Rostov-on-Don (Russian: Росто́в-на-Дону́, tr. Rostov-na-Donu, IPA: [rɐˈstof nə dɐˈnu]) is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers (20 mi) from the Sea of Azov. The southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. The population is over one million people (1,125,000).
Views of Rostov-on-Don
|Federal subject||Rostov Oblast|
|City status since||1796|
|• Body||City Duma|
|• Head||Zinaida Neyarokhina|
|• Total||348.5 km2 (134.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||70 m (230 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||10th in 2010|
|• Density||3,100/km2 (8,100/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Rostov Oblast, Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|• Urban okrug||Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
344000–344002, 344004, 344006, 344007, 344009–344013, 344015, 344016, 344018–344023, 344025, 344029, 344030, 344032–344034, 344037–344039, 344041, 344045, 344048, 344050, 344052, 344055, 344056, 344058, 344064, 344065, 344068, 344069, 344072, 344079, 344082, 344090–344095, 344101, 344103, 344111–344114, 344116, 344700, 344880, 344890, 344899, 344960–344965, 344999, 901078, 995100
|Dialing code(s)||+7 863|
|City Day||Third Sunday of September|
|Twin towns||Dortmund, Gera, Volos, Glasgow, Le Mans, Mobile, Kajaani, Pleven, Cheongju, Yerevan, Antalya, Odessa, Donetsk, Oral, Luhansk, Gomel, Seville, Polis|
- 1 History
- 2 Administrative and municipal status
- 3 Geography
- 4 Symbols
- 5 Awards
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture
- 9 Other facilities
- 10 Religion
- 11 Mass media
- 12 Sports
- 13 Notable people
- 14 Tourist sites and excursions
- 15 Historic buildings
- 16 Twin towns and sister cities
- 17 Gallery
- 18 References
- 19 Bibliography
- 20 External links
Establishment to the early 20th centuryEdit
From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian, Sarmat, and Savromat tribes. It was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey. It was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don, gradually lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" (Kupecheskaya Sloboda) on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of previously Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post.
In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, it was officially renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz.
Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began. Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with approximately 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia, especially for the export of wheat, timber, and iron ore.
In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don. The two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged. The former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia.
In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon.
During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don, then the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St. George Cathedral (1783–1807).
During World War I Germany and Austria took Rostov-on-Don, 1917-8. During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first from November 19/20, 1941 to December 2, 1941, according to Anthony Beevor, Stalingrad, after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov and then for seven months from July 23, 1942 to February 14, 1943. The town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II.
In 1942 in Rostov-on-Don up to 30,000 Jews and Soviet civilians were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka.
In 2018, Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the FIFA World Cup.
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts:
|№||City District||Population Census|
Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood:
- There were sultry days of brassy sun, but also cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea.
Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa). The winter is moderately cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C (26.4 °F). The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C (−25.4 °F) occurred in January 1940. Summers are hot and humid; July temperatures average +23.3 °C (73.9 °F). The city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C (104.2 °F) was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters (25.3 in), the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, and the average air humidity is 72%.
|Climate data for Rostov-on-Don|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−31.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||59
|Average precipitation days||4||5||7||12||11||9||10||8||9||9||12||10||106|
|Average relative humidity (%)||84||81||76||66||63||64||61||59||67||75||84||86||72|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||64||82||128||189||265||286||314||293||240||159||64||38||2,122|
|Source #1: pogoda.ru.net,|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)|
In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town. The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was designed in 1811 and approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents the St. Dimitry Rostovsky Fortress. The ancient Russian arms reference the role Rostov played in the defense of Russia's borders. The coat-of-arms adorns the mayor's decoration but all other cases of its use are first considered for approval by the City Duma.
The flag of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Duma on September 20, 1864. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries the home guard regiments, which defended the Southern borders of Russia, were raised under this flag. The "Flag of Rostov" is kept in the town's municipal building under glass. Its length is 1,370 millimeters (54 in) and width, 850 millimeters (33 in). The flag is taken out of the building only on Victory Day and Rostov-on-Don Day by a guard of honor.
