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The Grand Prince of Kiev (sometimes grand duke) was the title of the monarch of Kievan Rus', residing in Kiev (modern Kyiv) from the 10th to 13th centuries. In the 13th century, Kiev became an appanage principality first of the grand prince of Vladimir and the Mongol Golden Horde governors, and later was taken over by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
|Grand Prince of Kiev|
|First monarch||Oleg the Wise|
(first undisputed "Prince of Kiev")
Yaroslav the Wise
(first undisputed "Grand Prince of Kiev")
Rus' chronicles such as the Primary Chronicle are inconsistent in applying the title "grand prince" to various princes in Kievan Rus'. Although most sources consistently attribute it to the prince of Kiev, there is no agreement which princes were also "grand prince", and scholars have thus come up with different lists of grand princes of Kiev.
According to a founding myth in the Primary Chronicle, Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv and their sister Lybid co-founded the city of Kiev (Kyiv), and the oldest brother Kyi was "chief of his kin" (Old East Slavic: кнѧжаше в родѣ, romanized: knyazhashe v rodie). Some western historians (i.e., Kevin Alan Brook) suppose that Kiev was founded by Khazars or Magyars. Kiev is a Turkic place name (Küi = riverbank + ev = settlement). At least during the 8th and 9th centuries Kiev functioned as an outpost of the Khazar empire (a hill-fortress, called Sambat, "high place" in Old Turkic). According to Omeljan Pritsak, Constantine Zuckerman and other scholars, Khazars lost Kiev at the beginning of the 10th century.
At some point, Rurik, a Varangian prince, allegedly founded the "Rurik dynasty" (named after him in the 16th century) in 862 through the "calling of the Varangians", but he is considered to be a legendary, mythical and perhaps even entirely fictional character by modern scholars.[a] The Primary Chronicle never calls Rurik a prince of Kiev; the passage wherein Oleg "sat in Kiev" (Old East Slavic: понелѣже сѣде въ Кыевѣ, romanized: ponelѣzhe sѣde v" Kyyevѣ) makes no mention of Rurik, suggesting the author was 'more interested in the first Rus' ruler to reside in Kiev than with any founder of a dynasty'.
Kiev was captured by Askold and Dir, whose existence is also debatable, and are called "boyars" who "did not belong to [Rurik's] family" by the Primary Chronicle. According to some Russian historians (i.e., Gleb S. Lebedev), Dir was a chacanus of Rhos (Rus khagan). Thomas Noonan asserts that one of the Rus "sea-kings", the "High king", adopted the title khagan in the early 9th century. Peter Benjamin Golden maintained that the Rus became a part of the Khazar federation, and that their ruler was officially accepted as a vassal khagan of the Khazar Khagan of Itil.
First princes edit
Askold and Dir are narrated to have been killed in 882 by Oleg, the first "prince" (knyaz) of Kiev according to the Primary Chronicle, but not yet a "grand prince" (velikiy knyaz). His relation to Rurik is debatable, and has been rejected by several modern scholars. Although later Muscovite chroniclers would call Oleg a "grand prince" and Kiev a "grand principality" (Old East Slavic: великое княжение, romanized: velikoe knyazhenie), the earliest sources do not. Whereas the reconstructed original Greek text of the Rusʹ–Byzantine Treaty (907) calls Oleg a μεγας ἄρχων or "great archon" ("ruler"), the Old East Slavic translations found in the Laurentian Codex and Hypatian Codex do not. On the other hand, only when the Byzantine emperors Leo VI the Wise, Alexander and Constantine VII are called "the Great", Oleg is also called "the Great". Dimnik (2004) argued it should thus be read as "the Rus' prince Oleg the Great" instead of "Oleg the grand prince of Rus'". Similarly, the only occasions Igor of Kiev is ever called velikiy knyaz in the Primary Chronicle (six times) are all found in the Rusʹ–Byzantine Treaty (945), where the Greek emperors are also called k velikiy tsesarem Grech'-skim ("to the great Greek caesars"). The same happens when, after Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria, the 971 peace treaty is recorded; it is the only place in the Primary Chronicle where Sviatoslav I is named a velikiy knyaz. Most significantly, the Nachal'nyy svod (found only in the Novgorod First Chronicle) never mentions any of these peace treaties, and never calls Oleg, Igor or Sviatoslav a velikiy knyaz. According to Dimnik (2004), this means that Greek scribes added the word "great" to the princely title, whereas the Rus' themselves did not, except when translating these three treaties from Greek into Slavic.
