Richmond (Yorks) (UK Parliament constituency)
Richmond (Yorks) is a constituency[note 1] in North Yorkshire represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since May 2015 by the current Chancellor of the Exchequer, Rishi Sunak, a Conservative.[note 2] The constituency is also known as Richmondshire.
for the House of Commons
|County||1585–1974 North Riding of Yorkshire|
1974– North Yorkshire
|Electorate||83,219 (December 2019)|
|Major settlements||Bedale, Catterick, Catterick Garrison, Great Ayton, Hawes, Leyburn, Middleham, Northallerton, Richmond, Stokesley|
|Member of Parliament||Rishi Sunak (Conservative)|
|Number of members||One|
|Number of members||1585–1868: Two|
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
The constituency presents itself as a safe seat for the Conservative Party, having held it continuously since 1910 (if including the 11 years by the allied Unionist Party from 1918), and in the 2010 general election, Richmond produced the largest numerical and percentage majority for a Conservative, 62.8% of the vote. The Conservative MP and one-time Party leader, William Hague, held the seat from a by-election in 1989 until he retired from the Commons in 2015. He had held the posts of Leader of the Opposition (1997–2001), Foreign Secretary (2010–2014) and Leader of the House of Commons (2014-2015). His successor, Rishi Sunak, has served as Chancellor of the Exchequer since February 2020 and his predecessor, Leon Brittan served as Home Secretary. The constituency has thus produced three consecutive MPs who served in the Great Offices of State.
The constituency consists of in the west the entire Richmondshire district and in the east the northern part of Hambleton District. A mostly rural seat, the population is almost wholly self-supportive[note 3] and in national terms affluent.
Richmond was one of the parliamentary boroughs in the Unreformed House of Commons that dates to the middle of its long existence, first being represented in 1585. In modern times it has been an ultra-safe seat for the Conservative Party.
From 1983, the seat was represented by the cabinet minister Leon Brittan, after boundary changes saw his Cleveland and Whitby seat abolished; however, he resigned from the Commons in December 1988 in order to take up the position of Vice-President of the European Commission.
The ensuing by-election, held in February 1989, was won by William Hague: this was the last by-election won by a Conservative candidate during the Conservative Government of 1979–1997. Hague's win has been attributed in part to the decision by the remnants of the Social Democratic Party (those members that objected to the merger with the Liberal Party the previous year) to contest the election as well as the newly merged Social and Liberal Democrats (who subsequently renamed themselves the Liberal Democrats). The SDP candidate, local farmer Mike Potter, came second, and Hague's majority of 2,634 was considerably smaller than the number of votes (11,589) for the SLD candidate Barbara Pearce. Despite the Labour landslide of 1997, they did not come close to winning the seat, which stayed Conservative with a majority of 10,000. Hague retained the seat at every general election from then on, building the Conservative majority to 23,336, until his decision to step down at the 2015 election.
1992 change in main opposition candidateEdit
In 1992, the Labour candidate until a few weeks before the election, David Abrahams, was deselected after a series of rows within the local party over his personal life and business interests. It emerged in 2007 that he used the name "David Martin" when dealing with tenants in his various rental properties in the Newcastle area, and that he had claimed that he lived with his wife and son, though he had never been married. Divorcee Anthea Bailey later told a local newspaper she and her 11-year-old son had posed as Mr Abrahams' family as part of a business arrangement so that Abrahams could create "the right impression".
At the 2001 general election, Richmond became the Conservatives' safest seat in the UK, both in terms of the actual numerical majority and by percentage, the seat being held by then Conservative leader Hague. Although the numerical majority was surpassed by Buckingham at the 2005 election, Richmond has a smaller electorate and had a greater proportion of Conservative voters so retained the second largest percentage majority. Again in 2010, Richmond was the safest Conservative seat in the country, in terms of numerical and percentage majority.
1918–1950: The Borough of Richmond, the Urban Districts of Kirklington-cum-Upsland, Masham, and Northallerton, and the Rural Districts of Aysgarth, Bedale, Croft, Leyburn, Northallerton, Reeth, Richmond, Startforth, and Stokesley.
1950–1955: The Borough of Richmond, the Urban District of Northallerton, and the Rural Districts of Aysgarth, Croft, Leyburn, Masham, Northallerton, Reeth, Richmond, Startforth, and Stokesley.
1955–1974: As prior but with redrawn boundaries.
1974–1983: As prior but with redrawn boundaries.
1983–1997: The District of Richmondshire, and the District of Hambleton wards of Appleton Wiske, Bedale, Brompton, Broughton and Greenhow, Carlton Miniott, Crakehall, Great Ayton, Hillside, Leeming, Leeming Bar, Morton-on-Swale, Northallerton North East, Northallerton South East, Northallerton West, Osmotherley, Romanby, Romanby Broomfield, Rudby, Sowerby, Stokesley, Swainby, Tanfield, The Cowtons, The Thorntons, Thirsk, Topcliffe, and Whitestonecliffe.
