"Rip Van Winkle" (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈrɪp vɑn ˈwɪŋkl]) is a short story by the American author Washington Irving, first published in 1819. It follows a Dutch-American villager in colonial America named Rip Van Winkle who meets mysterious Dutchmen, imbibes their strong liquor and falls deeply asleep in the Catskill Mountains. He awakes 20 years later to a very changed world, having missed the American Revolution.
|"Rip Van Winkle"|
|Short story by Washington Irving|
|Text available at Wikisource|
|Published in||The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.|
Inspired by a conversation on nostalgia with his American expatriate brother-in-law, Irving wrote the story while temporarily living in Birmingham, England. It was published in his collection, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. While the story is set in New York's Catskill Mountains near where Irving later took up residence, he admitted, "When I wrote the story, I had never been on the Catskills."
Rip Van Winkle, a Dutch-American man with a habit of avoiding useful work, lives in a village at the foot of New York's Catskill Mountains in the years before the American Revolution. One day, he goes squirrel hunting in the mountains with his dog Wolf to escape his wife's nagging. As evening falls, he hears a voice calling his name and finds a man dressed in antiquated Dutch clothing and carrying a keg. Rip helps the man carry his burden to a cleft in the rocks from which thunderous noises are emanating; the source proves to be a group of ornately-dressed (seemingly of distinctly colonial Dutch outfit) and bearded men playing nine-pins. Not asking who these men are or how they know his name, Rip joins them in drinking flagons of alcohol from the keg he has helped carry and soon becomes so intoxicated that he falls asleep.
Rip awakens on a sunny morning, at the spot where he first saw the keg-carrier, and finds that many drastic changes have occurred; his beard is a foot long and has turned gray, his musket is badly deteriorated, and Wolf is nowhere to be found. Returning to his village, he discovers it to be larger than he remembers and filled with people in unfamiliar clothing, none of whom recognize him. When asked how he voted in the election that has just been held, he declares himself a loyal subject of King George III, unaware that the American Revolution has taken place in his absence. He learns that many of his old friends were either killed in the war or have left the village, and is disturbed to find a young man who shares his name, mannerisms, and younger appearance. A young woman states that her father is Rip Van Winkle, who has been missing for 20 years, and an old woman recognizes him as Rip. The young woman and the young Rip are his children, and the former has named her infant son after him as well.
Rip discovers that his wife has been dead for some time, but is overall not saddened by the news. He learns via a village elder that the men whom he met in the mountains are rumored to be ghosts of the crew of the Halve Maen (Half-Moon), captained by English sea explorer Henry Hudson. His daughter takes him into her home, and he soon resumes his usual idleness (unconcerned by the major political changes during his slumber) and begins telling his story to every stranger who visits the village. The tale is solemnly taken to heart (despite some assuming him to be insane) by the settlers, particularly by the children who say that, whenever thunder is heard, the men in the mountains must be playing nine-pins.
- Rip Van Winkle – A henpecked husband with an aversion to "profitable labour"; and a meek, easygoing resident of the village who wanders off to the mountains and meets strange men playing nine-pins.
- Dame Van Winkle – Rip Van Winkle's cantankerous and nagging wife.
- Rip Van Winkle Jr. – Rip Van Winkle's ne'er-do-well son.
- Judith Gardenier – Rip Van Winkle's married daughter; she takes her father in after he returns from his sleep.
- Derrick Van Bummel – The local schoolmaster who went on to serve in the American Revolution as a flag officer and later a member of Congress.
- Nicolaus Vedder – Landlord of the local inn where menfolk congregate.
- Dominie Van Schaick – The local parson.
- Jonathan Doolittle – Owner of the Union Hotel, the establishment that replaced the village inn.
- Wolf – Van Winkle's faithful dog.
- Man carrying a keg up the mountain – The ghost of one of Henry Hudson's crew members.
- Ninepin bowlers – The ghosts of Henry Hudson's crewmen from his ship, the Half-Moon; they share their liquor with Rip Van Winkle and play a game of nine-pins.
- Brom Dutcher – Van Winkle's neighbor who went off to war while Van Winkle was sleeping.
- Old woman – Woman who identifies Van Winkle when he returns to the village after his sleep.
- Peter Vanderdonck – The oldest resident of the village, who confirms Van Winkle's identity and cites evidence indicating Van Winkle's strange tale is true.
- Mr. Gardenier – Judith Gardenier's husband, a farmer.
- Baby Rip – Infant son of Judith Gardenier and grandson of Van Winkle.