Yaropolk I of Kiev and Volodimer I of Kiev are both steadily referred to as just a knyaz by the Novgorod First Chronicle and the Laurentian and Hypatian Codices. There is one exception: the Hypatian Codex writes Volodimir knyaz velikii ("Volodimir the grand prince") when reporting the latter's death; because the Hypatian Codex is the latest source of the three (compiled c. 1425), this is probably a later interpolation. A Paterik of the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra of the early 13th century also calls Volodimer a velikiy knyaz, but that was written two centuries after his death, and may not necessarily describe how he was known while alive. The oldest surviving source available is Hilarion of Kiev's Sermon on Law and Grace (c. 1040s), which calls Volodimer a kagan (a Khazar title) rather than a knyaz. Some scholars have suggested that this indicates Kievan Rus' had won its independence from the Khazars in the early 10th century, and had inherited the title of kagan from them, before exchanging it for knyaz later. The Church Statute of Prince Volodimir starts with "Behold, I, Prince Vasilii, called Volodimir," (Old East Slavic: Се аз, князь Василий, нарицаемыи Володимир, romanized: Se yaz, knyaz' Vasilii, naritsayemy Volodimir,), but later in the text he interchangeably calls himself knyaz and velikiy knyaz, and the earliest copy of this document is from the 14th century, so it is difficult to say what the lost original text said. Since chroniclers also regularly referred to Volodimer as velikiy without mentioning his title – the reason why he has become known to history as Volodimer "the Great" – suggests that this adjective was not part of his title, but a sobriquet or nickname, that was also applied to other monarchs or clerics around him.
Velikiy knyaz Yaroslav and descendants edit
Sviatopolk I of Kiev was never called velikiy knyaz ("grand prince") in any source. Moreover, he has been stigmatised by chroniclers with the nickname "the Accursed" or "the Damned" (okayannyy) because of how he violently rose to power in the war of succession following Volodimir's death in 1015. On the other hand, Yaroslav the Wise is the first widely attested velikiy knyaz ("grand prince") in virtually all sources of the second half of the 11th century, and surviving copies of the Church Statute of Prince Yaroslav also strongly suggest he applied the title to himself while he was alive. Dimnik (2004) concluded that by the end of Yaroslav's reign in the third quarter of the 11th century, he was regularly calling himself and being called the velikiy knyaz of Kiev, and the competing titles of kagan and tsar had decisively lost in favour of velikiy knyaz as the preferred appellation of the Kievan monarch. The velikiy knyaz was designated by genealogical seniority and given the right to reign from Kiev – the grand principality superior to all other principalities in the realm – over all other princes descended from Yaroslav. The reason why the system of succession did not always work as Yaroslav intended was because some princes simply usurped power through a coup d'état at the court in Kiev. The 1097 Council of Liubech upgraded the dynastic capitals of the inner circle of senior princes to grand principalities as well, but still acknowledged the superiority of Kiev.
It was not until the Sack of Kiev (1169) by Andrey Bogolyubsky of Vladimir-Suzdal that the grand princes of Vladimir launched a fierce competition with the grand princes of Kiev over who had primacy over the entire realm. Since then, the phrase "velikiy knyaz of Kiev" was merely titular, and chroniclers applied the symbolic title of velikiy knyaz to Kiev or Vladimir on the Klyazma according to whomever they favoured. In practice, the military supremacy of any particular prince – especially from Vsevolod the Big Nest onwards – would determine whether the other princes would or would not acknowledge him as "grand prince". After the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus' and Sack of Kiev in the late 1230s and 1240s, the khans of the Golden Horde "in effect, terminated the office of the velikiy knyaz' of Kiev and conferred political supremacy on their puppet in Vladimir."
