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The White Rose en Soleil (imposed on a sun in splendour) of the House of York, on the livery colours blue and murrey of the Yorkist dynasty, surrounded by the royal motto 'Dieu et mon droit'. From a manuscript by Vincent of Beauvais (1478–1480), belonging to King Edward IV of England.

In heraldry, the royal badges of England comprise the heraldic badges that were used by the monarchs of the Kingdom of England.

Heraldic badges are distinctive to a person or family, similar to the arms and the crest. But unlike them, the badge is not an integral component of a coat of arms, although they can be displayed alongside them. Badges are in fact complete and independent and can be displayed alone. Furthermore, unlike the arms and crest, which are personal devices that could only be displayed by the owner, the badge could be easily borne by others, in the form of a cognizance or livery badge, to be worn by retainers and adherents. Badges are displayed on standards and personal objects, as well as on private and public buildings to show ownership or patronage.[1]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Royal badges have been in use since the earliest stages of English heraldry. They are invariably simple devices, and numerous examples were adopted and inherited by various sovereigns. These are found in the glass and fabric of royal palaces and memorial chapels, and sometimes in the houses of those who enjoyed or anticipated royal patronage.[2]

The earliest royal heraldic badge is a sprig of common broom, said to have been worn by Geoffrey of Anjou in his cap. The broom plant or Plantegenest (planta genista in medieval Latin), thus became Geoffrey's nickname; "Plantagenet".[3] The heraldic device also became the name of the dynasty that was borne from him, which was to rule England for over 300 years. The Plantagenet kings would use this badge, sometimes combining it with other more personal devices.[3] King Henry II used the 'planta genista' as well as an escarbuncle.[4] King Richard I used a star and crescent device, which was also adopted by his brother King John. King Henry III adopted the broom sprig and the star and crescent. His son Edward I in addition to these, added the golden rose device that he inherited from his mother Eleanor of Provence. King Edward II further added the golden castle of Castile, inherited from his mother Eleanor of Castile.[2]

It was actually Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York who adopted the Plantagenet name for him and his descendants in the 15th century. It is obscure why Richard chose the name but it emphasised Richard's hierarchal status as Geoffrey's, and six English kings', patrilineal descendant during the Wars of the Roses. The retrospective usage of the name for all Geoffrey's male descendants became popular in Tudor times probably encouraged by the added legitimacy it gave Richard's great-grandson, King Henry VIII of England.[5]

Badges came into general use by the reign of King Edward III. The king himself deployed many badges alluding to his lineage, as well as new personal devices.[6]

List of royal badgesEdit

Monarch
(Reign)
Badges[7][8] Examples
  House of Plantagenet  
(1154–1399)
 
King Henry II
(1154–1189)
  
 
King Richard I
(1189–1199)
  • a golden star and crescent
  • a sprig of broom
    
 
King John
(1199–1216)
  • a golden star and crescent
  • a sprig of broom
    
 
King Henry III
(1216–1272)
  • a sprig of broom
  
 
King Edward I
(1272–1307)
  • a golden rose, the stalk green
  • a sprig of broom
     
 
King Edward II
(1307–1327)
  
 
King Edward III
(1327–1377)
       
 
King Richard II
(1377–1399)
  • a Sunburst
  • a Hart Argent lodged, ducally gorged and chained Or (from his mother; Joan of Kent)
  • a Stock (stump) of a tree eradicated and couped Or (from his father; Edward of Woodstock; or the Black Prince)
  • a Falcon Argent
  • a Sprig of broom, Planta genista, the cods open and empty
  • a Sun in splendour
  • an Ostrich feather
  • the Sun clouded
       
  House of Lancaster  
(1399–1461)
 
King Henry IV
(1399–1413)
  • the Monogram SS
  • a Crescent
  • a Fox's tail
  • a Stock of a tree
  • an Ermine, or gennet, between two sprigs of broom
  • an Eagle, crowned
  • an Eagle displayed
  • a Panther, crowned
  • an Ostrich feather encircled by a scroll bearing the word "SOVEREYGNE"
  • a Columbine flower
  • the Red rose of Lancaster
  • a Sun in splendour
  • a Rose en soleil (a combination of the last two badges)
  • a White swan (from the Bohun swan, from the de Bohun family of Mary de Bohun; Henry IV's first wife)
  • an Antelope Argent (also from the De Bohun family)
         
