Rudbeckia laciniata, the cutleaf coneflower,[1] is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It is native to North America, where it is widespread in both Canada and the United States.[2] Its natural habitat is wet sites in flood plains, along stream banks, and in moist forests.[3] Common names other than cutleaf coneflower include cutleaf, goldenglow, green-headed coneflower, tall coneflower, sochan and thimbleweed.

Rudbeckia laciniata

Secure  (NatureServe)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Rudbeckia
R. laciniata
Binomial name
Rudbeckia laciniata

The Latin specific epithet laciniata refers to the pinnately divided leaves.[4]

Description edit

Growing in garden

It is a robust herbaceous perennial plant growing up to 3 metres (10 feet) tall. It has broadly ovate and somewhat glaucous leaves that are often deeply dissected. The alternate leaves are usually divided into a petiole and a leaf blade. The smooth or hairy leaf blade is simple or one to two-pinnate. The leaflets are lobed three to eleven times. The leaf margin is smooth to roughly serrated. The lower leaves are 38 to 127 centimetres (15 to 50 inches) long and 25 to 64 cm (10 to 25 in) inches wide. The upper leaves are 8 to 40 cm (3 to 15+12 in) long and 3 to 20 cm (1 to 8 in) wide. Long rhizomes are formed as persistence organs with fibrous roots. The stem is bare.

Inflorescence edit

The composite flowers (flower heads) are produced in late summer and autumn. The disc flowers are green to yellowish green, while the rays are pale yellow. In umbrella-clustered total inflorescences, two to 25 cup-shaped partial inflorescences stand together. The flower heads, which have a diameter of 7 to 15 cm (3 to 6 in), stand on long stems. 8 to 15 irregularly arranged, foliage-like, smooth to hairy bracts have a length of up to 2 cm and usually a ciliate border. The inflorescence base is almost spherical to conical. The chaff leaves are 3 to 7 millimetres (18 to 14 in) long.[5]

In a flower basket there are 8–12 ray flowers and 150 to over 300 tubular disk flowers. The golden-yellow rays are 1.5 to 5 cm long and 4 to 14 mm (18 to 12 in) wide and are later repulsed. The yellow to yellowish-green tubular flowers are 9 to 30 mm (38 to 1+18 in) in length and 10 to 23 mm in diameter, with yellow corolla lobes 3.5 to 5 mm (18 to 316 in) long. The stylus branches have a length of 1 to 1.5 mm.

The 3 to 4.5 mm long achenes have a crown-shaped or four up to 1.5 mm long scales consisting of pappus.

Similar species edit

R. hirta is similar, with a hemispherical disk and orangish-yellow rays.[6]

Taxonomy edit

Up to six varieties of R. laciniata are currently recognized. The varieties ampla and heterophylla are considered to be the most distinctive, while the others less so. There is variation in treatment among authors, with the less distinctive varieties sometimes being subsumed into laciniata, and variety ampla sometimes recognized at the species level.[3][7]

The six varieties are:[8]

  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. ampla – Native west of the Great Plains, into the Rocky Mountains
  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. bipinnata – Native to New England and the Mid-Atlantic area
  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata – Native to the Southeastern Coastal Plain
  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. heterophylla – Endemic to Levy County, Florida
  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. humilis – Native to the southern Appalachian Mountains
  • Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata – Widespread and common, native across eastern North America

Cultivation edit

Rudbeckia laciniata is widely cultivated in gardens and for cut flowers. Numerous cultivars have been developed, of which 'Herbstsonne' ("Autumn sun") and 'Starcadia Razzle Dazzle'[9] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[10][11] The cultivar 'Goldquelle' features double yellow, pom-pom blooms that are 8 cm across.[12]

Rudbeckia laciniata has long been cultivated as an ornamental plant and came to Paris in the private garden of Vespasias Robin at the beginning of the 17th century. Caspar Bauhin also received this ornamental plant from Robin in 1622, who described it as 'Doronicum americanum laciniato folio'. The first garden in Germany in which it is recorded is Altdorf 1646. The double-flowered form, which is mainly cultivated, has been known since around 1894. The first naturalizations on river banks in Central Europe were observed in the 18th century. Anton Johann Krocker reported about it in 1787 in Queistal near Flinsburg in eastern Upper Lusatia. As an ornamental plant, varieties are used in parks and gardens in temperate areas, for example also filled forms. In Europe, Rudbeckia laciniata became wild in various countries. Besides Europe, Rudbeckia laciniata is a neophyte in China and New Zealand. [6][13]

The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center[14] notes that "Because it spreads rampantly by underground stems, cut-leaf coneflower is only appropriate for large sites."

Toxicity edit

The plant is somewhat toxic to livestock.[6]

Uses edit

Traditionally, the young leaves have been gathered from the wild and eaten in the early spring. They are greatly favored as a potherb (cooked). Though some references state the use of this plant as salad greens (raw),[15] traditional use is as cooked greens.[16][17] This is assumed to be done to remove toxins. However, there is little evidence of their presence. One report cites circumstantial evidence of poisoning to horses, sheep and pigs.[18]

Gallery edit

References edit

  1. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Rudbeckia laciniata". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  2. ^ "Rudbeckia laciniata". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  3. ^ a b Urbatsch, Lowell E.; Cox, Patricia B. (2006). "Rudbeckia laciniata". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 21. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
  5. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
  6. ^ a b Spellenberg, Richard (2001) [1979]. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers: Western Region (rev ed.). Knopf. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-375-40233-3.
  7. ^ Yatskievych, George (2006). Flora of Missouri, Volume 2. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. p. 544. ISBN 1930723490.
  8. ^ Alan Weakley (2015). "Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States".
  9. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Rudbeckia laciniata 'Starcadia Razzle Dazzle'". Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Rudbeckia laciniata 'Herbstsonne'". Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  11. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 93. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  12. ^ Rudbeckia laciniata 'Goldquelle' (d) The Royal Horticultural Society 2021
  13. ^ Gerhard Wagenitz: Rudbeckia laciniata. In: Gerhard Wagenitz (Hrsg.): Illustrated flora of Central Europe. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. Founded by Gustav Hegi. 2nd, completely revised edition. Volume VI. Part 3: Angiospermae, Dicotyledones 4 (Compositae 1, General Part, Eupatorium - Achillea) . Paul Parey, Berlin / Hamburg 1979, ISBN 3-489-84020-8 , pp. 242–244 (published in deliveries 1964–1979).
  14. ^ "Rudbeckia laciniata". Native Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas at Austin.
  15. ^ Banks, William. 2004. Plants of the Cherokee. Great Smoky Mts. Assn.: Gatlinburg, Tennessee.
  16. ^ Hamel, Paul; Chiltoskey, Mary U. (1975). Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva Herald Publishing.
  17. ^ Witthoft, John (1977). "Cherokee Indian Use of Potherbs". Journal of Cherokee Studies. 2 (2): 251.
  18. ^ Kingsbury, J.M. (1964). Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

External links edit