Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno

The Archdiocese of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno (Latin: Archidioecesis Salernitana-Campaniensis-Acernensis) is a Latin Church diocese of the Catholic Church in Campania, southern Italy, created in 1986. The historic Archdiocese of Salerno was in existence from the tenth century, having been elevated from a sixth-century diocese. The Diocese of Acerno was combined with the archdiocese in 1818.[1][2]

Archdiocese of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno

Archidioecesis Salernitana-Campaniensis-Acernensis
Salerno Cathedral
Ecclesiastical provinceSalerno-Campagna-Acerno
Area1,398 km2 (540 sq mi)
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2020)
548,900 (guess)
547,000 (guess)
DenominationCatholic Church
RiteRoman Rite
Established6th century
CathedralCattedrale-Basilica di S. Matteo (Salerno)
Co-cathedralConcattedrale-Basilica di S. Maria della Pace (Campagna)
Concattedrale di S. Donato (Acerno)
Secular priests231 (diocesan)
85 (Religious orders)
68 Permanent Deacons
Current leadership
ArchbishopAndrea Bellandi
Bishops emeritusGerardo Pierro
Luigi Moretti

On Saturday, May 4, 2019, Pope Francis appointed Archbishop Andrea Bellandi, until then the Vicar general of Florence, as Archbishop, succeeding Archbishop Luigi Moretti.

History edit

Local Salernitan tradition venerates five saints, who are named as the earliest bishops of Salerno: Bonosus (each 14 May), Gramatius (11 October), Verus (23 October), Eusterius (19 October), and Valentinianus (3 November). Their existence, however, is undocumented, and their dates are unknown.[3]

Bishop Gaudentius attended Pope Symmachus' Roman synod of March 499.[4] Bishop Asterius went to Constantinople with Pope Agapitus in 534. Bishop Petrus (834), formerly Bishop of Canusio, who took refuge at Salerno when the Saracens destroyed his capital, and built the Church of San Giovanni Battista.

In the eighth century the city of Salerno was in the power of the Lombard dukes of Benevento. In 984 Salerno became an archiepiscopal see, the first archbishop being Amato.

The archbishopric edit

The first archbishop of Salerno was Amatus. This is explicitly stated in a bull of Pope John XV, written for Archbishop Grimoald on 25 March 994, who was named archbishop just as Amatus had been by his predecessors.[5] Pope John's predecessors were John XIV (December 983–August 984), and Benedict VII, who died on 10 July 983. Since Amatus is attested as still being a bishop in April 983, this places the date of the first grant, as Felice Savio argued, to the year 983, between April and July.[6]

On 22 July 1051, Pope Leo IX issued the bull "Officium Sacerdotale", in which he confirmed the metropolitan status of the archbishops of Salerno, and the privilege of ordering and consecrating the bishops of Paestum, Nola, Conza, Cosenza, and Bisignano.[7] On 24 March 1058, Pope Stephen IX issued the bull also called "Officium Sacerdotale", in which he confirmed for the archbishops of Salerno the right of consecrating bishops for (in addition to those named by Pope Leo) Malvito, Policastro, Marsico, Martirano, and Caciano.[8]

On 8 September 1694, the provinces of Salerno, Avellino, and Potenza were struck by a major earthquake. At Capitignano, the parish church was damaged. At Cava de'Tirreni the cathedral was damaged, and the church of S. Francesco lost half of its bell tower. In Salerno itself, the cathedral was damaged, along with the episcopal palace, the church of S. Matteo, and the convent of the Augustinians.[9]

Diocesan synods edit

A diocesan synod was an irregularly held, but important, meeting of the bishop of a diocese and his clergy, to which other interested parties might be invited. Its purpose was (1) to proclaim generally the various decrees already issued by the bishop; (2) to discuss and ratify measures on which the bishop chose to consult with his clergy; (3) to publish statutes and decrees of the diocesan synod, of the provincial synod, and of the Holy See.[10]

A diocesan synod was held under the auspices of Archbishop Federico Fregoso (1507–1529) in 1525.[11] In 1564, Archbishop Gaspar Cervantes de Gaeta (1564–1568) held a diocesan synod.[12] Archbishop Marco Antonio Marsilio Colonna (1574–1589) presided over a diocesan synod in Salerno in 1574, and another in 1579.[13] On 16 May 1630, Cardinal Giulio Savelli, Archbishop of Salerno (1630–1642) held a diocesan synod in the cathedral of S. Maria degli Angeli e S. Matteo Evangelista in Salerno.[14] Cardinal Fabrizio Savelli, Archbishop of Salerno (1642–1658) presided over a diocesan synod in 1653.[15] A diocesan synod was held by Archbishop Giovanni de Torres (1658–1662) in 1661.[16] On 1 March 1803, Archbishop Salvatore Spinelli (1797–1805) held a diocesan synod in the cathedral of Salerno.[17]