In 1870, an oval shape mayoral decoration wrought from precious or semi-precious white metal was introduced. On the front is written "Rostov-on-Don" at the top, the Rostov-on-Don coat-of-arms is in the center and the inscription, "Mayor of the City" is written at the bottom. On its reverse side, the day of its adoption, April 9, 1996, is recorded. The decoration is worn over the suit on a large chain. The mayor returns the decoration to the Duma on his or her retirement from office.
Rostov's favourable geographical position at trading crossroads promotes economic development. The Don River is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with the north. Rostov-on-Don is a trading port for Russian, Italian, Greek and Turkish merchants selling, for example, wool, wheat and oil. It is also an important river port for passengers. The Rostov-on-Don agricultural region produces one-third of Russia's vegetable oil from sunflowers.
With the construction of the Volga-Don Shipping Canal in 1952, Rostov-on-Don has become known as a "port of five seas" (reachable from the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea, the White Sea, and the Baltic Sea). See the article Port of Rostov-on-Don
In modern times, Rostov-on-Don has experienced economic growth. Numerous start-up companies have established headquarters in the city, the median income is increasing, and the city is being transformed into a modern, industrial and technology-rich hub. For instance, Rostov-on-Don is a center for helicopter and farm machinery manufacturing. The "Tebodin" engineering company opened its fourth office in Rostov-on-Don in June 2010.
The Rostov-on-Don Airport caters for domestic travel, as well as flights to and from the former C.I.S., Europe, Africa and Asia. Its IATA code is "ROV". Donavia airlines (formerly "Aeroflot Don") has its head office in Rostov-on-Don. The Bataysk military aerodrome (which is located 5.0 miles (8.0 km) northwest of the city center) may be developed into a new airport hub for Southern Russia.[needs update] Platov International Airport was opened in late 2017 as part of preparations for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
The main railway stations in Rostov-on-Don are "Rostov-Glavny" and "Rostov-Prigorodny". The "St. Petersburg-Rostov-Caucasus" railway crosses the territory of Rostov-on-Don. The North Caucasus Railway offices are in Rostov-on-Don.
Several highways of federal and regional significance cross Rostov. The M-4 “Don” route passes Rostov to the east and crosses the Don river in the Aksay city area. The “Rostov-Novoshakhtinsk” starts from the Northern housing block area of the city running north to connect with the M-4 “Don” route between Shakhty and Novoshakhtinsk.
The Greater Rostov supercityEdit
The Ministry of Regional Development of Russia has prepared a program to create eight multimillion conglomerate population centres or 'super cities'. The Rostov Oblast will be one of these. “The Greater Rostov” metropolitan area will include the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Novocherkassk, Taganrog, Aksay, Bataysk and Azov.
In 1929, the first automatic telephone exchange in Russia with a capacity of 6,000 numbers commenced in Rostov-on-Don. Since 2004, standard telephone numbers in Rostov-on-Don have been seven digits in length. Since 2009, city numbers have begun with "2" The city dialing code is "863".
Rostov-on-Don hosts higher educational establishments, including universities, academies, secondary schools of vocational training including colleges, technical schools, specialized schools, and elementary schools of vocational training including lyceums, professional colleges and schools of general education.
The largest educational establishments of the city include:
- Southern Federal University
- Don State Technical University
- Rostov State University of Economy
- Rostov State University of Transport Routes (The Railway Engineers' University)
- Rostov State University of Civil Engineering
- Rostov State Medical University
- Rostov State Conservatory named after Sergei Rachmaninoff
- Branch of the Moscow State Academy named after F.F. Ushakov
- Rostov Eparchy Religious College
- Rostov Institute of Advocacy of Entrepreneurs
- Rostov Institute of Foreign Languages
- Rostov International Institute of Economy and Management
- Rostov Juridical Institute of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation
- Rostov Institute of Physical Training and Sports (branch of the Cuban State University of Physical Training, Sports and Tourism)
- Rostov Social & Economic Institute
- Rostov branch of Moscow Institute of Economy, Management and Law
- South-Russian Institute of the Humanities
- North-Caucasian Academy of Public Service
- North-Caucasian Institute of Anthropology and Applied Psychology
- The Modern University for the Humanities
- Russian State University of Trade & Economy
- Institute of Management, Business and Law,
- Rostov Institute of Law of the Russian Juridical Academy of the Russian Federation
- Rostov State Academy of Architecture and Arts,
- Rostov College of Arts named after M.B. Grekov.