Composition and publication history Edit
After a failed business venture with his brothers, Irving filed for bankruptcy in 1818. Despondent, he turned to writing for possible financial support, although he had difficulty thinking of stories to write. He stayed in Birmingham, England, where his brother-in-law Henry Van Wart had opened a trading firm. The two were reminiscing in June 1818 when Irving was suddenly inspired by their nostalgic conversation. Irving locked himself in his room and wrote non-stop all night. As he said, he felt like a man waking from a long sleep. He presented the first draft of "Rip Van Winkle" to the Van Wart family over breakfast.
"Rip Van Winkle" was one of the first stories Irving proposed for his new book, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. Irving asked his brother Ebeneezer to assist with publication in the United States. As Irving wrote, "I shall feel very anxious to hear of the success of this first re-appearance on the literary stage – Should it be successful, I trust I shall be able henceforth to keep up an occasional fire." A British edition was published shortly afterward, by John Miller, who went out of business immediately thereafter. With help from his friend Walter Scott, Irving was able to convince John Murray to take over British publication of the Sketch Book.
Themes and literary forerunners Edit
One story in Judaism concerns Honi HaMe'agel, a miracle-working sage of the 1st century BC, who was a historical character but to whom various myths were attached. While traveling one day, Honi saw a man planting a carob tree and asked him about it. The man explained that the tree would take 70 years to bear fruit, and that he was planting it not for himself but for the generations to follow him. Later that day, Honi sat down to rest but fell asleep for 70 years; when he awoke, he saw a man picking fruit from a fully mature carob tree. Asked whether he had planted it, the man replied that he had not, but that his grandfather had planted it for him.
In Christian tradition, there is a similar, well-known story of "The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus", which recounts a group of early Christians who hid in a cave circa 250 AD, to escape the persecution of Christians during the reign of the Roman emperor Decius. They fell into a miraculous sleep and woke some 200 years later during the reign of Theodosius II, to discover that the city and the whole Empire had become Christian. This Christian story is recounted by Islam and appears in a famous Sura of the Quran, Sura Al-Kahf. The version recalls a group of young monotheists escaping from persecution within a cave and emerging hundreds of years later.
Another similar story in the Islamic tradition is of Uzair (usually identified with the Biblical Ezra) whose grief at the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians was so great that God took his soul and brought him back to life after Jerusalem was reconstructed. He rode on his revived donkey and entered his native place. But the people did not recognize him, nor did his household, except the maid, who was now an old blind woman. He prayed to God to cure her blindness and she could see again. He meets his son who recognized him by a mole between his shoulders and was older than he was. (see Uzair#Islamic tradition and literature).
Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, under which a person traveling at near light speed would experience only the passage of a few years but would return to find centuries had passed on Earth, provides a broad new scope to express essentially the same literary theme – for example, in the opening chapter of Ursula K. Le Guin's Rocannon's World. In Robert Heinlein's Time for the Stars, Earth sends out a fleet of relativistic ships to explore the galaxy, their crews hailed as stalwart pioneers – but after a century, which they experience as only a few years, faster-than-light ships are developed and the earlier ones are recalled, their crews discovering that they had become unwanted anachronisms on a changed Earth. The protagonist notices a newspaper headline disparagingly announcing the arrival of himself and his shipmates as "yet another crew of Rip Van Winkles".
In the tenth chapter of his book Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, the third-century AD Greek historian Diogenes Laërtius relates the story of the legendary sage Epimenides of Knossos, who was said to have been a shepherd on the island of Crete. One day, Epimenides followed after a sheep that had wandered off and, after becoming tired, went into a cave under Mount Ida and fell asleep. When he awoke, he continued searching for the sheep, but could not find it, so he returned to his father's farm, only to discover that it was under new ownership. He went home, only to discover that the people there did not know him. Finally, he encountered his younger brother, who had become an old man, and learned that he had been asleep in the cave for fifty-seven years. According to the different sources that Diogenes relates, Epimenides lived to be 154, 157, or 299 years old. Multiple sources have identified the story of Epimenides as the earliest known variant of the "Rip Van Winkle" fairy tale.
The story of "Rip Van Winkle" itself is widely thought to have been based on Johann Karl Christoph Nachtigal's German folktale "Peter Klaus", which is a shorter story set in a German village. It tells of a goatherd named Peter Klaus who goes looking for a lost goat. He finds some men drinking in the woods and, after drinking some of their wine, he falls asleep. When he wakes back up, twenty years have passed.
The story also bears some similarities to stories from East Asia, including the third century AD Chinese tale of "Ranka", as retold by Lionel Giles in A Gallery of Chinese Immortals, and the eighth-century Japanese tale "Urashima Tarō". The Hindu story of Muchukunda from the Bhagavatam also displays many similarities to the story of "Rip Van Winkle".
