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Risky sexual behavior is the description of the activity that will increase the probability that a person engaging in sexual activity with another person infected with a sexually transmitted infection will be infected[1] or become pregnant, or make a partner pregnant. It can mean two similar things: the behavior itself, the description of the partner's behavior. The behavior could be unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse. The partner could be a nonexclusive partner, HIV-positive, or an intravenous drug user.[2] Drug use is associated with risky sexual behaviors.[3]

Contents

DescriptionEdit

Risky sexual behavior can be:

  • sex without condom use
  • mouth-to-genital contact
  • starting sexual activity at a young age
  • having multiple sex partners.
  • having a high-risk partner, someone who has multiple sex partners or infections
  • anal sex
  • sex with a partner who has ever injected drugs.
  • engaging in sex trade work[4]

Risky sexual behavior includes unprotected intercourse, multiple sex partners, and illicit drug use.[5] The use of alcohol and illicit drugs greatly increases the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS. Trauma from penile-anal sex has been identified as a risky sexual behavior.[6]

North American adolescents can be sexually active yet do not take appropriate precautions to prevent infection or pregnancies. Misconceptions of invulnerability and the practice of ignoring long-term consequences of their behavior tend to promote risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behaviors can lead to serious consequences both for person and their partner(s). This sometimes includes cervical cancer, ectopic pregnancy and infertility.[2] An association exists between those with a higher incidence of body art (body piercings and tattoos) and risky sexual behavior.[6]

EpidemiologyEdit

Most Canadian and American adolescents aged 15 to 19 years describe having had sexual intercourse at least one time. In the same population, 23.9% and 45.5% of young, adolescent females describe having sex with two or more sexual partners during the previous year. Of the males in the same population 32.1% of Canadian males had 2 or more partners and 50.8% of American males also describe a similar experience.[2] Engaging in risky sexual behavior is non-consensual and is related to age (children) and nationality. Children in Botswana, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda and Zimbabwe have been forced to have sex which has resulted in having poorer health when compared to children from other countries.[7]

InterventionsEdit

Sexual health risk reduction can include motivational exercises, assertiveness skills, educational and behavioral interventions. Counseling has been developed and implemented for people with severe mental illness, may improve participants' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs behaviors or practices (including assertiveness skills) and could lead to a reduction in risky sexual behavior.[5][5]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman (2014). "UNAIDS 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases". Global Health Action. 7 (1): 23103. doi:10.3402/gha.v7.23103. ISSN 1654-9716. 
  2. ^ a b c Hall, Peter A. (2004). "Risky Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Psychological Perspective for Primary Care Clinicians". Topics in Advanced Practice Nursing eJournal. 
  3. ^ Frayer, Cheryl D; Hirsch, et. Al., Rosemarie (September 11, 2007). "Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics, Drug Use and Sexual Behaviors Reported by Adults in the United States, 1999 – 2002" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved April 21, 2017. 
  4. ^ "High Risk Sexual Behaviour". British Columbia, HealthLinkBC. May 27, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Pandor, Abdullah; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Higgins, Agnes; Lorimer, Karen; Smith, Shubulade; Wylie, Kevan; Wong, Ruth (2015). "Sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness: a systematic review". BMC Public Health. 15 (1). doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1448-4. ISSN 1471-2458. 
  6. ^ a b Potter, Patricia (2013). Fundamentals of nursing. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier. p. 386. ISBN 9780323079334. 
  7. ^ Cumber, Samuel Nambile; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce Mahlako (2016). "The health profile of street children in Africa: a literature review". Journal of Public Health in Africa. 6 (2). doi:10.4081/jphia.2015.566. ISSN 2038-9930. 

External linksEdit