A provincial synod was held in Salerno by Archbishop Lucio Sanseverino (1612–1623) from 10 to 13 May 1615. In attendance were the bishops of Sarno, Cava, Campagna, Capaccio, Nusco, Acerna, and the Marsi.[18]

Right of King of Naples to nominate archbishop edit

Pope Clement VII sent a motu proprio to the Emperor Charles V on 6 July 1524, remarking that Archbishop Fregoso had not resided in the diocese of Salerno for many years,[19] in consequence that the diocese was suffering in its spiritual and temporal condition; the pope proposed to place the diocese in the hands of a special nuncio, with the Emperor's consent, until the return of the archbishop to his seat. In the Treaty of Barcelona (29 June 1529), Pope Clement VII confirmed to the Emperor Charles V the fief of the Kingdom of Naples, and in addition the right to name twenty-four of the bishops in that domain, including the seven archbishops, among them the Archbishop of Salerno.[20] Shortly thereafter Fregoso resigned.[21]

After Napoleon edit

Following the extinction of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, the Congress of Vienna authorized the restoration of the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples. Since the French occupation had seen the abolition of many Church institutions in the Kingdom, as well as the confiscation of most Church property and resources, it was imperative that Pope Pius VII and King Ferdinand IV reach agreement on restoration and restitution.

A concordat was finally signed on 16 February 1818, and ratified by Pius VII on 25 February 1818. Ferdinand issued the concordat as a law on 21 March 1818.[22] The re-erection of the dioceses of the kingdom and the ecclesiastical provinces took more than three years. The right of the king to nominate the candidate for a vacant bishopric was recognized, as in the Concordat of 1741, subject to papal confirmation (preconisation).[23] On 27 June 1818, Pius VII issued the bull De Ulteriore, in which he reestablished the metropolitan archbishopric of Salerno, with five suffragan dioceses, the diocese of Capaccio e Vallo, diocese of Policastro, diocese of Potenza e Marsico Nuovo, and diocese of Nusco.[24]

The See of Acerno, which is on record as an independent diocese since 1136, was granted to the archbishop of Salerno as its perpetual administrator.[25] Among its bishops was the Franciscan Antonio Bonito (1493).[26] In 1920, the diocese of Acerno had seven parishes, seven churches, and sixteen secular priests.[27]

On 4 August 1973, the Archbishop of Salerno, Gaetano Pollio (1969-1984) was also named bishop of Campagna.[28] The three dioceses were held aeque principaliter.

Diocesan reorganization edit

The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), in order to ensure that all Catholics received proper spiritual attention, decreed the reorganization of the diocesan structure of Italy and the consolidation of small and struggling dioceses. It also recommended the abolition of anomalous units such as exempt territorial prelatures.[29]

On 18 February 1984, the Vatican and the Italian State signed a new and revised concordat. Based on the revisions, a set of Normae was issued on 15 November 1984, which was accompanied in the next year, on 3 June 1985, by enabling legislation. According to the agreement, the practice of having one bishop govern two separate dioceses at the same time, aeque personaliter, as was the case with Salerno and Acerno, was to be abolished. Instead, the Vatican continued consultations which had begun under Pope John XXIII for the merging of small dioceses, especially those with personnel and financial problems, into one combined diocese. On 30 September 1986, Pope John Paul II ordered that the dioceses of Salerno and Aceno, as well as the diocese of Campagna[30] (which had not been incorporated into the reorganized metrropolitanate of Conza), be merged into one diocese with one bishop, with the Latin title Archidioecesis Salernitana-Campaniensis-Acernensis. The seat of the diocese was to be in Salerno, and the cathedral of S. Maria e S. Matteo in Salerno was to serve as the cathedral of the merged dioceses. The cathedral in Acerno and the cathedral in Campagna were to become co-cathedrals, and the cathedral Chapters of Acerno and of Campagna were each to be a Capitulum Concathedralis. There was to be only one diocesan Tribunal, in Salerno, and likewise one seminary, one College of Consultors, and one Priests' Council. The territory of the new diocese was to include the territory of the previous dioceses of Salerno, Acerna, and Campagna.[31]