There is also a French cultural centre (Alliance Francaise), a British Council and German Goethe Institute (DAAD and Bosch foundation), and a Korean Cultural Centre.
|Southern Federal University||Rostov State University means of communication||Don State Technical University|
The most conspicuous architectural feature of the central part of the city is the Cathedral of Virgin's Nativity (1860–1887), designed by Konstantin Thon.
Rostov-on-Don's libraries include:
- The Don State Public Library,
- Central Library named after Maxim Gorky,
- Regional Children’s Library named after V.M. Velichkina
- Rostov Regional Special Library for the Blind,
- Scientific Library of the Medical University,
- Central State Children’s Library named after Lenin
- Children’s Library named after A.S. Pushkin
- Children’s Library named after Mayakovsky
- South-Russian Don State Public Library.
In the Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky works Mikhail Bushnov, who is the national artist of the USSR and an honorary citizen of Rostov-on-Don.
- Maxim Gorky Academic Drama Theater
- Rostov State Puppet Theater
- Rostov Regional Academic Theater of the Youth
- Rostov Musical Theater
- Philharmonic centre
- Theater 18+
- Kim Nazaretov jazz centre
The small collections of the Art Gallery and the Museum of Arts include some works by Repin, Surikov, Perov, Levitan, Aivazovsky as well as of modern Rostov artists.
- Museum of Local Lore
- Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts
- Museum of Fine Arts on Dmitrovskaya
- Museum of Russian & Armenian Friendship
- Pioneer and Railway Museum and Children's Railway
Other facilities include seven stadiums, a Palace of Sports, a circus, a zoo botanical gardens and parks. Rostov-on-Don hosts the North Caucasian Science Center and research institutes. The city is also home to a Starbucks coffee chain, a true rarity in this geographical area of Russia.
The Administration of Rostov and Novocherkassk Eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church is located in Rostov. Other religious facilities in Rostov-on-Don are the Roman Catholic "Church of the Lord's Supper", the Old Believers' temple, a synagogue, a mosque, and the Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition. There are also several Armenian and Greek Orthodox churches in the city, with one of the Armenian churches being the oldest standing building in Rostov. All of the Armenian churches are in the Nakhichevan-on-Don district of the city.
Russian Orthodox churchesEdit
- Church of the Intercession
- Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church (belongs to Moscow Patriarchate)
- St. Alexandra's Church
- Ascension Church
- Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- Church of St. John of Kronstadt, Rostov-on-Don
Old believers churchesEdit
The construction of the Rostov TV centre began in 1956 and was completed on 26 April 1958. The first television program was broadcast on 30 April 1958. Colour television was first broadcast in 1974. Radio transmission began in Rostov-on-Don on October 17, 1975. In 2009, there were fourteen FM radio stations in Rostov-on-Don.
Rostov-on-Don is one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
|FC Rostov||Football||1930||Men's Premier League||1st||Olimp-2|
|SKA Rostov-on-Don||1937||Men's Professional Football League||3rd||SKA SKVO Stadium|
|Rostov-Don||Basketball||2006||Women's Super League||2nd||Express CSC|
|Rostov-Don||Handball||1965||Woman's Handball Championship||1st||Sport-Don Sports Palace|
|HC Rostov||Ice hockey||2004||Men's Hockey League||3rd|
2018 FIFA World Cup in Rostov-on-DonEdit
In 2018, Rostov-on-Don was one of the Russian cities to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Rostov Arena with a capacity of 45,000 spectators was built on the left bank of the Don River, left of the exit from the city via the Voroshilovsky Bridge. The stadium will host 5 games of the FIFA World Cup.
- June 17, 21:00, Brazil — Switzerland, Group E
- June 20, 18:00, Uruguay — Saudi Arabia, Group A
- June 23, 18:00, South Korea — Mexico, Group F
- June 26, 21:00, Iceland — Croatia, Group D
- July 2, 21:00, Round of 16
During the FIFA World Cup, the Teatralnaya Square will serve as a venue for the FIFA Fan Fest. The specially arranged area will have a capacity of 25,000 people. Fans will be able to watch all World Cup games on a big screen. The venue will be serviced by food outlets and have several entertainment areas. In preparation for the FIFA World Cup, the city has implemented a large-scale development program. Apart from the new stadium, the city has built a camping area for fans arriving for the World Cup, the Southern and Western Bypasses, and new hotels. Reconstruction works have been carried out at the bridge crossing over the Don River (expanding the traffic way to 6 lanes), a number of healthcare facilities, and the embankment area. A new airport, Yuzhny, has been built.
