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He began euphonium lessons at 12, and at 16 entered Colchester Institute to study music. On graduating, and after a period of busking in London (where he briefly shared a house with artists Mark Wallinger and Andy Dog), he returned to Colchester to run a music therapy course at a local hospital for people with learning difficulties. 
His first recording experience was in 1983 with his brother Brian Eno and Canadian producer and musician Daniel Lanois for the album Apollo at Lanois’ Grant Avenue Studios in Canada. His first solo album, Voices, was released in 1985.
Although mainly regarded as a pianist, Roger Eno is in fact a multi-instrumentalist and keen singer, as demonstrated on his later solo albums and collaborations. He has worked with several key artists apart from his brother including Bill Nelson, No-Man, Lol Hammond, Mads Arp, Peter Hammill, Tim Bowness, and Michael Brook, the most successful of which was probably his co-written album, The Familiar, with Kate St John.
Eno performs live on occasion and continues to write soundtracks. Much of his music has been used in films, including For All Mankind, Nine and a Half Weeks, Warm Summer Rain, and The Jacket, while tracks have been used in advertisements, including for Nissan and for Japan Railways.
Eno has recently recorded solo albums for, and established an online shop via, the UK-based internet label Burning Shed. In 2007, he contributed to the Mid/Air LP by Dive Index, a collaborative music project of composer/producer Will Thomas.
In 2013 Eno released a new album, Endless City / Concrete Garden , under the name Roger Eno / Plumbline.
A collection of Eno's work from 1988 to 1998, Little Things Left Behind, was released in November 2013.
On 10 November 2017, Eno released a solo album, This Floating World, on Recital Records.
On Sunday June 23 2019, Eno performed at the Dark Mofo in Hobart, Tasmania.
- Apollo (with Brian Eno & Daniel Lanois) (Virgin) - 1983
- Voices (EG Records, Virgin) - 1985
- Between Tides (All Saints Records) - 1988
- Music for Films III (Opal Records) - 1988
- Islands (with Laraaji) (Voiceprint Records, La Cooka Ratcha) - 1989
- In a Room (with Harmonia Ensemble) - 1993
- The Familiar (with Kate St John) (All Saints Records) - 1993
- Automatic (as part of Channel Light Vessel) (All Saints Records) - 1994
- Harmonia meets Zappa (with Harmonia Ensemble) (Materiali Sonori) - 1994
- Lost In Translation (All Saints Records) - 1995
- The Night Garden (Voiceprint Records, La Cooka Ratcha) - 1995
- Swimming (All Saints Records) - 1996
- Excellent Spirits (as part of Channel Light Vessel) (All Saints Records) - 1996
- The Music of Neglected English Composers (Voiceprint Records, Resurgence) - 1997
- The Flatlands (All Saints Records) - 1998
- Damage (with Lol Hammond) (All Saints Records) - 1999
- The Appointed Hour (with Peter Hammill) (FIE! Records) - 1999
- Classical Music for Those with No Memory (with Garosi, Puliti, Odori) - 2000
- The Long Walk (Voiceprint Records, La Cooka Ratcha) - 2000
- Getting Warmer (Burning Shed Records) - 2002
- 18 Keyboard Studies By Hans Friedrich Micheelsen (Opal Records) - 2002
- Fragile (Music) (Burning Shed Records) - 2005
- At Lincoln Cathedral: Roger Eno (Live) - 2005
- Transparencies (with Plumbline) - 2006
- Anatomy (Burning Shed Records) - 2008
- Flood (Burning Shed Records) - 2008
- Lux (Warp (record label)) - 2012
- Endless City / Concrete Garden - 2013
- Rattle That Lock (David Gilmour) - Columbia Records - 2015
- This Floating World (Recital Records)- 2017
- "FreeBMD Entry Info". www.freebmd.org.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- Gagné, Nicole V. (2012). Historical dictionary of modern and contemporary classical music. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780810879621.
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- Magazine, The Mouth (28 November 2013). "ROGER ENO". The Mouth Magazine. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- J., Prendergast, Mark (1 January 2003). The ambient century : from Mahler to Moby - the evolution of sound in the electronic age. Bloomsbury. ISBN 1582341346. OCLC 936756293.
- "Roger Eno - Voices". Discogs. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- "Roger Eno". IMDb. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- "Burning Shed: Specialist online music label and shop". www.burningshed.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- "Roger Eno". Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "Roger Eno chats to Stuart, Roger Eno chats to Stuart, Stuart Maconie's Freak Zone - BBC Radio 6 Music". Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "David Gilmour on New Solo LP and Why Pink Floyd Are Finished". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- "Roger Eno | Dark Mofo". darkmofo.net.au. Retrieved 23 June 2019.