Bishops of Salerno edit

Erected: 6th century

  • Gaudentius (attested 499)[32]
  • Asterius (attested 536)[33]
  • Rodopertus (attested 774–787)
  • Rodoaldus[34]
  • Petrus
  • Rattulus
  • Maginaldus
  • Teupo
  • Alone (attested 841)[35]
  • Landemario (d. 844)[36]
  • Bernardo (d. 860 ?)[37]
Petrus (861)[38]
  • Rachenaldo (c. 862)[39]
  • Petrus (attested 882–917)[40]
  • Johannes (attested 925)[41]
  • Petrus (attested 936–946)[42]
  • Bernardus (attested 954)[43]
  • Petrus (attested 958–974)[44]
  • Joannes (attested 977–982)[45]

Archbishops of Salerno edit

Elevated: 10th century

to 1500 edit

  • Amatus (attested 982–992)[46]
Sede vacante (1222–1225)
Sede vacante (1272–1286)
Gui de Collemedio (1306)[51]
  • Berardus (1306–1310)
  • Isarnus Morlane (1310)[52]
  • Robertus Arcofate (1310-1313)[53]
  • Onofrio (1313–1320)[54]
  • Bertrand de La Tour, O.F.M. (3 Sep 1320 – 30 Apr 1321 Resigned)[55]
  • Arnaud Royardi, O.F.M. (30 Apr 1321 –1330)[56]
  • Orso Minutoli (1330–1333)[57]
  • Benedictus (1334–1347)
  • Rogerius Sanseverino (1347–1348)
  • Bertrand de Castronovo (de Chateauneuf) (7 Jan 1349 –1364)[58]
  • Guilelmus Sanseverino (1364–1378)
  • Johannes Aquaviva (1378–1382) Avignon Obedience
  • Robertus (1382– ? ) Avignon Obedience[59]
  • Guilelmus de Altavilla (1378–1389) Roman Obedience
  • Ligorius Majorini (1394–1409) Roman Obedience
  • Bartolommeo de Aprano (1409–1414) Roman Obedience
  • Nicolaus Piscicelli, O.Cist. (1415–1441) Pisan Obedience[60]
  • Barnabo Orsini (1441–1449)[61]
  • Nicola Piscicelli (21 Apr 1449 – Apr 1471)
  • Pietro Guglielmo de Rocha (30 Aug 1471 – 18 Oct 1482)
  • Giovanni d'Aragona (13 Jan 1483– 17 Oct 1485) Administrator[62]
  • Ottaviano Bentivoglio (1486–1498)[63]

1500 to 1825 edit

Sede vacante (1529–1533)
Niccolò Ridolfi (7 Feb 1533 – 19 Dec 1548 Resigned)[66]

Archbishops of Salerno (-Acerno) edit

Latin Name: Salernitana (-Acernensis)
United: 27 June 1818 with the Diocese of Acerno

Archbishops of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno edit

Co-cathedral in Campagna (left) Co-cathedral in Acerno

Latin Name: Salernitana-Campaniensis-Acernensis
United: 30 September 1986 with the Diocese of Campagna