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Notable people include Olga Spessivtseva ballet dancer, Alexander Suvorov military commander, Yelena Produnova artistic gymnast, Yulia Belokobylskaya artistic gymnast, Andrei Chikatilo (1936–1994) serial killer, and Alexander Pechersky (1909–1990) a leader of the rebellion at the Sobibor extermination camp, and Maria Kharenkova artistic gymnast.
Writers and poetsEdit
Authors of Rostov-on-Don include Anton Chekhov, Mikhail Sholokhov, Zakrutkin, Fadeyev, Safronov, Kalinin, Alexander Pushkin, Maxim Gorky, Sergey Yesenin, Shushanik Kurghinian, Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Yuri Zhdanov and Mikael Nalbandian. After visiting Rostov in 1831, Pushkin published his poem "The Don". The monument to Pushkin on Pushkin Boulevard is dedicated to these events. Maxim Gorky, worked as a docker in Rostov-on-Don in his youth. Vera Panova (1905–1973) was a Soviet era writer. Modern era includes such names as Danil Korezky and Tony Vilgotsky. A monument to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who lived in the city for 18 years and studied mathematics at Rostov University, is being planned by city authorities.
A monument to Anton Chekhov (see Chekhov Monument in Rostov-on-Don) was erected in 2010.
Musicians, composers and singersEdit
Musicians from Rostov-on-Don include Efrem Zimbalist the violinist, Zaslavsky, Kim Nazaretov, Modest Mussorgsky, composer Andrey Pashchenko (1885-1972) , the pop music singer Irina Allegrova (1952), Yuri Bashmet, Sergey Vladimirovich Rodionov, Eva Rivas (1987), Mikhail Puntov (1995), the post-punk rock band Motorama and the rap band Kasta.
Actors, directors and playwrightsEdit
Actors and playwrights of Rostov-on-Don include Maretskaya, Mikhail Shchepkin, Yevgeniya Glushenko, Alexander Kaidanovsky (1946–1995), Evgeny Shvarts (1896–1958), Nikolai Sorokin (1952–2013), Konstantin Lavronenko (1961), winner of the Best Actor award at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival, and Sergey Zhigunov (1963). Marion Gering, noted for his stage and film productions in the United States, was born in the city.
Architects and artistsEdit
Architects and artists of the city include Yevgeny Vuchetich, Seyran Khatlamajyan, Ashot Melkonian, Natalia Duritskaya, Martiros Saryan (1880–1972), Roman Chatov (1900–1987), Leonid Eberg (1882-1954), Lev Eberg (1907-1982).
Scientists and adventurersEdit
Scientists and explorers include, doctors N. Bogoraz and S. Fedosov, scientists Dmitri Mendeleev, A. S. Popov, I. P. Pavlov, George Sedov the Arctic Sea explorer, Yakov Frenkel (1894–1952) a solid-state physicist, Svyatoslav Fyodorov (1927–2000), ophthalmologist, Sabina Spielrein (1885–1942), psychoanalyst, Yuri Oganessian (a nuclear physicist who is the namesake of oganesson (element 118)).