1997–2010: The District of Richmondshire, and the District of Hambleton wards of Appleton Wiske, Brompton, Broughton and Greenhow, Great Ayton, Leeming Bar, Morton-on-Swale, Northallerton North East, Northallerton South East, Northallerton West, Osmotherley, Romanby, Romanby Broomfield, Rudby, Stokesley, Swainby, and The Cowtons.
2010–present: The District of Richmondshire, and the District of Hambleton wards of Bedale, Brompton, Broughton and Greenhow, Cowtons, Crakehall, Great Ayton, Leeming, Leeming Bar, Morton-on-Swale, Northallerton Broomfield, Northallerton Central, Northallerton North, Osmotherley, Romanby, Rudby, Stokesley, Swainby, and Tanfield.
The Richmond constituency covers the Richmondshire district and the northern part of the Hambleton District. It is an affluent rural area with a significant commuter population, covering parts of the North York Moors and Yorkshire Dales National Parks, including Wensleydale and Swaledale. It contains the market towns of Northallerton, Richmond, Leyburn, Bedale, Hawes and Stokesley, along with Great Ayton and other surrounding villages. It also includes the large army base, Catterick Garrison.
Members of ParliamentEdit
|Parliament||First member||Second member|
|1584||John Pepper||Marmaduke Wyvill|
|1586||Robert Bowes||Samuel Coxe|
|1588||James Dale||John Smythe|
|1593||Talbot Bowes||John Pepper|
|1597||Marmaduke Wyvill||Cuthbert Pepper|
|1601||Cuthbert Pepper||Talbot Bowes|
|1604||Sir John Savile||Richard Percevall|
|1614||Sir Talbot Bowes||Sir William Richardson|
|1621||Sir Talbot Bowes||William Bowes|
|1624||John Wandesford||Christopher Pepper|
|1625||Christopher Wandesford||Sir Talbot Bowes|
|1626||Christopher Wandesford||Matthew Hutton|
|1628||Sir Talbot Bowes||James Howell|
|1629–1640||No Parliaments summoned|
MPs since 1868Edit
Elections in the 2010sEdit
|Liberal Democrats||Philip Knowles||6,989||12.1||+6.2|
|Liberal Democrats||Tobie Abel||3,360||5.9||−0.5|
|Liberal Democrats||John Harris||3,465||6.4||−12.7|
|Conservative||William Hague||33,541[note 4]||62.8||+3.5|
|Liberal Democrats||Lawrence Meredith||10,205||19.1||+2.2|
Elections in the 2000sEdit
|Liberal Democrats||Jacquie Bell||7,982||17.7||−0.2|
|Labour Co-op||Fay Tinnion||9,632||21.9||−5.9|
|Liberal Democrats||Thomas Forth||7,890||17.9||−0.5|
|Monster Raving Loony||Boney Steniforth||561||1.3||New|
Elections in the 1990sEdit
|Labour Co-op||Steven Merritt||13,275||27.8||+16.2|
|Liberal Democrats||Jane Harvey||8,773||18.4||−7.3|
|Liberal Democrats||George Irwin||16,698||25.7||−1.3|
|Independent||A. Michael Barr||570||0.9||New|
Elections in the 1980sEdit
|Monster Raving Loony||Screaming Lord Sutch||167||0.3||New|
|Corrective Party||Lindi St Clair||106||0.2||New|
Elections in the 1970sEdit
|Liberal||Elizabeth May Graham||11,727||25.3||-0.9|
|Liberal||John R. Smithson||5,354||11.0||-7.8|
Elections in the 1960sEdit
|Labour||W. Patrick Lisle||10,210||24.6||+3.9|
|Liberal||Clifford Keith Wain Schellenberg||7,824||18.8||-1.6|
|Labour||Gordon A. Knott||8,908||20.7||-3.9|
|Liberal||Clifford Keith Wain Schellenberg||8,787||20.4||New|
Elections in the 1950sEdit
|Liberal||Douglas Eugene Moore||7,157||18.42|
Elections in the 1940sEdit
|Labour||George Henry Metcalfe||6,104||17.60||-5.1|
|Common Wealth||Roy Norman Chesterton||813||2.34||New|
Elections in the 1930sEdit
|Labour||Alfred Jonathan Best||7,369||22.70||New|
Elections in the 1920sEdit
|Liberal||John Dixon Hinks||14,634||42.5||New|
Election results 1868–1918Edit
Elections in the 1860sEdit
|Liberal||William Henry Roberts||87||18.8||N/A|
Elections in the 1870sEdit
Palmer resigned after being appointed Lord Chancellor and being elevated to the peerage, becoming Lord Selborne.
|Independent Liberal||Charles Edward Brunskill Cooke||228||42.1||New|
Dundas succeeded to the peerage, becoming Earl of Zetland.