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ "Archdiocese of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno" David M. Cheney. Retrieved February 29, 2016
  2. ^ "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Salerno–Campagna–Acerno" Gabriel Chow. Retrieved February 29, 2016
  3. ^ Paesano, Memorie I, pp. 12-16. Lanzoni, p. 251: "Gli scrittori locali hanno disputato molto sul tempo del loro governo, ma senza alcun risultato, perchè i documenti sono muti affatto."
  4. ^ Paesano, Memorie I, pp. 16-17.
  5. ^ Kehr VIII, p. 346, no. 12. Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum Taurensis editio Tomus 1 (Turin Franco & Dalmazzo 1857), p. 462: "...consensu ac voluntate nostrorum fratrum concedimus et confirmamus te Grimoaldum confratrem nostrum in ordine arcbiepiscopatus sicuti quondam Amato, cui primitus vestrae sedis archiepiscopatus Salernitanae a nostris aotecessoribus datus fuit."
  6. ^ Savio. pp. 41-42. Kehr VIII, p. 340. The "Chronicon Cavense" wrongly puts the date in 986.
  7. ^ Ughelli VII, pp. 379-380. Kehr VIII, p. 349, no. 19: "dat licentiam et potestatem ordinandi et consecrandi episcopos in subiectis locis, hoc est episcopatus Paestanen. et Nolanum et Consanum et Cusentinum simulque Visunianen. atque Acerentinum
  8. ^ J. von Pflugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita Vol. II (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer 1884), p. 82, no. 116. Kehr VIII, p. 349, no. 21: "eligendi et ordinandi episcopos in subiectis locis secundum Rom. pontificum privilegia, hoc est in Paestanen. civ. et Consana et Acherontina et Nolana quoque et Cusentina necnon et in Visinianen. et in Malvito et in Policastro et in Marsico et in Martirano et in Caciano...."
  9. ^ Mario Baratta, I terremoti d'Italia (Torino: Bocca 1901), p. 178.
  10. ^ Benedictus XIV (1842). "Lib. I. caput secundum. De Synodi Dioecesanae utilitate". Benedicti XIV ... De Synodo dioecesana libri tredecim (in Latin). Vol. Tomus primus. Mechlin: Hanicq. pp. 42–49. John Paul II, Constitutio Apostolica de Synodis Dioecesanis Agendis (March 19, 1997): Acta Apostolicae Sedis 89 (1997), pp. 706-727.
  11. ^ Constitutione Sinodale della Ecclesia Salernitana anno 1525. Anton. de Friciis de Corinaldo, 1525. Ughelli (VII, p. 43) quotes Alfonso Chacón as saying that Fregoso held a synod in his second year as archbishop.
  12. ^ J.-D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus 36 (Paris: H. Welter 1911), p. 73.
  13. ^ Synodus dioecesana Salernitana, seu Constitutiones editae ab Antonio Marsilio Columna, Archiepiscopo Salernitano, in dioecesana Synodo celebrata anno MDLXXIX... Naples: Horatius Salvianus 1580.
  14. ^ Synodus salernitana, scilicet constitutiones, et decreta ab eminentiss. et reverendiss. d. D. Iulio Tituli Sanctæ Sabinæ s.r.e. presbytero cardinale Sabello, archiepiscopo salernitano. Edita anno Domini 1630 die 13. mensis maij. (in Latin), Salerno: Typis Aegidij Longi, 1633.
  15. ^ Synodus Dioecesana Salernitana à Fabricio, Cardinali Sabello, archiepiscopo Salernitano, celebrata anno 1653. Neapoli: Franc. Savius, 1654.
  16. ^ Constitutiones et Decreta in Dioecesana Synodo Salernitana edita à Joanne De Torres, Archiepiscopo Salernitano, promulgata anno 1661. (in Latin). Naples: Joannes Franc. Savius, 1662
  17. ^ Synodus dioecesana salernitana ab excellentiss. et reverendiss. domino Salvatore Spinelli archiepiscopo in cathedrali metropolitana ecclesia celebrata kalendis martii reparatae salutis anno 1803.
  18. ^ Synodus prouincialis salernitana a Lucio Sanseuerino archiepiscopo cum consilio, & assensu coepiscoporum inchoatava. Idus, completa vero iij maij anno domini 1615. Romae: ex Typographia Camera Apostolicae, 1618.
  19. ^ "...sicut accepimus Venerabilis frater Federicus de Campo Fregosio Archiepiscopus Salernitanus in Ecclesia sua Salernitana iam pluribus annis non resideat...." Paesano IV, p. 148.
  20. ^ Raffaele De Martinis, Le ventiquattro chiese del trattato di Barcelona, Napoli 1882. L. von Pastor, The History of the Popes, 4th edition, Vol. X (London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner 1938) p. 57. Paesano, Memorie IV, pp. 148-150; 179-182 (listing the dioceses concerned).