Princes of Kiev edit
|Name||Lifespan||Ruled From||Ruled Until||Notes|
|Oleg||?–912/922/940s||881/2 or 889||912/922/940s||First knyaz ("prince") of Kiev. Relation to Rurik and Igor is disputed. Date of accession is unclear in the Primary Chronicle.|
Date of death is disputed:
|Igor of Kiev||?–945||912||945||son of Rurik according to Primary Chronicle, but many scholars doubt or reject this claim.[b]|
|Olga of Kiev||?–969||945||962||(regent-consort)|
|Sviatoslav I||942–972||962||972||son of Igor|
|Yaropolk I (Jaropolk)||958 (960?)–980||972||980||One of Svyatoslav's two sons|
|Volodimir I "the Great"||958–1015||980||1015||One Svyatoslav's two sons; in 988 baptized the Rus'. The earliest sources call him just knyaz ("prince") or kagan, and nickname him Volodimir velikiy ("Volodimir the Great"); later sources also call him velikiy knyaz ("grand prince").|
|Sviatopolk I "the Accursed"[c]||980–1019||1015||1019||origin is debatable. Is never called velikiy knyaz ("grand prince") in any source.|
Grand princes of Kiev edit
|Name||House||Lifespan||Ruled From||Ruled Until||Notes|
|Yaroslav the Wise||Volodimerovichi||978–1054||1019||1054||son of Vladimir the Great, jointly with Mstislav in 1024–36. First widely attested velikiy knyaz ("grand prince") in virtually all contemporary sources.|
|Iziaslav I||Volodimerovichi||1024–1078||1054||1073||son of Yaroslav, first time (in 1068/69 lost state power to Polotsk princes)|
|Sviatoslav II||Volodimerovichi||1027–1076||1073||1076||son of Yaroslav|
|Iziaslav I||Volodimerovichi||1024–1078||1076||1078||second time, in 1075 Pope Gregory VII sent him a crown from Rome|
|Vsevolod I||Volodimerovichi||1030–1093||1078||1093||son of Yaroslav|
|Sviatopolk II||Iziaslavichi||1050–1113||1093||1113||son of Iziaslav I|
|Vladimir II Monomakh||Monomakhovychi||1053–1125||1113||1125||son of Vsevolod I|
|Mstislav I of Kiev||Monomakhovychi||1076–1132||1125||1132||son of Vladimir II|
|Yaropolk II||Monomakhovychi||1082–1139||1132||1139||brother of Mstislav I|
|Viacheslav I||Monomakhovychi||1083–1154||1139||1139||brother of Yaropolk II (first time)|
|Vsevolod II||Svyatoslavichi||?–1146||1139||1146||son of Oleh Svyatoslavich|
|Igor II||Svyatoslavichi||?–1147||1146||1146||brother of Vsevolod II|
|Iziaslav II||Monomakhovychi||1097–1154||1146||1149||son of Mstislav I (first time)|
|Yuri Dolgorukiy||Monomakhovychi||1099–1157||1149||1151||(first time)|
|Viacheslav I||Monomakhovychi||1083–1154||1151||1154||(second time) jointly|
|Iziaslav II||Monomakhovychi||1097–1154||(second time) jointly|
|Rostislav I||Monomakhovychi||1110–1167||1154||1154||brother of Iziaslav II (first time)|
|Iziaslav III||Svyatoslavichi||?–1162||1154||1155||(first time)|
|Yuri I Dolgorukiy||Monomakhovychi||1099–1157||1155||1157||(second time)|
|Iziaslav III||Svyatoslavichi||?–1162||1157||1158||(second time)|
|Rostislav I||Monomakhovychi||1110–1167||1158||1167||(second time) jointly with Iziaslav III in 1162|
|Mstislav II||Iziaslavichi (Monomakh)||?–1172||1167||1169||son of Iziaslav II (first time)|
|Gleb||Yurievichi (Monomakh)||?–1171||1169||1169||son of Yuri Dolgorukiy (first time)|
|Mstislav II||Iziaslavichi (Monomakh)||?–1172||1170||1170||(second time)|
|Gleb||Yurievichi (Monomakh)||?–1171||1170||1171||(second time)|
|Vladimir III Mstislavich||Monomakhovychi||1132–1171||1171||1171||son of Mstislav I the Great|
|Michael I||Yurievichi (Monomakh)||?–1176||1171||1171||half-brother of Gleb|
|Roman I||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1180||1171||1173||son of Rostislav I (first time)|
|Vsevolod III the Big Nest||Yurievichi (Monomakh)||1154–1212||1173||1173||brother of Michael I|
|Rurik Rostislavich||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1215||1173||1173||brother of Roman I (first time)|
|Sviatoslav III||Olgovichi||?–1194||1174||1174||son of Vsevolod II (first time)|
|Yaroslav II||Iziaslavichi (Monomakh)||?–1180||1174||1175||son of Iziaslav II (first time)|
|Roman I||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1180||1175||1177||(second time)|
|Sviatoslav III||Olgovichi||?–1194||1177||1180||(second time)|
|Yaroslav II||Iziaslavichi (Monomakh)||?–1180||1180||1180||(second time)|
|Rurik Rostislavich||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1215||1180||1182||(second time)|
|Sviatoslav III||Olgovichi||?–1194||1182||1194||(third time)|