 
King Henry V
(1413–1422)
  • an Ostrich feather Argent
  • an Ostrich feather erect Argent with a small scroll across the lower part of the quill inscribed "Ich dien"
  • an Antelope, chained
  • a Swan, chained
  • a Fire beacon or cresset
  • a Stock of a tree
  • the Red rose of Lancaster
  • a Fox's tail
  • a Trunk of a tree eradiated Or (for the Dukedom of Hereford)[10]
  • a Swan, wings elevated Argent, beaked and legged Gules, ducally gorged and a chain reflexed over the back Or (of Hereford)[11]
  • a Swan and antelope lodged, both chained to the fire-beacon and conjoined into one device[12]
       
 
King Henry VI
(1422–1461)
  • an Antelope, chained
  • a Swan, chained
  • a Spotted panther
  • two Ostrich feathers in saltire, Or and Argent
  • the Red rose of Lancaster
       
  House of York  
(1461–1485)
 
King Edward IV
(1461–1483)
         
 
King Edward V
(1483)
  • a Falcon Argent, in a fetterlock of gold
  • a Rose Argent
   
 
King Richard III
(1483–1485)
  • a Boar Argent, armed and bristled Or
  • the White rose of York
  • a Sun in splendour
  • a White falcon with a virgin's face holding a white rose
       
  House of Tudor  
(1485–1603)
 
King Henry VII
(1485–1509)
  • a Portcullis Or, crowned (from his mother; Margaret Beaufort)
  • a Greyhound Argent, collared Gules (for the Earldom of Richmond)
  • a Red dragon of Cadwaladr[13]
  • a Dun cow (of Warwick)
  • a Crowned hawthorn bush with the cypher H.R. (recalling the story after Bosworth, when the crown was found under a hawthorn bush)[14]
  • the Tudor rose; a rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned[15]
  • a Fleur-de-lis, Or, crowned
  • Flames of fire
  • a Sunburst
  • Falcon standing on a fetterlock, with a virgin's face (a harpy)
         
 
King Henry VIII
(1509–1547)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or
  • a Red dragon of Cadwaladr
  • a Greyhound Argent, collared Gules
  • a Silver cock with red comb and wattles
  • Flames of fire
  • a Dun cow of Warwick
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (For Ireland)
  • a Portcullis Or, crowned; as used with motto Altera securitas
  • the Tudor rose
  • a Rose Gules, dimidiated with a pomegranate (for his first wife; Catherine of Aragon; the pomegranate is the symbol of Granada in the royal arms of the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon)
  • a Demi-rose Gules, impaled with a demi-roundel parted palewise Argent and Vert, charged with a bundle of arrows Argent, garnished Or (also for his first wife)
         
 
King Edward VI
(1547–1553)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or
  • a Red dragon of Cadwaladr
  • a Greyhound Argent, collared Gules
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned
  • a Portcullis Or, crowned
  • the Tudor rose
  • a Rose Gules, crowned
  • a Sun in splendour
       
 
Queen Mary I
(1553–1558)
  • a Pomegranate (for her mother; Catherine of Aragon)
  • a Pomegranate and rose conjoined (also used by her mother personally)
  • a Rose Gules within a white one, impaled with a demi-roundel parted palewise Vert and Azure, charged with a bundle of arrows Argent, ensigned with a crown, surrounded by rays Or
  • a Winged Time drawing Truth from a Pit, with the inscription "Veritas temporis filia"[16]
  • an Altar, thereon a sword erect, with the words "Arae et Regne Custodia"[16]
  • the Tudor rose
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned
  • a Portcullis Or, crowned
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or
     
 

Queen Elizabeth I
(1558–1603)
  • a Falcon Argent, crowned and holding a sceptre Or (for her mother; Anne Boleyn)
  • a Tudor rose, crowned with the motto "Rose sine Spina"
  • a Sieve
  • a Phoenix
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned
  • a Portcullis Or, crowned
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or
       
  House of Stuart  
(1603–1649)
 
King James I
(1603–1625)
  • the Tudor rose; Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned (for England)
  • a Thistle, slipped and headed Proper, royally crowned (for Scotland and the House of Stuart)[17]
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or, crowned (for France)
  • a Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, dimidated with a thistle in its Proper colours, crowned (for the Union of the Crowns)
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (for Ireland)
         