  21. ^ In appointing Cardinal Niccolò Ridolfi as Apostolic Administrator of Salerno on 7 February 1533, Pope Clement VII noted, "Sane ecclesia Salernitana quae de jure patronatus Regis Siciliae citra farum pro tempore ex ostentis ex privilegio Apostolico cui non est hactenus in aliquo derogatum fore dignoscitur, ex eo quod Venerabilis frater Noster Federicus nuper Archiepiscopus Salernitanus regimini et administrationi illius in manibus Nostris sponte ac libere cessit...." Paesano IV, p. 191.
  22. ^ F. Torelli (1848), La chiave del concordato dell'anno 1818 I, second edition (Naples: Fibreno 1848), pp. 1-19.
  23. ^ Torelli I, p. 9.
  24. ^ Bulliarii Romani Continuatio Tomus 25 (Rome 1853), p. 57, § 7: "Archiepiscopalis ecclesia Salernitana suffraganeas habebit episcopales ecclesias Caputaquensem, Policastrensem, Marsicensem, et Nuscanam; episcopalis vero Acernensis ecclesia ac dioecesis administrationem moderno ac prò tempore existenti archiepiscopo Salernitano...."
  25. ^ D'Avino, pp. 600-601. Cappelletti XX, pp. 314-315. Kehr VIII, p. 379.
  26. ^ G. Volpi (1752), Cronologia de' vescovi Pestani ora detti di Capaccio. (in Italian) seconda edizione. Napoli: Giovanni Riccio, 1752, p. 250.
  27. ^ "Salerno," in: The Catholic Encyclopedia: Supplement. I, Part 1 (ed. Charles George Herbermann), Encyclopedia Press, 1922, p. 669.
  28. ^ Acta Apostolicae Sedis 65 (1973), p. 502: "Cathedrali Ecclesiae Campaniensi Exc. P. D. Caietanum Pollio, Archiepiscopum Salernitanum."
  29. ^ In its decree Christus Dominus, section 22, it stated: "Concerning diocesan boundaries, therefore, this sacred synod decrees that, to the extent required by the good of souls, a fitting revision of diocesan boundaries be undertaken prudently and as soon as possible. This can be done by dividing dismembering or uniting them, or by changing their boundaries, or by determining a better place for the episcopal see or, finally, especially in the case of dioceses having larger cities, by providing them with a new internal organization.... At the same time the natural population units of people, together with the civil jurisdictions and social institutions that compose their organic structure, should be preserved as far as possible as units. For this reason, obviously, the territory of each diocese should be continuous."
  30. ^ Campagna was only 29 km or 18 mi in a straight line from Salerno, by road the distance is around 47 km or 29 miles. In 1980, the diocese of Campagna had (nominally) 52,000 members, and 31 priests.
  31. ^ Acta Apostolicae Sedis 79 (Città del Vaticano 1987), pp. 778-780.
  32. ^ Paesano, Memorie, pp. 16-17.
  33. ^ Paesano, Memorie, pp. 17-19. Lanzoni, p. 251.
  34. ^ "Chronicon Salernitanum" § 11, MGH p. 478.
  35. ^ Alone: Paesano, Memorie I, p. 43
  36. ^ According to the Annalist of Salerno, Bishop Landemariodied on 14 January 844. Paesano, Memorie I, pp. 43-44.
  37. ^ Bernardo, or Bernaldo: Paesano, Memorie I, pp. 44-46, 48.
  38. ^ Petrus was intruded through the actions of his father Ademar and mother Guimeltrude. He was deposed by an uprising of the Salernitans, and killed by Prince Guaiferio. Paesano, Memorie I, pp. 48-49. Savio, p. 34 [105].
  39. ^ Savio, p. 34 [105].
  40. ^ Petrus: Savio, p. 34 [105], from a ms. of Cava.
  41. ^ Johannes: Savio, p. 34 [105].
  42. ^ Petrus: Savio, p. 34 [105].
  43. ^ Bernardus: Savio, p. 34 [105].
  44. ^ Petrus: Savio, p. 34-35 [105-106].
  45. ^ Johannes: Savio, p. 35 [106].
  46. ^ Amatus: Savio, p. 35 [106]. Kehr VIII, p. 340.
  47. ^ Bishop Alfanus received the exiled Pope Gregory VII, who died and was buried in Salerno. Alfanus died on 9 October 1085. Giorgio Falco, "Un vescovo poeta del secolo XI Alfano di Salerno," in: Archivio della Società Romana di storia patria XXXV (1912), pp. 439-481.
  48. ^ Matthaeus was provided (appointed) by Pope Urban IV on 17 November 1263, in the light of "noxiis quae sibi imminent, temporis malitia faciente." He is referring to the opposition of Manfred, King of Sicily to papal policies. Matthaeus was unable for some time to be installed in his diocese. Jean Guiraud, Les registres d'Urban IV Tome 2 (Paris: Fontemoing 1901), p. 221. nos. 456 and 457. Paesano, I, pp. 410-416. Eubel I, p. 429.
  49. ^ The election of Philippus, canon of Salerno, was confirmed by Pope Honorius IV on 7 March 1286. Maurice Prou, Les registres d'Honorius IV (Paris: E. Thorin 1888), pp. 262-263, no. 356. Eubel I, p. 429.