|Rurik Rostislavich||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1215||1194||1202||(third time)|
|Igor III||Iziaslavichi (Monomakh)||?–?||1202||1202||son of Yaroslav II (first time)|
|Rurik Rostislavich||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1215||1203||1206||jointly (fourth time)|
|Roman II the Great||Iziaslavichi (Monomakh)||1160–1205||son of Mstislav II, jointly (1203–05)|
|Rostislav II||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||1173–1214||son of Rurik Rostislavich, jointly (1204–06)|
|Vsevolod IV the Red||Svyatoslavichi (Olgovichi)||?–1212||1206||1207||son of Sviatoslav III (first time)|
|Rurik Rostislavich||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1215||1207||1210||(fifth time)|
|Vsevolod IV the Red||Svyatoslavichi (Olgovichi)||?–1212||1210||1212||(second time)|
|Igor III||Iziaslavichi (Monomakh)||?–?||1212||1214||(second time)|
|Mstislav III||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||?–1223||1214||1223||son of Roman I|
|Vladimir IV Rurikovich||Rostislavichi (Monomakh)||1187–1239||1223||1235||brother of Rostislav II|
|Iziaslav IV Vladimirovich||Siveria (Olgovichi) or
|1186–?||1235||1236||son of Vladimir Igorevich or Mstislav|
|Yaroslav III||Yurievichi (Monomakh)||1191–1246||1236||1238||son of Vsevolod the Big Nest (first time)|
|Michael II||Svyatoslavichi (Olgovichi)||1185–1246||1238||1239||son of Vsevolod IV (first time)|
Princes of Kiev after the Mongol invasion edit
Due to the Mongol invasion of 1240, Michael of Chernigov left Kiev to seek military assistance from King Béla IV of Hungary. During that time, Prince Rostislav of Smolensk occupied Kiev, but was captured the same year by Daniel of Galicia who placed his voivode Dmytro to guard Kiev while the grand prince was away. Being unsuccessful in Hungary, Michael visited Konrad I of Masovia. Receiving no results in Poland, he eventually asked Daniel of Galicia for asylum due to the Mongol invasion. Since the 14th century, the principality of Kiev started to fall under the influence of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1299, the Metropolitan of Kiev Maximus moved his metropolitan see from Kiev to Vladimir-on-Klyazma. In 1321, after the battle on the Irpin River, Gediminas installed Mindgaugas, one of his subjects from the house of Olshanski, a descendant of the family of Vseslav of Polotsk that was exiled to the Byzantine Empire. In 1331, Kiev was once again taken by a member of the Siverski house (Olgovichi branch), the prince of Putivl. After Grand Duke Algirdas defeated the Golden Horde at the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, he incorporated Kiev and its surrounding areas into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
|Name||House||Lifespan||Ruled from||Ruled until||Notes|
|Rostislav Mikhailovich||Smolensk (Rostislavichi)||1210–1262||1239||1239||son of Michael II|
|Voivode Dmytro||1239||1240||appointed by Daniel of Galicia|
|Michael II||Svyatoslavichi (Olgovichi)||1185–1246||1241||1243||(second time)|
|Yaroslav III||Yurievichi (Monomakh)||1191–1246||1243||1246||(second time)|
|Alexander Nevsky||Vladimirsky (Monomakh)||1220–1263||1246||1263||son of Yaroslav III|
|Yaroslav IV||Vladimirsky (Monomakh)||1230–1271||1263||1271||brother of Alexander|
|Lev||Galicia (Monomakh)||1228–1301||1271||1301||son of Daniel|
|Iziaslav IV Vladimirovich||Siverski (Olgovichi)||?–?||1301||?|
|Stanislav Ivanovich||Siverski (Olgovichi)||1228–1301||?||1321|
|Mindaugas Holshanski||Alšėniškiai||?–?||1321||1324||son of Holsha Romanovich|
|Algimantas-Michael||Alšėniškiai||?–?||1324||1331||son of Mindaugas|
|Fyodor (Teodoras)||Siverski (Olgovichi)||?–?||1331||1362||son of Ivan|
|Vladimir V Algirdaitis||Gediminids||?–?||1362||1394||son of Algirdas|
|Skirgaila||Gediminids||1354–1397||1395||1397||son of Algirdas|
|Ivan Olshansky||Alšėniškiai||?–?||1397||c. 1402||son of Algimantas (in 1404–11 Jurgis Gedgaudas as voivode)|
|Andrew||Alšėniškiai||?–?||c. 1412||c. 1422||son of Ivan|
|Michael IV||Alšėniškiai||?–1433||c. 1422||c. 1432||son of Ivan|
|Michael V Boloban||Alšėniškiai||?–1435||c. 1433||c. 1435||son of Simonas|
|Boleslav (Švitrigaila)||Gediminids||1370–1452||1432||1440||son of Algirdas|
|Alexander-Olelko||Olelkovich||?–1454||1443||1454||son of Vladimir|
|Simeon Olelkovich||Olelkovich||1418–1470||1454||1470||son of Alexander|
See also edit
- Christian Raffensperger (2012, 2017), Ostrowski (2018), Halperin (2022).
