The Roland TR-909 Rhythm Composer is a drum machine introduced by the Roland Corporation in 1983. It succeeded the TR-808, and was the first Roland drum machine to use samples and MIDI. Though it was a commercial failure, the 909 became influential in the development of electronic dance music such as techno, house and acid.
TR-909 Front Panel
|Price||$1,195 USD |
|Synthesis type||Analog Subtractive and|
Digital Sample-based Subtractive
|Storage memory||96 Patterns, 8 Songs|
|Effects||Individual level, tuning, attack,|
decay, and tone controls for some
|Keyboard||16 Pattern Keys|
|External control||MIDI In/Out & DIN Sync In|
The 909 was designed by Tadao Kikumoto, who also designed the Roland TB-303 synthesizer. Chief Roland engineer Makoto Muroi credited the design of the analog and pulse-code modulation voice circuits to "Mr Ou" and its software to "Mr Hoshiai".
Sounds and featuresEdit
Whereas its predecessor, the TR-808, is known for its "boomy" bass, the 909 sounds aggressive and "punchy". It was the first Roland drum machine to use samples (prerecorded sounds), for its crash, ride and hi-hat sounds; other sounds are generated with analog synthesis. As the clap and snare are generated via the same noise source, they produce a phasing effect when played together.
The 909 was also the first Roland drum machine to use MIDI, allowing it to synchronize with other devices, or for sounds to be triggered by an external MIDI controller for wider dynamic range. Older Roland machines can be synchronized via its DIN sync port (a precursor to MIDI).
The 909 features a sequencer that can chain up to 96 patterns into songs of up to 896 measures, and controls including shuffle and flam. It features an improved accent feature, allowing users to accent particular beats or sounds.
Roland changed elements of the 909 during its lifetime, correcting problems and adjusting sounds. Some users modify their machines to match sounds from earlier revisions.
The 909 was released in 1983 and retailed for $1,195 USD. According to Muroi, it was a commercial failure as users preferred the more realistic sampled sounds of competing products such as the LinnDrum. Roland ceased production after one year, having built 10,000 units. It was replaced in 1984 by the TR-707, which uses samples for all its sounds.
Whereas the TR-808 was important in the development of hip hop, the 909, alongside the 303 synthesizer, influenced dance music such as techno, house and acid. According to Gordon Reid of Sound on Sound, "Like the TR-808 before it, nobody could have predicted the reverence in which the TR-909 would eventually come to be held."
The first known commercial use of a 909 is in Remission by Skinny Puppy, released months after the 909 launch. It was popularized in the late 1980s by producers in Chicago and Detroit such as Derrick May, Frankie Knuckles and Jeff Mills, who bought second-hand units. As the first Roland drum machine to use MIDI, producers used the 909 as a hub to synchronize and sequence other machines, which Roland had not anticipated. The Icelandic singer Björk used it to create "militaristic" percussion on her 1997 song "Hunter".
In 2017, Roland released the TR-09, a miniature version of the 909 with additional features.
- Hsieh, Christine. "Electronic Musician: Tadao Kikumoto". Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- Kirn, Peter (2011). Keyboard presents the evolution of electronic dance music. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-61713-446-3.
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- Butler, Mark Jonathan. "Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm, Meter, and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music". Indiana University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-2533-4662-2. p. 64
- "Nine Great Tracks That Use the Roland TR-909". Complex. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
- "9 of the best 909 tracks using the TR-909". Mixmag. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
- Pytlik, Mark (2003). Bjork: Wow and Flutter. ECW Press. pp. 180–181. ISBN 978-1550225563. Retrieved 7 November 2014.