The theme is taken up in numerous modern works of science fiction. In H. G. Wells's The Sleeper Awakes, a man who sleeps for 203 years wakes up in a completely transformed London where he has become the richest man in the world. In the original Buck Rogers book, the protagonist falls asleep under the influence of a gas in a mine, sleeps for four centuries and wakes to find America under the rule of Mongol invaders – whereupon he places himself at the head of the freedom fighters. In Roger Zelazny's science-fantasy series The Chronicles of Amber, protagonist Corwyn experiences drinking and revelry in an underground lair with otherworldly people who try to entice him into slumber; he knows this is a centuries-of-sleep trap and resists; the passage is similar in theme to both "Rip Van Winkle" and especially the Orkney story.
The story has been adapted for other media over the past two centuries, in cartoons, films, stage plays, music, and other media.
- Film: Rip Van Winkle (1903 film), Rip Van Winkle (1921 film).
- Poetry: British poet laureate Carol Ann Duffy wrote "Mrs Rip Van Winkle" from the perspective of the wife, who in the original story is voiceless.
- Cartoons and animated films:
- An episode of The Flintstones entitled "Rip Van Flintstone" (aired November 5, 1965).
- An episode of Garfield and Friends entitled “Rip Van Kitty” (aired September 16, 1989)
- An episode of the Laurel and Hardy cartoon series entitled "Flipped Van Winkles".
- Tales of Washington Irving, a one-hour animated television special about "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle".
- A claymation version of the story, nominated for an Academy Award.
- Disney's "Rip van Goofy" (February 1, 1966)
- Boys' Life's Dink & Duff comic strip has Dink, an African-American Cub Scout, lapse into a coma and awakens in 2068. A boy addresses him as "Rip van Dinkle" and explains that during the past 80 years the United States has been replaced by an authoritarian monarchy. Dink eventually awakens back in 1988.
In popular culture Edit
The name Rip Van Winkle has been used to name
- infrastructure (Rip Van Winkle Bridge),
- consumer goods (Old Rip Van Winkle whiskey) and
- Music: American composer George Whitefield Chadwick wrote a concert overture entitled Rip Van Winkle in 1879, when he was a student in Leipzig.
- Literature :
- In Darkness at Noon by Arthur Koestler, the name "Rip Van Winkle" is attributed to a fellow prisoner as a riddle in order to understand that the man has been imprisoned for 20 years.
- Video games:
- The 1990 video game Super Mario World features an enemy known as "Rip Van Fish" which constantly sleeps unless disturbed.
- Disney’s 2003 MMO Toontown Online featured buildings with names based on puns and pop-culture references, one of these buildings, in the Donald’s Dreamland area of the game, was named "Rip Van Winkle’s Wrinkle Cream". The same building also features in the 2014 fan-made revival of the game Toontown Rewritten.
- In the 2018 video game Red Dead Redemption II the outlaw John Marston jokingly claims that his name is Rip Van Winkle when questioned by Pinkerton Agent Milton, seemingly in a effort to mislead and mock him.
- In the 1961 The Twilight Zone episode "The Rip Van Winkle Caper", four gold thieves place themselves in suspended animation for 100 years in order to escape the law and, upon revival, spend their stolen fortune with impunity.
- In the 1963 The Twilight Zone episode "In His Image", Rip Van Winkle is mentioned after a man realizes his hometown has greatly changed in supposedly one week.
- In the 1992 Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Relics", 147-year-old Captain Montgomery Scott is revived after 75 years in a transport buffer.
- In the 1994 film Star Trek Generations, 138-year-old Admiral James T. Kirk comes back to life after being "suspended" in a Nexus for 78 years.
- In the BBC television show Doctor Who, the tenth episode of the ninth series (titled "Sleep no More") involves a machine called Morpheus which can condense a full night's worth of sleep into mere minutes. People who refuse to use Morpheus are colloquially called "Rips", referencing Rip van Winkle.
See also Edit
- Pierre M. Irving (1883). The Life and Letters of Washington Irving. Vol. 2. G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 176.
- Burstein, Andrew (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving. New York: Basic Books. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-465-00853-7.
- Jones, Brian Jay (2008). Washington Irving: An American Original. New York: Arcade Books. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-55970-836-4.
- Burstein, Andrew (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving. New York: Basic Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-465-00853-7.
- Jones, Brian Jay (2008). Washington Irving: An American Original. New York: Arcade Books. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-1-55970-836-4.
- Burstein, Andrew (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving. New York: Basic Books. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-465-00853-7.
