was built, the original one was housed in Ruthin Gaol. This was built in 1890, as it gave convenient access to the courts. It contains four cells, which are no longer used, and a much reduced number of police officers present.
- Castle Mews Grade II listed building
Now a shopping precinct this building dates back to the 15th century with examples of wattle and daub just inside the building on the right hand side. Remodelled in the early 19th century, when it became the Cross Keys coaching inn serving the Ruthin to Chester route with a change of horses in Mold. It later became a temperance commercial hotel and was home to one of the three Ruthin Friendly Societies: groups of male workers of similar background who contributed small amounts on a weekly basis for insurance against injury and old age. At a later date it was the offices of Ruthin Rural District Council.
- No. 10 and 12. Manor House. Grade II listed building
Late 18th-century family town house, which retained it late Georgian character until developed into today's boutique hotel and art gallery. The cellars are said to have been constructed of stone from Ruthin Castle. It has had many uses: as a boarding house for Ruthin School until 1893, a doctors home, a family home whose most famous resident was Cynthia Lennon, wife of John Lennon – their son Julian attended Ruthin School – a restaurant from the 1930s and a hotel. Today's hotel architecture and art are very much in mind, having won several awards
- The Wynnstay Hotel And Wayfarer Wool Shop
These two separate buildings were once connected by an archway, through which coaches and horses entered to the rear of the properties for the horses to be stabled. The present Wayfarers shop is shown in the title deeds as an outbuilding consisting of "an old saddle room, l with a room over and Gentleman’s Convenience".
The Wynnstay Hotel, now a private house, is first recorded in the records as being established in 1549 and was known for many years as the Cross Foxes, which formed the heraldic arms of the Wynnstay family. The family originated from Wrexham and boasted they could travel from Chester to the Llŷn Peninsula without once leaving their land. It was an important hostelry, as the coaching inn for Ruthin to Denbigh travellers. It served the Ruthin, Mold and Chester Royal Mail service. The pub in its heyday had a bowling green and tennis courts, and also a central porch, which was demolished in 1969.
- Plas Coch (also known as the Conservative Club) Grade II Listed building.
This is of medieval origin and is a former 17th-century town house. It was rebuilt in 1613 using red sandstone from the castle and became home to the Constable of the castle. The building has two storeys with attics and four large windows on each floor. In 1963 it became a banqueting hall owned by Rees Jones, who used to trade at the village hall in Llanfair. It became the Conservative Club in 1977, and having been slightly altered, now offers all-round function facilities.
- The Spread Eagle
The Spread Eagle is the coat-of-arms of the Goodwin family. Formerly an inn, records show it traded only from 1792 to 1915, after which it became a temperance hotel, then a retail shop.
Rose Cottage is a privately owned residence and a Grade 2* listed building located on the corner of Rhos Street and Haulfryn. It is listed as an "exceptional survival of a medieval cruck-framed hall-house of relatively low status, retaining its plan-form, character and detail".
Situated on the Corwen Road just past Ruthin Castle, Scott House was built 1933 to house the nursing staff of Duff House Sanatorium, which acquired Ruthin Castle and 475 acres (192 ha) of land for their private clinic in April 1923. The Grade II listed building, set in landscaped grounds, was later divided into flats.
- Evan Owen Allen (1805–1852), Welsh-language writer and poet, died in Ruthin.
- Hafina Clwyd, journalist, mayor of Ruthin (2008–2009) and town councillor (1999–2011)
- Doug Dailey MBE (born 1944), British cyclist
- Wynn Edwards (1842–1900), American farmer and politician
- Seren Gibson (born 1988), glamour model, attended Ysgol Brynhyfryd.
- Scarlets rugby union centre Rob Higgitt (born 1981) is a former resident.
- Actors Rhys Ifans (born 1967) and his brother Llŷr Ifans (born 1968) come from Ruthin.
- Eric Jones (born 1935), climber and BASE jumper, was raised on a farm near Ruthin.
- Sir Henry Haydn Jones MP (1863–1950) politician, slate quarry owner, and owner of the Talyllyn Railway was brought up in the town.
- Musician Julian Lennon (born 1963) attended Ruthin School.
- Eifion Lewis-Roberts (born 1981), rugby union player for Ruthin, now lives in Llanbedr-Dyffryn-Clwyd.
- Robin Llwyd ab Owain (born 1959), poet and national chair winner, has lived in Ruthin since 1979.
- Rhys Meirion (living), ENO opera singer
- Cynthia Lennon (1939–2015), first wife of John Lennon, settled in Ruthin.
- Formula One racing driver Tom Pryce (1949–1977) was born and raised in Ruthin.
- On 6 June 1947 Władysław Raczkiewicz, the first president of the Polish government in exile, died at Ruthin Castle. He was buried in the Polish Cemetery in Newark, Nottinghamshire
- Neil Taylor (born 1989), professional football player, attended Ysgol Brynhyfryd.
- Stanley J. Weyman (1855–1928), English novelist, lived in Ruthin for 33 years and died there.
- Joe Woolford, former singer in The Voice UK in 2015, half of the duo Joe and Jake who represented the UK at the 2016 Eurovision Song Contest, with "You're Not Alone"
Ruthin is situated on the River Clwyd, at the point where it enters the low-lying pastures of the Vale of Clwyd. The Clwydian Range lies to the east and the Clocaenog Forest and Denbigh Moors to the west.
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