The range was named for Pedro Robledo, who died on May 21, 1598 and was buried nearby. Robledo was the first casualty of the Oñate expedition, sent to colonize the upper Rio Grande valley. A native of Toledo, Spain, Robledo was accompanied on the expedition by his wife and five children.
These mountains are home to world famous Early Permian trackways of invertebrates and vertebrates. In 2009, the main locality was designated the 100th active national monument in the United States, and named Prehistoric Trackways National Monument. Rock outcrops in the area preserve numerous examples of early Permian trackways. These trackways include prints of Dimetrodon, Edaphosaurus, Eryops, Cacops and many other small pelycosaurs.
- Lucas, Spencer G.; Estep, John W.; Hoffer, Jerry M., eds. (1998). Permian stratigraphy and paleontology of the Robledo Mountains, New Mexico. Bulletin #12. New Mexico Museum of Natural History.
- Robert H. Julyan. 1996. The place names of New Mexico (Online preview version available at Google Books.) 
- "Worldwide Museum of Natural History:Permian Trackways in New Mexico".
- Lockley, Martin G.; Hunt, Adrian P. (1995). Dinosaur tracks and other fossil footprints of the western United States. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-231-07927-3. (Online preview version available at Google Books.)