- Vladimir Shumeyko (1945), political figure
- Svetlana Boiko (1972), foil fencer
- Anatoli Morozov (1973), professional association football player and coach
- Alexei Eremenko (1983), Russian-born Finnish professional association football player who currently plays in Kazakhstan
- Victoria Lopyreva (1983), model and popular television hostess
- Tatiana Kotova (1985), beauty pageant titleholder
- Andrei Chikatilo (1936-94), serial killer
- Ivan Bukavshin (1995-2016), chess grandmaster
- Iosif Vorovich (1920-2001), mathematician, academician, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Tourist sites and excursionsEdit
- Local bazaars and markets of fresh fish
- Bridges over the Don river and Don Embankment
- Don River lookout
- Armenian Holy Cross Church
- Rostovchanka statue
- River Steamboat rides
- Orthodox Cathedral of the Nativity of the Holy Virgin
- Pushkinskaya Street
- Maxim Gorky Park
- Traditional Cossack villages (stanitsas)
- State Sholokhov museum and reserve
- Azov ancient fortress
- Rostov circus
- Rostov state opera and ballet theatre
- Monastery of St. Jacob
- Rostov Zoo
- Open-Air Museum of Railway Equipment
- Botanical Garden of SFU
- Art Gallery 16th Line
- Alexander Column
- Grigory and Aksinya in a boat
- Park of Aviators
- October Park
- Anatoly Sobino Park
Twin towns and sister citiesEdit
- Law #340-ZS
- The official symbols of Rostov-on-Don enumerated in Decision #267 do not include the anthem.
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 380. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Charter of Rostov-on-Don, Article 35.1
- Official website of Rostov-on-Don. Biography of Zinaida Vasilyevna Neyarokhina, the Head of Rostov-on-Don (in Russian)
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- Charter of Rostov-on-Don, Article 1
- Law #238-ZS
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- Grishchenko, Nikolay (March 27, 2017). В Ростове аэропорт Платов построят к ЧМ-2018 раньше срока (in Russian). Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
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- Ростовская область — транспорт Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Автоматизация телефонной связи". Computer-museum.ru. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
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- Учреждения высшего профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону Archived January 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Учреждения среднего профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону Archived January 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Учреждения начального профессионального образования Ростова-на-Дону Archived January 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Энциклопедия "Мой город", Ростов-на-Дону (in Russian). Mojgorod.ru. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
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- "Alliance Francaise". Archived from the original on May 7, 2006. Retrieved May 15, 2006.
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- "Ростовский цирк". Cirk.webrostov.ru. June 19, 2013. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- "Ботанический сад РГУ". Rsu.ru. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- "Synagogues and Jewish prayer houses of Rostov-on-Don". Jewishfamilyhistory.org. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- "Rostov-on-Don Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition (In Russian)". Rostov.buddhism.ru. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- Sport-Don Rostov
- Most Popular People Born In "Rostov-on-Don/ Russia" (26 names) IMDb. Accessed 20 July 2012
- Grove Music Online. Accessed 15 August 2018
- "Отдел внешних связей, Официальный портал городской Думы и Администрации города. Ростов-на-Дону. Город Воинской Славы". Rostov-gorod.ru. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District. Twins2010.com. Accessed 28, October, 2009 Dead Link 19 July 2012 Archived copy at WebCite (November 28, 2009).
- "Yerevan - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
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- Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №340-ЗС от 25 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №270-ЗС от 27 ноября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #340-ZS of July 28, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast, as amended by the Law #270-ZS of November 27, 2014 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №238-ЗС от 27 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Ростов-на-Дону"», в ред. Закона №153-ЗС от 28 ноября 2008 г «О внесении изменений в областные Законы "Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Ростов-на-Дону", "Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования "Аксайский район" и муниципальных образований в его составе" и "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Наше время", №339, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #238-ZS of December 27, 2004 On Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Rostov-na-Donu", as amended by the Law #153-ZS of November 28, 2008 On Amending the Oblast Laws "On Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Rostov-na-Donu", "On Establishing the Borders and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of "Aksaysky District" and to the Municipal Formations It Comprises", and "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
- Ростовская-на-Дону городская Дума. Решение №267 от 3 декабря 1996 г. «Об утверждении положения "О символах г. Ростова-на-Дону"», в ред. Решения №507 от 13 августа 2013 г «О внесении изменений в Решение Ростовской-на-Дону городской Думы "Об утверждении Положения "О символах г. Ростова-на-Дону"». Вступил в силу 31 декабря 1996 г. Опубликован: "Ростов Официальный", №51–52, 1996. (Rostov-on-Don City Duma. Decision #267 of December 3, 1996 On Adopting the Provision "On the Symbols of the City of Rostov-on-Don", as amended by the Decision #507 of August 13, 2013 On Amending the Decision of the Rostov-on-Don City Duma "On Adopting the Provision "On the Symbols of the City of Rostov-on-Don". Effective as of December 31, 1996.).
- Official website of Rostov-on-Don (in Russian)