  50. ^ Guillaume de Goudon was the chancellor of Robert, Duke of Calabria. His six-month canonical time limit for consecration as a bishop was extended twice by Pope Boniface VIII, at the request of Duke Robert, and once by Pope Benedict XI. On 29 November 1303, Pope Benedict wrote to Guillaume, ordering him to make provision for the spiritual requirements of the diocese. He died in 1305. Paesano, Memorie III, pp. 127-128. C. Grandjean, Les registres de Benoît XI Fasc. 1 (Paris: E. Thorin 1883), p. 175, no. 212. Eubel I, p. 429 with note 5.
  51. ^ Guy may have been from Colmiers in Brie. A papal notary, he had been Bishop of Cambrai (1296–1306). He was transferred to Salerno on 22 January 1306. On 30 January 1306, Pope Clement V issued a mandate, allowing Cursius of Florence to collect the income of the diocese of Salerno, part of which had been pledged to the papacy by the late Bishop Philippus and part by the bishop-elect Guido. One-third of the collection is to be reserved for Guido. Guido died in Avignon in 1306, his successor being appointed on 4 June 1306. Regestum Clementis V papae Vol. I (Rone: Typographia Vaticana 1885), p. 82, no. 426. Paesano Memorie III, p. 128. Eubel I, pp. 160, 429.
  52. ^ Following the death of Bishop Berardus, the cathedral Chapter conducted an election of a successor by the method of scrutiny; two candidates were chosen, Franciscus Cariati of Paris and Joannes of Salerno, both canons. Franciscus went to the papal court to plead his case, and Joannes sent a procurator; Cardinal Arnaud de Canteloupe was appointed to hear the case, though Franciscus eventually resigned all his rights in the matter; Joannes did not appear personally within the legally established time, and his election was voided. Pope Clement V then transferred Archbishop Isarnus to Salerno. Isarnus had been Prior of the monastery of Benavento, O.S.A. He was Archbishop of Riga (1300–1302), then Archbishop of Lund (1302–1310). He was transferred to Salerno on 12 June 1310, but was dead before 14 November. Regestum Clementis V Annus quintus (Romae: Typographia Vaticana 1887), p. 123, no. 5445. Eubel I, pp. 317 with note 7; 421 with note 7; 429.
  53. ^ In the confusion following the death of Archbishop Berardus and then Archbishop Isarnus, various canons, including the rejected Johannes Rogerii, took the opportunity to misappropriate, occupy, and alienate property of the diocese for private benefit. Pope Clement V appointed the archdeacon of Sabolio in the diocese of Le Mans, who was a papal chaplain and the papal treasurer, as well as the nephew of Cardinal Guillaume Rufati of S. Pudenziana (Paesani III, 140), to be Archbishop of Salerno, and in a letter of 14 November 1310, mandated that he conduct and investigation into the misappropriations and require full restitution, under penalty of excommunication. The wording of the mandate suggests that Robert would summon the suspects to Avignon (vocatis qui fuerint evocandi), rather than go to Salerno himself. As of 26 February 1311, Robertus had not yet been consecrated a bishop, and had not yet set out for Italy, though the pope had in mind a mission in Italy for him; he was granted an extension until Christmas, but allowed to keep the benefices and income he would obtain until then. On 16 December, he was granted yet another extension, until Pentecost 1312. He is still called "electus" in a decree of King Robert of Sicily, dated 15 May 1312 (Paesani III, 143). Regestum Clementis V papae Annus sextus (Romae: Typographia Vaticana 1887), p. 3-4, no. 6396; p. 59, no. 6602. Paesani III, pp. 137-143. Eubel I, p. 429.
  54. ^ Archbishop Onofrio died at the papal court in Avignon in 1320.
  55. ^ Fra Bertrand, a master of theology and teacher was appointed archbishop by Pope John XXII on 3 September 1320. He was named a cardinal on 19 December 1320, and became Administrator of the diocese of Salerno. He resigned upon the appointment of a new archbishop, Arnaldus Royardi, on 12 April 1321. G. Mollat, Jean XXII: Lettres communes Vol. 3 (Paris: Fontemoing 1906), p. 147, no. 11987. Eubel I, p. 429.
  56. ^ On 27 June 1330, Archbishop Royardi was appointed Archbishop (Personal Title) of Sarlat. Eubel I, pp. 430, 436.
  57. ^ Orso: Eubel I, p. 430.
  58. ^ On 8 January 1364, Bertrand was appointed, Archbishop of Embrun.
