Russian civilization

Russian civilization involves civilization formed by Russians,[1] the main civilization of multi-civilizational Russia.[2] The literature often[quantify] suggests that the Russian soul is significant in Russian civilization.[3] Russian civilization has connections with Russian philosophy, ideas of Slavophilia and the paganism of Pan-Slavism, Finno-Ugrian people and Turkic peoples.[citation needed] The Eastern Orthodox Church is a fundamental factor in Russian civilization. Therefore[citation needed] the peoples and cultures of Eurasia played in many phases a role in the formation of Russian civilization. In many phases the peoples of Russia developed independently from Europe and Asia because many regions of Russian lands were unknown to them.[4][need quotation to verify] The core of Russian identity was shaped by Slavic, Tatar, Finno-Ugrian, Viking and steppe people over more than 1000 years.[citation needed]


Russian civilization can be defined differently:

Toynbee regarded Russian civilization as having modest cultural achievements, but as something complete, Danilevsky and Spengler described it more as a phenomenon of the future,[8] the latter believed that government reform of Peter the Great did not meet the traditions of Russian civilization.[9]

Plekhanov and Berdyaev believed that Russian civilization occupies a border position between East and West. Solovyov believed that the mission of Russian civilization in the unification of East and West, and the Eurasians consider it as some third force.[10]

Some consider communism alien to traditional Russian values, others believe that the USSR was an incarnation of traditional Russian civilization.[1][11] Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality is similar to communist partijnost` (patry-mindedness), idejnost` (ideology-mindedness) and populism.[12]


  1. ^ a b М. Н. Свистунов. "РОССИЙСКАЯ ЦИВИЛИЗАЦИЯ И ПРАВОСЛАВИЕ: ДИАЛЕКТИКА ИХ ВЗАИМООТНОШЕНИЙ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ" [Russian civilisation and Orthodoxy: the dialectic of their mutual relationships and prospects of development]. (in Russian). Moscow University for the Humanities. Retrieved 2020-02-26. 'Русская цивилизация' — это характеристика цивилизации по основополагающему, коренному народу, ее создавшему - русскому народу, всегда составляющему подавляющее большинство населения страны [Translation: 'Russian civilisation is the characteristic of a civilisation according to the underlying native people which has founded it - the Russian people, which has always constituted the overwhelming majority of the population of the country[.]]
  2. ^ Лексин Владимир Николаевич (2018). "Русская цивилизация и русский народ" (2 (13)) (Журнал Института Наследия ed.). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Cholakova, Rumyana (2009-01-01). "Chinese Spirit, Russian Soul, and American Materialism: Images of America in Twentieth-Century Chinese and Russian Travelogues". All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs): 61. Robert C. Williams explores the complex interrelationship of Russian and European thought, especially German romanticism, in shaping the idea of 'Russian soul' (Ruskaia dusha). Russian thinkers borrowed the idea of national soul to express a very Russian idea.
  4. ^ von Herberstain, Sigmund (1975) [1549]. Moskowia. Gustav Kiepenheuer. pp. 1–11.
  5. ^ Юрий Годин (2019). Россия – Запад. Как сберечь Русскую православную цивилизацию (ситуационный анализ). Litres. p. 26. ISBN 5041842000.
  6. ^ Харченко Л. Н. (2014). Природа и цивилизация. Профильное обучение. 10–11 классы. Directmedia. pp. 91–92. ISBN 5446098358.
  7. ^ Владимир Лексин (2018-01-11). "Русская цивилизация: феномен или фантом?" (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  8. ^ A. L. Kroeber (2011). Checklist of Civilizations and Culture. Transaction Publishers. p. 53. ISBN 1412818532.
  9. ^ Горелов Анатолий Алексеевич (2017). "Ф. М. Достоевский: русская идея и русский социализм" (1) (Знание. Понимание. Умение ed.). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Кривопусков Владимир Викторович (2016). "Цивилизационные идентичности Запада и Востока: место и роль «Русского мира»" (4) (Гуманитарий Юга России ed.). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ Vadim Joseph Rossman (2002). Russian Intellectual Antisemitism in the Post-Communist Era. U of Nebraska Press. p. 102. ISBN 0803239483.
  12. ^ Yuri Glazov (2012). The Russian Mind Since Stalin’s Death. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 222. ISBN 9400953410.