Robert Ivanovich Rozhdestvensky (Russian: Ро́берт Ива́нович Рожде́ственский; 20 June 1932 – 19 August 1994) was a Soviet-Russian poet and Songwriter who broke with socialist realism in the 1950s–1960s during the Khrushchev Thaw and, along with such poets as Andrey Voznesensky, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Bella Akhmadulina, pioneered a newer, fresher, and freer style of poetry in the Soviet Union.
Robert Ivanovich Rozhdestvensky
Ро́берт Ива́нович Рожде́ственский
|Born||Robert Stanislavovich Petkevich|
20 June 1932
Kosikha Altai Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Died||19 August 1994 (aged 61)|
Peredelkino, Russian Federation
|Resting place||Peredelkino cemetery|
|Occupation||Poet, Translator, Songwriter|
|Education||Petrozavodsk State University |
Maxim Gorky Literature Institute
|Notable works||Flags of Spring (Флаги весны), 1955 "Documentary Screen"(Документальный экран) 1974|
|Spouse||Alla Borisovna Kireeva (Russian: Вера Павловна Фёдорова (1913—2001)|
His father named Stanislav Nikodimovich Petkevich was a Polish man employed by the OGPU, NKVD until drafted in 1941. Whilst in the army he obtained the rank of lieutenant overseeing his own group in the 123rd Rifle Division(ru)
He died in battle in Latvia on February 22, 1945. He was buried near the village of Mashen in the Temerovo district of the Latvian SSR, He was later reburied in a mass grave in the village of Slampe in the Tukums Municipality.
His birth parents had divorced at age 5.
His mother Vera Pavlovna Fedorova (1913-2001) was the director of a rural elementary school and was studying medicine at a specialised institute.
After 1934 Rozhdestvensky lived with his parents and grandmother in Omsk. Following the outbreak of World War II his parents were called to the front. Rozhdestvensky was left with his Grandmother Nadezhda Alekseevna Fedorova.
Rozhdestvenskys first poem "My dad goes camping with a rifle"..." (С винтовкой мой папа уходит в поход) was published in The Omsk Truth (Омская правда) July 8, 1941)
In 1943 he studied at the military music school. His grandmother died in April 1943, His mother returned briefly to register her sister in the apartment. Rozhdestvensky continued to live there with his aunt and cousin until 1944.
On the way to Moscow he changed his mind and found himself in the Danilovsky Orphanage.
In 1945, his mother remarried. Her new husband was an officer named Ivan Ivanovich Rozhdestvensky (1899-1976). Robert changed his name and patronymic to that of his new stepfather. His parents took him to Königsberg, where they were both serving at the time.
Rozhdestvensky attempted to enter the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute in the same year but wasn't accepted. He spent the following year studying at the historical and philological departments at Petrozavodsk State University.
In 1951, after reapplying he was able to attend the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute.
During his studies at the institute, he published the collections of poems Flags of Spring (1955) and Test (1956), and published the poem "My Love" (1955). He also became a member of the Union of Soviet writers during this time.
During the following period until 1964 Rozhdestvensky and his contemporaries became known for the transgressive mildly anti-Soviet work which they would perform in front of live audiences in stadiums
In 1955, while practicing in Altai, Rozhdestvensky met with a student at the conservatory, Alexander Flyarkovsky, with whom he created his first song - "Your Window".
In 1956, he met classmate Alla Kireeva. future literary critic, artist and wife.
After graduation in 1956 he moved to Moscow. It was there he would meet Yevgeny Yevtushenko and later Bulat Okudzhava and Andrey Voznesensky.
On March 7, 1963, he participated in a meeting with Khrushchev and the intelligentsia, and was vilified for the poem "Yes, Boys." "Khrushchev cried out in a fury:" Comrade Rozhdestvensky, it's time for you to stand under the banners of your fathers! "A punishment followed, many tried to forget about Rozhdestvensky. They didn’t publish him, they didn’t invite him to meetings ... Then, for some reason, Kapitonov, secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, didn’t like the poem "Morning", as a result Robert was forced to leave Moscow for Kyrgyzstan altogether. He worked there, translating the poems of local poets into Russian ... "
In 1966, Rozhdestvensky was the first to receive the Golden Wreath from the Struga Poetry Evenings.
In 1970 he was awarded the prize of the Moscow Komsomol.
In 1972, Rozhdestvensky received the Lenin Komsomol Prize.
In the 1970s, Rozhdestvensky was the host of the Documentary Screen(ru)(Ru: Документальный экран) television show which aired on Soviet Central Television. It presented documentary stories discussing various often topics including the west and was often marred by state propaganda
Rozhdestvensky appeared at the Cannes Film Festival as a member of the jury. He first appeared at the festival in 1968, he returned in 1973 and supported La Grande Bouffe and its Director Marco Ferreri his final visit was in 1979 where he persuaded Françoise Sagan to give the prize to Andrei Konchalovskys Siberiade.
Since 1976, He became the Secretary of the Union of Soviet Writers
He became a member of Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1977.
In 1979, he was awarded the USSR State Prize for the poem "210 Steps".
From 1986 - Chairman of the Commission on the Literary Heritage of Osip Mandelstam. He took a direct role in the rehabilitation of Mandelstam. As the Chairman of the Commission on Literary Heritage of Marina Tsvetaeva he helped the opening of the Maria Tsvetaeva House-Museum(ru). As Chairman of the Commission on Literary Heritage Vladimir Vysotsky, he compiled the first published book of poems "Nerve" by Vysotsky in the USSR " Nerve " (1981).
Illness and deathEdit
In early 1990, Rozhdestvensky was diagnosed with a brain tumor. The poet responded to this misfortune with sarcasm: "In my brain there is a tumor the size of a chicken egg, - (I wonder who it brought out a chicken carrying such eggs?! .. )." As a result of a successful operation in France, Rozhdestvensky survived and continued to create until his death.
He was buried at the Peredelkino cemetery. In the same year, the collection "The Last Poems of Robert Rozhdestvensky" was published in Moscow.
Awards and honoursEdit
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- Flags of Spring (Флаги весны), 1955
- To My Contemporary (Ровеснику), 1962
- Dedication (Посвящение), 1970
- In Twenty Years (За двадцать лет), 1973
- Insomnia (Бессонница), 1991
- Alyoshka's Thoughts (Алёшкины мысли), poems for children, 1991
- Last poems of Robert Rozhdestvensky was published after his death.
- Prokhorov, Alexander, ed. (1969), Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian) (3rd ed.)
- ""Ро́берт Ива́нович Рожде́ственский" (in Russian). Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Robert Rozhdestvenskii". Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Robert Ivanovich Rozhdestvensky". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "Информация из донесения о безвозвратных потерях 123 стрелковой дивизии" (in Russian). ОБД Мемориал. Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "С винтовкой мой папа уходит в поход". tyum-pravda.ru/ (in Russian). Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Мы совпали с тобой". www.trud.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- "Obituary: Robert Rozhdestvensky". www.independent.co.uk. 23 August 1994. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "Ecrivain Robert Rojdestvensky". www.festival-cannes.com (in French). Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Писатели требуют от правительства решительных действий. Izvestia (in Russian). 5 October 1993. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "подписатов называл мерзавцами". www.sovross.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
- Robert Rozhdestvennsky poetry at the stihipoeta(in Russian)
- Collection of Robert Rozhdestvensky's Poems in English Translated from Russian By Alec Vagapov.
- IMDB Credits Page