  59. ^ Robertus: Eubel I, p. 430.
  60. ^ Nicolaus was appointed by Pope John XXIII on 21 February 1415. He died in 1441, before 8 March. Eubel I, p. 430; II. p. 227.
  61. ^ Orsini was appointed by Pope Eugenius IV on 8 March 1441. He restored the cathedral. Eubel II, p. 227.
  62. ^ Cardinal Giovanni was appointed Apostolic Administrator of the diocese of Salerno on 13 January 1483. He died on 17 October 1485. Eubel II, pp. 18, no. 21 with note 7; 227.
  63. ^ Bentivoglio: Eubel II, p. 227.
  64. ^ Johannes was appointed by Pope Alexander VI in the consistory of 10 July 1500. On 5 October 1500, he was named papal legate to the Kingdom of Aragon, the Kingdom of Castile, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Kingdom of France, and the Kingdom of England, in order to promote a crusade against the Ottoman Empire. (Eubel II, p. 55, no. 631). From 1501, he was also legate to the March of Ancona, returning to Rome on 13 November 1501 (Eubel II, p. 56, no. 644). He was in Rome and participated in the two papal conclaves of September and October 1503 (Eubel III, p. 9, note 1). In 1504, he was in Rome in his capacity as Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals (Eubel III, p. 84). Cardinal Vera died on 4 May 1507. Eubel II, p. 227 with note 3; III, p. 7 no. 31 with note 9.
  65. ^ Fregoso was appointed archbishop of Salerno by Pope Julius II on 5 May 1507. On 28 July 1508, while still only bishop-elect of Salerno, he was appointed him Administrator of the diocese of Gubbio, a position he held until his death in 1541. In 1513, his brother was elected Doge of Genoa, and Ferdinando assumed leadership of the Fregoso faction in the city-state; in opposition to the Emperor, Genoa joined the French faction in 1515, which alienated Ferdinando from the papacy. He was granted the pallium on 12 October 1519, but in 1521, his income from Salerno was stopped by Pope Leo X after Ferdinando took command of the Genoese fleet in opposition to the Emperor and the papacy. The loss of the Battle of Pavia by King Francis I was a disaster for Fregoso, who retreated to the abbey of St-Bénigne in Dijon (14 October 1525), conferred on him by the king of France in 1522. There he underwent a religious conversion. The death of his mother in 1529 brought his return to Italy, and his conciliation of Charles V. He was named a cardinal by Pope Paul III on 19 December 1539. He died on 11 November 1541. Paesano. Memorie IV, pp. 140-175. Eubel III, pp. 26 no. 28; 198 with note 4; 289 with note 3. Giampiero Brunelli (1998), "Fregoso, Federico," (in Italian), in: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani Volume 50 (1998).
  66. ^ Cardinal Ridolfi, nephew of Pope Leo X, had been Archbishop of Florence (1524–1532), though there is no evidence of his consecration. He was appointed Administrator of the diocese of Salerno on 7 February 1533. In 1537, when he was in Rome, the cardinal delegated his powers to Diomede Cioffi to restore order in Salerno. He resigned on 19 December 1548, upon the appointment of an archbishop. He died during the Conclave of 1549–1550, where he was considered a leading candidate, on 31 January 1550. Paesano, Memorie IV, pp. 190-219. Eubel III, p. 289. Lucinda Byatt (2016), "Ridolfi, Niccolò," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani Volume 87 (2016).
  67. ^ Torres was appointed, with a royal nomination, by Pope Paul IV, on 19 December 1548. He died on 13 August 1553. Paesano, Memorie IV, pp. 219-226. Eubel III, p. 289. with note 5.
  68. ^ Born in Naples, he entered the Augustinian Order in 1507 and was ordained in 1513. Seripando had been appointed Prior General of the Augustinian Order by Pope Paul III on 12 December 1538. He served for twelve years, to 1551, then helped Pope Paul in the direction of the Council of Trent. He was appointed Archbishop of Salerno by Pope Julius III on 30 March 1554. He died in Trent on 17 April 1563. Paesano Memorie IV, pp. 226-254, esp. 246-253. L. Pastor, The History of the Popes Vol. 11 (London 1914), pp. 511-514. Eubel III, p. 289 with note 7. Hubert Jedin, Girolamo Seripando Vol. 2 (Würzburg: Rita-Verlag 1937).