|Independent Liberal||Charles Edward Brunskill Cooke||259||45.3||N/A|
Elections in the 1880sEdit
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+8.5|
Elections in the 1890sEdit
Elections in the 1900sEdit
|Liberal||Francis Dyke Acland||4,470||50.6||+10.1|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+10.1|
Elections in the 1910sEdit
|Liberal||Francis Dyke Acland||4,163||44.2||−6.4|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+6.4|
General Election 1914/15:
Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;
- Unionist: William Orde-Powlett
|National Farmers Union||William Parlour||4,907||33.2||New|
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
Election results 1832–1868Edit
Elections in the 1830sEdit
|Whig||Robert Lawrence Dundas||Unopposed|
Dundas succeeded to the peerage, becoming 2nd Earl of Zetland and causing a by-election.
|Whig||Robert Lawrence Dundas||162||66.9|
|Conservative||Miles Thomas Stapleton, 8th Baron Beaumont||80||33.1|
Elections in the 1840sEdit
Speirs resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds, causing a by-election.
Colborne's death caused a by-election.
Rich was appointed a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury, causing a by-election.
Elections in the 1850sEdit
Elections in the 1860sEdit
Rich's resignation caused a by-election.
Palmer was appointed Attorney General for England and Wales, causing a by-election.
Dundas' death caused a by-election.
|Liberal||William Henry Roberts||13||5.8||N/A|
Pre-1832 election resultsEdit
Elections in the 1830sEdit
|Whig||Robert Lawrence Dundas||Unopposed|
|Whig||Robert Lawrence Dundas||Unopposed|
- A county constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
- As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
- The latest 2011 census statistics include minimal percentages of social housing and welfare dependency.
- "Constituency data: electorates – House of Commons Library". Parliament UK. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
- Profile: reclusive Labour donor David Abrahams The Times - 26 November 2007
- Colin Patterson (2 December 2007). "How Sunday Sun broke first David Abrahams story". Sunday Sun. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
- Profile of David Abrahams BBC News - 27 November 2007
- "History of Parliament". History of Parliament trust. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "R" (part 1)
- At the general election of 1727, Wyvill and Bathurst were returned as elected, but on petition they were unseated in favour of Yorke and Darcy, the dispute turning on who had the right to vote
- Sir Conyers Darcy was re-elected in 1747 but had also been elected for Yorkshire, which he chose to represent, and did not sit again for Richmond
- Sir Lawrence Dundas was also elected for Edinburgh, which he chose to represent, and did not sit for Richmond
- Thomas Dundas was also elected for Stirlingshire, which he chose to represent, and did not sit for Richmond in this parliament
- British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
- Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I., to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. pp. 150–155, 162–164. Retrieved 29 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. pp. 76, 193, 211. Retrieved 29 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. pp. 157, 218. Retrieved 29 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- "Richmond Election". The Pilot. 18 March 1839. p. 2. Retrieved 29 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "London, Monday, March 11, 1839". Hampshire Telegraph. 18 March 1839. p. 1. Retrieved 29 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "North-Riding Election". Yorkshire Gazette. 14 March 1857. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 19 August 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Evening Mail, from Wednesday, June 23, to Friday, June 25, 1841". Evening Mail. 25 June 1841. p. 6. Retrieved 29 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Styled Lord Dundas after his father was created an Earl in 1838
- "Electoral Decisions". Northern Star and Leeds General Advertiser. 3 July 1841. p. 24. Retrieved 24 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Members Returned". Norfolk News. 7 August 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 24 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844–1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 160, 235–237. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
- Ollivier, John (1841). Ollivier's parliamentary and political director. p. 19. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard". 10 July 1852. p. 3. Retrieved 1 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "General Election". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 15 July 1837. p. 3. Retrieved 11 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Later Sir George Elliott
- "Electoral and elections documents: Statement of Persons Nominated Richmond (Yorks) & Notice of Poll". Hambleton District Council. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Minting, Stuart (13 December 2019). "Rishi Sunak increases Conservative majority in Richmond". Darlington and Stockton Times. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
- "Statement of Persons Nominated" (PDF). Hambleton District Council. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- "BBC Election Site". BBC. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Richmond (Yorks)". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Richmond [Yorks]". BBC News. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "The UK General Election 2010 In-depth" (PDF). electoral-reform.org.uk. 6 May 2010. p. 32. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
- "Representation of Richmond". Aberdeen Press and Journal. 6 November 1872. p. 3. Retrieved 18 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Richmond". Staffordshire Advertiser. 9 November 1872. p. 3. Retrieved 18 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The Tory Instructions to Voters". York Herald. 31 March 1880. p. 5. Retrieved 10 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- The Liberal Year Book, 1907
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
- Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
- "Richmond Election". Yorkshire Gazette. 10 March 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 16 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Casey, Martin. "Richmond". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
- D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
- Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) 
- F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
- J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
- Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
- The Constitutional Yearbook for 1913 (London: National Unionist Association,
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Penrith and The Border
| Constituency represented by the Home Secretary
| Constituency represented by the Leader of the Opposition
Chingford and Woodford Green
| Constituency represented by the Foreign Secretary
Runnymede & Weybridge
| Constituency represented by the Chancellor of the Exchequer