Ronchamp coal mines

The Ronchamp Coal Mines were an area of coal mines located in the Vosges and Jura coal mining basins, in eastern France. They covered three municipalities; Ronchamp, Champagney and Magny-Danigon. Operated for more than two centuries, from the mid-eighteenth century until the mid-twentieth century, they have profoundly changed the landscape, the economy and the local population.

Coal mine Saint Louis.
Spoil tip at Ronchamp colored red from subterranean combustion

Mining began in Ronchamp in the mid-18th century and had developed into a large industry by the late 19th century, employing 1500 people.

Extraction started in adit before being dug at coal mine Saint Louis in 1810, introducing the first real extraction mine-shaft. The shaft seams sunk more and more, and became deeper until the well, owned by (Civil Society coal Ronchamp), eventually became the deepest mine in France beating the coal mine du Magny (694 meters) in 1878 and the coal mine Arthur de Buyer (1010 meters) in 1900. After the nationalisation of mines in 1946, the shaft and the thermal power station was entrusted to Electricité de France.

After closing in 1958, the mining sites and infrastructures were demolished and workers had to convert to other professions. Later, a museum and two associations were created to preserve the memory of the mining heritage and several sites were redeveloped to become tourist attractions.

The museum looks back at the miner's work, their techniques, tools they used and their social life. A collection of miners lamps are also on display.[1]

GeographyEdit

 
 
Location of Ronchamp, in the east of the department of Haute-Saône in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

SituationEdit

The zone exploited and influenced by the coal mines corresponds to the Ronchamp and Champagney mining basin which is at the heart of the Vosges and Jura coal mining basins, on the eastern part of the French department of the Haute-Saône, in the northern part of the French region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, close to Alsace and the industries of Mulhouse. The coal mines are then an essential source of energy for both regions. The Alsatian catchment area is between the towns of Mulhouse, Thann et Cernay.[2]

The concession of Ronchamp, Champagney and Éboulet, where the mines are exploited, has 4503 hectares and includes the communes of Ronchamp, Champagney, Magny-Danigon, Clairegoutte, Andornay, Palante and La Côte (only the first three have coal mines). It is surrounded by the Mourière concession to the northwest, the Saint-Germain concession to the west and the Lomont concession to the south but also by other exploratory mines to the east.

Mine listEdit

Digging Name Depth Activity Function Other functions
1810 Coal mine Saint-Louis 135 m 1823 – 1842 Extraction
1815 Coal mine Henri IV 61 m 1816 – 1835 Extraction
1822 Coal mine Samson 19 m 1824 Extraction
1825 Coal mine #1 164 m 1827 – 1833 Extraction
1825 Coal mine #2 156 m 1828 – 1833 Extraction
1825 Coal mine #3 38 m 1826 – 1829 Extraction
1829 Coal mine #4 45 m 1830 – 1841 Extraction
1830 Coal mine #5 74 m 1832 Research
1832 Coal mine #6 66 m 1834 – 1836 Extraction Ventilation 1839-1850
1839 Coal mine #7 205 m 1843 – 1849 Extraction Ventilation 1849-1872
1845 Coal mine Saint Charles / #8 315 m 1847 – 1895 Extraction
1850 Coal mine Saint Joseph 453 m 1855 – 1895 Extraction
1851 Coal mine Notre Dame d'Éboulet 564 m 1859 – 1896 Extraction Drainage 1896-1958
1854 Coal mine Saint Jean 51 m 1856 Research
1854 Coal mine Sainte Barbe 324 m 1860 – 1872 Extraction Ventilation of coal mine Sainte-Pauline
1854 Coal mine Sainte Pauline 546 m 1861 – 1884 Extraction
1855 Coal mine de l'Espérance 103 m 1858 Extraction
1864 Coal mine Sainte Marie 359 m 1866 – 1869 Extraction Ventilation 1869-1958
1866 Coal mine Saint Georges 470 m 1870 – 1873 Extraction
1873 Coal mine du Magny 694 m 1878 – 1958 Extraction Service 1916-1928
1873 Coal mine du Chanois 588 m 1900 – 1951 Extraction
1883 Coal mine du Tonnet / #9 574 m 1886 – 1888 Extraction
1884 Coal mine #10 247 m 1886 – 1896 Ventilation
1892 Coal mine Arthur de Buyer / #11 1 010 m 1900 – 1954 Extraction
1949 Coal mine de l'Étançon / #13 bis 44 m 1950 – 1958 Extraction

PictureEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Coal mine of Ronchamp
  2. ^ Michel Godard 2012, pp. 6–7.

See alsoEdit

Connected ArticlesEdit

External linksEdit