  69. ^ Cervantes de Gaete (never Gaeta) was born in Spain in the diocese of Plascentia in 1511. He held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure, and had been Vicar General of Seville. He had been Archbishop of Messina (1561–1564). He was transferred to the diocese of Salerno on 1 March 1564, by Pope Pius IV, and on 31 July he presided over a diocesan synod, the decrees of which were published by Paesano. He held a second synod in 1566. He established a diocesan seminary, and a house for Jesuit novices (Paesano, p. 305). On 23 July 1568, Pope Pius V appointed Cervantes Archbishop of Tarragona and papal legate. He was named a cardinal on 17 May 1570. He died on 17 October 1575. Paesano, Memorie IV, pp. 273-331. Eubel III, pp. 44 no. 7, 242, 289, 309.
  70. ^ Colonna had been archbishop of Tarento. He held a diocesan synod on 7 May 1579 (Paesano, p. 341). Paesano, Memorie IV, pp. 331-. Eubel III, p. 289 with note 10.
  71. ^ Marsilio: Eubel III, p. 289, with notes 11-14.
  72. ^ Eubel III, p. 289 with note 15."Archbishop Mario Bolognini" David M. Cheney. Retrieved March 21, 2016. [self-published source]
  73. ^ On 28 Nov 1611, Beltran Guevara was appointed Archbishop (Personal Title) of Badajoz (Pacensis), whence he was transferred to Compostela in 1615. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, pp. 269; 301 with note 2. "Archbishop Juan Beltrán Guevara y Figueroa" David M. Cheney. Retrieved February 29, 2016
  74. ^ Sanseverino had been archbishop of Rossano: Gauchat IV, p. 301 with note 3.
  75. ^ Trejo: Gauchat IV, p. 301 with note 4.
  76. ^ Cardinal Giulio Savelli: Gauchat IV, p. 301 with note 5.
  77. ^ Fabrizio Savelli: Gauchat IV, p. 301 with note 6.
  78. ^ De Torres had been bishop of Adrianople. Gauchat IV, p. 301 with note 7.
  79. ^ Carafa: Gauchat IV, p. 301 with note 8. Ritzler & Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica V, p. 340, note 2.
  80. ^ Alfonso Alvarez Barba had been Archbishop of Brindisi. Ritzler & Sefrin V, p. 340 with note 3.
  81. ^ Passarelli was born in Catanzaro in 1637, and held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure. He had been Bishop of Isernia (1673–1689). He was transferred to Salerno by Pope Alexander VIII on 14 November 1689. He died in Salerno in 1690. Ritzler & Sefrin V, pp. 230 with note 3; 340 with n. 4.
  82. ^ De Ostos: Ritzler & Sefrin V, p. 340 with note 5.
  83. ^ Poerio: Ritzler & Sefrin V, p. 340 with note 6.
  84. ^ Perlas had been Archbishop of Brindisi. Ritzler & Sefrin V, p. 340 with note 7.
  85. ^ Fabrizio: Ritzler & Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 363 with n. 2.
  86. ^ Rossi: Ritzler & Sefrin VI, p. 363 with n. 3.
  87. ^ Sanchez de Luna: Ritzler & Sefrin VI, p. 363 with n. 4.
  88. ^ Pignatelli: Ritzler & Sefrin VI, p. 363 with n. 5.
  89. ^ Spinelli: Ritzler & Sefrin VI, p. 363 with n. 6.
  90. ^ Born in Salerno in 1740, Pinto had been a canon with prebend in the cathedral Chapter of Salerno. He held the degree of Master of Theology from the University of Naples, and was rector of the seminary of Salerno. He was nominated to the diocese of Tricarico by King Ferdinand IV of Naples on 16 December 1791, and confirmed by Pope Pius VI on 27 February 1792. He was consecrated a bishop in Rome on 4 March 1792. On 5 June 1800, Bishop Pinto presided at a diocesan synod. Pinto was confirmed as Archbishop of Salerno on 26 June 1805. He died in Salerno on 20 November 1825. Carmen Biscaglia (2015), "Vescovi e visite pastorali della diocesi di Tricarico," (in Italian), in: "Bollettino storico della Basilicata" 31 (2015), pp. 13-74, at pp. 45-46. Ritzler & Sefrin VI, p. 415; VII, p. 329.
  91. ^ Alleva had been Bishop of Urgento (1818–1824). Ritzler & Sefrin Hierarchia catholica VII, pp. 330, 383.
  92. ^ Paglia: Cappelletti XX, p. 324.
  93. ^ Salomone: Primo Carbone (2003), La Chiesa Salernitana nel Risorgimento tra rivoluzione e controrivoluzione. Dal brigantaggio rurale all'opposizione borghese, Controcorrente 2003, p. 156: "Monsignor Antonio Salomone, vescovo di Salerno dal 1857 al 1872, è esiliato due volte e sottoposto a tre processi, accusato di essere "reazionario politico, spione vizioso, ambizioso, dispotico, falso, ladrone..."
  94. ^ Mario Donadei (1981), L'Episcopato di Mons. Valerio Laspro a Gallipoli e a Lecce (1860-1877), (in Italian), Roma: Pontificia Universita Lateranense, 1981.

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