- Jones, Brian Jay (2008). Washington Irving: An American Original. New York: Arcade Books. pp. 177–178. ISBN 978-1-55970-836-4.
- Burstein, Andrew (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving. New York: Basic Books. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-0-465-00853-7.
- Babylonian Talmud Taanit 23a Hebrew/Aramaic text at Mechon-Mamre
- Margaret Snyder (August 29, 2000). "Community Commentary". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
- Thorn, John. "Saint Rip". nyfolklore.org. Voices: The Journal of New York Folklore. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Quran Surah Al-Kahf
- "Surat Al-Kahf (18:9–26)". The Holy Qur'an – القرآن الكريم.
- Renda, G'nsel (1978). "The Miniatures of the Zubdat Al- Tawarikh". Turkish Treasures Culture /Art / Tourism Magazine.
- Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, translated by Shaikh muhammed Mustafa Gemeiah, Office of the Grand Imam, Sheikh al-Azhar, El-Nour Publishing, Egypt, 1997, Ch.21, pp.322-4
- Rothschild, Clare K. (2014). Paul in Athens: The Popular Religious Context of Acts 17. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 40–42. ISBN 978-3-16-153260-3.
- Hansen, William (2017). The Book of Greek & Roman Folktales, Legends & Myths. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 132–133. ISBN 9780691170152.
- Diogenes Laërtius (1972). Lives of Eminent Philosophers: Books I-V. Translated by Hick, R. D. (translator). Cambridge: Harvard. p. 115.
|translator-first=has generic name (help)
- Welch, Deshler (9 May 1887). The Theater. Vol. 3. New York City, New York: Theatre Publishing Company. p. 139. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Bates, Alfred (1906). The Drama; Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization: American Drama. Vol. 20. London, England: Historical Publishing Company. p. 121. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- A translation of the tale is available on Wikisource: Peter the Goatherd.
- "Muchukunda". Mythfolklore.net. October 16, 2007. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- "Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 10 Chapter 51". Vedabase.net. Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
- Jefferson, Joseph; Boucicault, Dion (1895). Rip Van Winkle (Introduction). Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 401–403. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- Hischak, Thomas S. (2012). American Literature on Stage and Screen. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company. pp. 197–198. ISBN 9780786492794. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- Keller, Helen (1903). The Story of My Life. ISBN 978-1-7225-0392-5. OCLC 1263778902.
- "Performances". thesigmanbrothers.com. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
- "Winners Announced For The BroadwayWorld 2021 Chicago Awards". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
- "Tale Spinners for Children". artsreformation.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
- "IMDb Pro: Rip Van Flintstone Business Details". pro.imdb.com. July 27, 2007. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- "Rip Van Kitty/U.S. Acres: Grabbity/The Big Catnap Business Details". IMDb Pro. Retrieved January 28, 2023.
- "Will Vinton's Personal Website". Willvinton.net. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
- "Rip van Goofy". Walt Disney's Comics and Stories (5). Gold Key. 26 (305). February 1, 1966.
- Moore, Scott (November 5, 1995). "In Dogged Pursuit of Literacy". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Mendoza, Manuel (October 8, 1995). "Tales Wag 'Wishbone' To Lure Kids To Classics". The Sun Sentinel. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Rip Van Winkle Bridge". nysba.ny.gov.
- Moran, Nancy (August 13, 1970). "One-Way Tolls Confusing Some Drivers". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- Van Winkle Campbell, Sally (1999). But Always Fine Bourbon: Pappy Van Winkle and the Story of Old Fitzerald. Louisville, KY: Limestone Lane Press. ISBN 9780967420806.
- Gabriel Trip (October 18, 2013). "The case of the Missing Bourbon". The New York Times.
- Irving, Washington (1921). Rip Van Winkle. Illustrated by Wyeth, N.C. – via Internet Archive.
- Irving, Washington (6 September 2022). Rip Van Winkle. Harvard Classics – via Bartleby.
- Irving, Washington (1946). Rip Van Winkle (Audiobook). Decca. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-05-27 – via KiddieRecords.
- Dickson, W.K.L. (1896). Rip Van Winkle (Film) – via Internet Archive.
- 'Karl Katz', a comparison. Archived from the original on 2009-10-28 – via Internet Archive.
- Irving, Washington (1948). Rip Van Winkle (Radio play). Theatre Guild on the Air. Internet Archive
Further reading Edit
- "'Rip Van Winkle' and 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow' – Irving's Fictions of Revolution". cowbeech.force9.co.uk.
- "'Rip Van Winkle' Study Guide". Cummings Study Guides.
- "Washington Irving in Birmingham". Birmingham.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2015-10-02. Retrieved 2003-11-11.