Rotating detonation engine

A rotating detonation engine (RDE) is an engine using a form of pressure gain combustion, where one or more detonations continuously travel around an annular channel. Computational simulations and experimental results have shown that the RDE has potential in transport and other applications.[1][2]

In detonative combustion, the results expand at supersonic speed. It is theoretically more efficient than conventional deflagrative combustion by as much as 25%.[3] Such an efficiency gain would provide major fuel savings.[4][5]

Disadvantages include instability and noise.

ConceptEdit

The basic concept of an RDE is a detonation wave that travels around a circular channel (annulus). Fuel and oxidizer are injected into the channel, normally through small holes or slits. A detonation is initiated in the fuel/oxidizer mixture by some form of igniter. After the engine is started, the detonations are self-sustaining. One detonation ignites the fuel/oxidizer mixture, which releases the energy necessary to sustain the detonation. The combustion products expand out of the channel and are pushed out of the channel by the incoming fuel and oxidizer.[2]

Although the RDE's design is similar to the pulse detonation engine (PDE), the RDE is superior because the waves cycle around the chamber, while the PDE requires the chambers to be purged after each pulse.[6]

DevelopmentEdit

Several organisations work on RDEs.

US NavyEdit

The US Navy has been pushing development.[7] Researchers at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have a particular interest in the capability of detonation engines such as the RDE to reduce the fuel consumption of their ships.[8][9] Several obstacles still must be overcome in order to use the RDE in the field. As of 2012, NRL researchers were focusing on better understanding how the RDE works.[10]

Aerojet RocketdyneEdit

Since 2010, Aerojet Rocketdyne has conducted over 520 tests of multiple configurations.[11]

NASAEdit

Daniel Paxson[12] at the Glenn Research Center used simulations in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to assess the RDE's detonation frame of reference and compares performance with the PDE.[13] He found that an RDE can perform at least on the same level as a PDE. Furthermore, he found that RDE performance can be directly compared to the PDE as their performance was essentially the same.

EnergomashEdit

According to Russian Vice Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin,[14] in mid-January 2018 NPO Energomash company completed the initial test phase of a 2-ton class liquid propellant RDE and plans to develop larger models for use in space launch vehicles.

University of Central FloridaEdit

In May 2020, a team of engineering researchers affiliated with the US Air Force claimed to have developed a highly experimental working model rotating detonation engine capable of producing 200lbf (approximately 890N) of thrust operating on a hydrogen/oxygen fuel mix.[15]

JAXA SuccessEdit

On July 26th 2021 (UTC), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) succeeded in testing the RDE in space for the first time in the world by launching the S-520-31 sounding rocket equipped with a 500N class RDE in the second stage.[16]

Łukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Aviation successEdit

On September 15th 2021, Institute of Aviation performed the first successful flight test of an experimental rocket powered by a rocket engine using the process of rotating detonation, powered by liquid propellants. The test took place on September 15, 2021 at the testing ground of the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka near Warsaw in Poland. The rocket engine, according to the plan, worked for 3.2 s, accelerating the rocket to a speed of about 90 m/s, which allowed the rocket to reach an altitude of 450 m.[17]

Other researchEdit

Other experiments have used numerical procedures to better understand the flow-field of the RDE.[18] In 2020 a study from the University of Washington explored an experimental device that allowed control of parameters such as the size of the cylinder gap. Using a high-speed camera researchers were able to view it operating in extreme slow motion. Based on that they developed a mathematical model to describe the process.[19] In 2021 researchers from the University of Central Florida have managed to build for the first time a technical prototype of an oblique wave detonation engine (OWDE).[20]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lu, Frank; Braun, Eric (7 July 2014). "Rotating Detonation Wave Propulsion: Experimental Challenges, Modeling, and Engine Concepts". Journal of Propulsion and Power. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. 30 (5): 1125–1142. doi:10.2514/1.B34802. S2CID 73520772.
  2. ^ a b Wolanski, Piotr (2013). "Detonative Propulsion". Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 34 (1): 125–158. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2012.10.005.
  3. ^ "В России испытали модель детонационного двигателя для ракет будущего". Российская газета. 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  4. ^ Cao, Huan; Wilson, Donald (2013). "Parametric Cycle Analysis of Continuous Rotating Detonation Ejector-Augmented Rocket Engine". 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. doi:10.2514/6.2013-3971. ISBN 978-1-62410-222-6.
  5. ^ Schwer, Douglas; Kailasanath, Kailas (25 September 2010). "Numerical Investigation of the Physics of Rotating Detonation Engines". Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. Elsevier, Inc. 33 (2): 2195–2202. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2010.07.050.
  6. ^ "Pressure Gain Combustion Program Committee - Resources". AIAA Pressure Gain Combustion Program Committee. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  7. ^ "How the Rotating Detonation Engine Works". HowStuffWorks. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  8. ^ "US Navy developing rotating detonation engine". Physics Today. 2012-11-06. doi:10.1063/PT.5.026505. ISSN 0031-9228.
  9. ^ "How the Rotating Detonation Engine Works". HowStuffWorks. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  10. ^ "Navy Researchers Look to Rotating Detonation Engines to Power the Future". U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Retrieved 2022-03-14.
  11. ^ Claflin, Scott. "Recent Advances in Power Cycles Using Rotating Detonation Engines with Subcritical and Supercritical CO2" (PDF). Southwest Research Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  12. ^ "Daniel E. Paxson - Controls and Dynamics Branch Personnel". www.grc.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 1999-08-23. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  13. ^ "UCSB Full Bib - External Link". pegasus.library.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  14. ^ Facebook post, in Russian
  15. ^ Blain, Loz (5 May 2020). "World-first "impossible" rotating detonation engine fires up". New Atlas. New Atlas. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  16. ^ "Japan Tests Explosion-Powered Rocket for the First Time in Space, Is a Success". 19 August 2021.
  17. ^ Poland launched a rocket powered by a detonation engine, retrieved 2021-10-07
  18. ^ Schwer, Douglas; Kailasanath, Kailas (2011-01-01). "Numerical investigation of the physics of rotating-detonation-engines". Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 33 (2): 2195–2202. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2010.07.050.
  19. ^ Strickler, Jordan (February 19, 2020). "New detonating engine could make space travel faster and cheaper". ZME Science. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  20. ^ "World first: Oblique wave detonation engine may unlock Mach 17 aircraft". 12 May 2021.

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