- Including Hrushevsky (1904), Vernadsky (1943), Riasanovsky (1947), Paszkiewicz (1954), Franklin and Shepard (1996).
- The Old Slavonic is Свѧтопълкъ in the Cyrillic alphabet, the modern Ukrainian is Святополк, Polish is Świętopełk, Czech is Svatopluk, and Slovak is Svätopluk. Reconstructed, his name is Sventopluk. More commonly, his name is given in its Latin and Frankish equivalents: Suentopolcus, Suatopluk, Zventopluk, Zwentibald, Zwentibold, Zuentibold, or Zuentibald.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 259.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 264–265, 306.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 253.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 253–254.
- Cross & Sherbowitz-Wetzor 1930, p. 54–55.
- "An Introduction to the History of Khazaria". www.khazaria.com.
- Pritsak, Omeljan (1981). The origin of Rus. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
- Zuckerman, Constantine (2007). The Khazars and Byzantium – The First Encounter. In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives – Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 399–432. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
- Halperin 2022, p. viii.
- Ostrowski 2018, p. 47.
- Ostrowski 2018, p. 32.
- Cross & Sherbowitz-Wetzor 1930, p. 60.
- Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus: Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-04-13874-9
- Noonan, Thomas (2001). The Khazar Qaghanate and Its Impact on the Early Rus' State: The translatio imperii from Itil to Kiev. Nomads in the Sedentary World, Anatoly Mikhailovich Khazanov and Andre Wink, eds. p. 76-102. Richmond, England: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1370-0
- Golden, Peter Benjamin (1982). The Question of the Rus' Qaganate. Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi. pp. 77–92
- Ostrowski 2018, p. 30–31, 39.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 259–260.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 260.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 260–261.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 261.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 262.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 262–263.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 263–264.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 264.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 264–265.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 306.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 306–307.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 307.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 307–308.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 308.
- Ostrowski 2018, p. 42–44.
- Ostrowski 2018, p. 44.
- Ostrowski 2018, p. 42–43.
- Leszek Moczulski (2007). Narodziny Międzymorza. Bellona. p. 475.
- Ярополк is modern Ukrainian, Jaropełk is Polish, Jaropluk is Czech, Jaropelkas is Lithuanian, Iaropelkos is Greek, Jaropolk is German and Swedish.
- Dimnik 2004, p. 261–264.
- Martin 2004, p. 32.
- Martin 2004, p. 102.
- Martin 2004, p. xvii, 102.
- Martin 2004, p. xvii.
- "Розділ 4.1. Леонтій Войтович. Князівські династії Східної Європи". izbornyk.org.ua. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Cross, Samuel Hazzard; Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Olgerd P. (1930). The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text. Translated and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (1930) (PDF). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mediaeval Academy of America. p. 325. Retrieved 26 January 2023. (primary source)
- Dimnik, Martin (January 2004). "The Title "Grand Prince" in Kievan Rus'". Mediaeval Studies. 66: 253–312. doi:10.1484/J.MS.2.306512. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
- Halperin, Charles J. (2022). The Rise and Demise of the Myth of the Rus' Land (PDF). Leeds: Arc Humanities Press. p. 107. ISBN 9781802700565. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
- Martin, Janet (2004). Medieval Russia: 980–1584. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521368322. (digital printing 2004)
- Ostrowski, Donald (2018). "Was There a Riurikid Dynasty in Early Rus'?". Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 52 (1): 30–49. doi:10.1163/22102396-05201009.