 
King Charles I
(1625–1649)
  • the Tudor rose; Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned (for England)
  • a Thistle, slipped and headed Proper, royally crowned (for Scotland)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or, crowned (for France)
  • a Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, dimidated with a thistle in its Proper colours, crowned (for the Union of the Crowns)
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (for Ireland)
         
  Interregnum  
(1649–1660)
  House of Stuart (Restored)  
(1660–1707)
 
King Charles II
(1660–1685)
  • the Tudor rose; Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned (for England)
  • a Thistle, slipped and headed Proper, royally crowned (for Scotland)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or, crowned (for France)
  • a Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, dimidated with a thistle in its Proper colours, crowned (for the Union of the Crowns)
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (for Ireland)
         
 
King James II
(1685–1688)
  • the Tudor rose; Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned (for England)
  • a Thistle, slipped and headed Proper, royally crowned (for Scotland)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or, crowned (for France)
  • a Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, dimidated with a thistle in its Proper colours, crowned (for the Union of the Crowns)
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (for Ireland)
         
 
King William III and Queen Mary II
(1689–1694)
  • the Tudor rose; Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned (for England)
  • a Thistle, slipped and headed Proper, royally crowned (for Scotland)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or, crowned (for France)
  • a Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, dimidated with a thistle in its Proper colours, crowned (for the Union of the Crowns)
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (for Ireland)
         
 
King William III
(1689–1702)
  • the Tudor rose; Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned (for England)
  • a Thistle, slipped and headed Proper, royally crowned (for Scotland)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or, crowned (for France)
  • a Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, dimidated with a thistle in its Proper colours, crowned (for the Union of the Crowns)
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (for Ireland)
         
 
Queen Anne
(1702–1707)
  • the Tudor rose; Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, crowned (for England)
  • a Thistle, slipped and headed Proper, royally crowned (for Scotland)
  • a Fleur-de-lis Or, crowned (for France)
  • a Rose Gules, with a rose Argent superimposed, a thistle in its Proper colours, growing from the same stalk, crowned (for Great Britain, after the Acts of Union)
  • a Harp Or, stringed silver, crowned (for Ireland)
         

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ Brooke-Little, p.163
  2. ^ a b Friar, p.236
  3. ^ a b Bedingfield et al., pp.126–127
  4. ^ Bedingfield et al., p.129
  5. ^ Wagner, John (2001). Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. ABC-CLIO. p. 206. ISBN 1-85109-358-3.
  6. ^ Fox-Davies, p.453
  7. ^ Brooke-Little, pp.209–215
  8. ^ Montagu, James (1840). A Guide to the Study of Heraldry. London: William Pickering.
  9. ^ On a banner at Crecy, 1346. Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker.
  10. ^ Tree trunk: by the howse of Herforth
  11. ^ (Swan: "by the howse of Herforth", i.e. Hereford)
  12. ^ tomb in Westminster Abbey
  13. ^ Red Dragon: This badge was not originally, as now, shown passant upon a green mount. The mount, no doubt, originated from the fact that the red dragon was used upon a standard of the livery colours (Tudor), white and green. Woodward refers to another standard, in which the red dragon is inflamed and the field seme of flames. The dragon, according to early Welsh tradition, was of "ruddy gold," and is to be found both red and gold
  14. ^ Hawthorn bush: Woodward, who recites the story that after the battle of Bosworth the golden circlet of King Richard's helm was found in a hawthorn bush, and with this Lord Stanley crowned King Henry on the battlefield
  15. ^ Tudor Rose: This was variously represented. Burke and Woodward both mention the forms {a) quarterly argent and gules, and (b) a white rose superimposed upon a red rose ; whilst Woodward also mentions {c) per pale argent and gules. On one of this king*s standards (MS. I. 2, Coll. Arms) both red roses barbed and seeded proper, and white roses barbed and seeded proper, are found, as also " a red rose surmounted of a white rose with two buds slipped vert," and "a red rose sur-mounted of a white rose encircled by rays of the sun gold
  16. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., The Royal Heraldry of England, p.153. ISBN 090045525X
  17. ^ In 1801, imperially crowned, designated as badge for Scotland.
Bibliography

See alsoEdit