Richmond // is a city in east central Indiana, United States of America, bordering on the State of Ohio in the Dayton metropolitan area. It is the county seat of Wayne County, and in the 2010 census had a population of 36,812. Situated largely within Wayne Township, its area includes a non-contiguous portion in nearby Boston Township, where Richmond Municipal Airport is currently located.
|City of Richmond|
Main Street in Richmond
Location of Richmond in Wayne County, Indiana.
|Township||Boston, Center, Wayne|
|• Mayor||Dave Snow (D)|
|• Total||24.16 sq mi (62.56 km2)|
|• Land||24.00 sq mi (62.17 km2)|
|• Water||0.15 sq mi (0.39 km2)|
|Elevation||981 ft (299 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,472.28/sq mi (568.46/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||441976|
Richmond is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because the earliest jazz recordings, and records were made at the studio of Gennett Records, a division of the Starr Piano Company. Gennett Records was the first to record such artists as Louis Armstrong, Bix Beiderbecke, Jelly Roll Morton, Hoagy Carmichael, Lawrence Welk, and Gene Autry.
The city has twice received the All-America City Award, most recently in 2009.
Richmond is located at .
According to the 2010 census, Richmond has a total area of 24.067 square miles (62.33 km2), of which 23.91 square miles (61.93 km2) (or 99.35%) is land and 0.157 square miles (0.41 km2) (or 0.65%) is water.
Richmond is located about 12 miles S of Hoosier Hill, the highest point in Indiana.
|Source: US Census Bureau|
As of the census of 2010, there were 36,812 people, 15,098 households, and 8,909 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,539.0 inhabitants per square mile (594.2/km2). There were 17,649 housing units at an average density of 737.8 per square mile (284.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.9% White, 8.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population.
There were 15,098 households, of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.0% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91.
The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.4% were from 25 to 44; 25.6% were from 45 to 64; and 16.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 39,124 people, 16,287 households, and 9,918 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,685.3 people per square mile (650.8/km2). There were 17,647 housing units at an average density of 760.2 per square mile (293.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 86.78% White, 8.87% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, and 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population.
There were 16,287 households, out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,210, and the median income for a family was $38,346. Males had a median income of $30,849 versus $21,164 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,096. About 12.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.
In 1806 the first European Americans in the area, Quaker families from the state of North Carolina, settled along the East Fork of the Whitewater River. This was part of a general westward migration in the early decades after the American Revolution. John Smith was one of the earliest settlers. Richmond is still home to several Quaker institutions, including Friends United Meeting, Richmond Friends School, Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion.
Early cinema and television pioneer Charles Francis Jenkins grew up on a farm north of Richmond, where he began inventing useful gadgets. As the Richmond Telegram reported, on June 6, 1894, Jenkins gathered his family, friends and newsmen at his cousin's jewelry store in downtown Richmond and projected a filmed motion picture for the first time in front of an audience. The motion picture was of a vaudeville entertainer performing a butterfly dance, which Jenkins had filmed himself. Jenkins filed for a patent for the Phantoscope projector in November 1894 and it was issued in March 1895. A modified version of the Phantoscope was later sold to Thomas Edison, who named it Edison's Vitascope and began projecting motion pictures in New York City vaudeville theaters, raising the curtain on American cinema.
Joseph E. Maddy is credited with founding the country's first complete high school orchestra at Richmond, and later founded the National High School Orchestra Camp, which became the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Michigan.
Hoagy Carmichael recorded "Stardust" for the first time in Richmond at the Gennett recording studio. Famed trumpeter and singer Louis Armstrong was first recorded at Gennett as a member of King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band. Many other internationally famous musicians recorded at Gennett's Richmond facility, including Jelly Roll Morton, Bix Beiderbecke, Duke Ellington, and Fats Waller. Gennett also recorded Klan musicians.
A group of artists in the area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries came to be known as the Richmond Group. They included John Elwood Bundy, Charles Conner, George Herbert Baker, Maude Kaufman Eggemeyer and John Albert Seaford. The Richmond Art Museum has a collection of regional and American art. Many consider the most significant painting in the collection to be a self-portrait of Indiana-born William Merritt Chase.
The city was connected to the National Road, the first road built by the federal government and a major route west for pioneers of the 19th century. It became part of the system of National Auto Trails. The highway is now known as U.S. Route 40. One of the extant Madonna of the Trail monuments was dedicated at Richmond on October 28, 1928. It sits in a corner of Glen Miller Park adjacent to US 40.
Richmond's cultural resources include two of Indiana's three Egyptian mummies. One is held by the Wayne County Historical Museum and the other by Earlham College's Joseph Moore Museum, leading to the local nickname "Mummy capital of Indiana".
The arts were supported by a strong economy increasingly based on manufacturing. Richmond was once known as "the lawnmower capital" because it was a center for manufacturing of lawnmowers from the late 19th century through the mid-20th century. Manufacturers included Davis, Motomower, Dille-McGuire and F&N. The farm machinery builder Gaar-Scott was based in Richmond. The Davis Aircraft Co., builder of a light parasol wing monoplane, operated in Richmond beginning in 1929.
After starting out in nearby Union City, Wayne Agricultural Works moved to Richmond. Wayne manufactured horse-drawn vehicles, including the "kid hack", a precursor of the motorized school bus. From the early 1930s through the 1940s, Richmond had several automobile designers and manufacturers. Among the automobiles locally manufactured were the Richmond, built by the Wayne Works; the "Rodefeld"; the Davis; the Pilot; the Westcott; and the Crosley.
In the 1950s Wayne Works changed its name to Wayne Corporation, by then a well-known bus and school-bus manufacturer. In 1967 it relocated to a site adjacent to Interstate 70. The company was a leader in school-bus safety innovations, but closed in 1992 during a period of school-bus manufacturing industry consolidations.
Richmond was known as the "Rose City" because of the many varieties once grown there by Hill's Roses. The company had several sprawling complexes of greenhouses, with a total of about 34 acres (14 ha) under glass. The annual Richmond Rose Festival honored the rose industry and was a popular summer attraction.
On April 6, 1968, an explosion triggered by a natural gas leak destroyed or damaged several downtown blocks and killed 41 people; more than 150 were injured. The event is documented in the book Death in a Sunny Street.
Richmond is noted for its rich stock of historic architecture. In 2003, a book entitled Richmond Indiana: Its Physical Development and Aesthetic Heritage to 1920 by Cornell University architectural historians, Michael and Mary Raddant Tomlan, was published by the Indiana Historical Society. Particularly notable buildings are the 1902 Pennsylvania Railroad Station designed by Daniel H. Burnham of Chicago and the 1893 Wayne County Court House designed by James W. McLaughlin of Cincinnati. Local architects of note include John A. Hasecoster, William S. Kaufman and Stephen O. Yates.
The significance of the architecture has been recognized. Five large districts, such as the Depot District, and several individual buildings are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, the Historic American Buildings Survey and the Historic American Engineering Record.
- Richmond has four colleges: Earlham College, Indiana University East, Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, and the Purdue Polytechnic Institute – Richmond.
- Richmond is home to two seminaries: Earlham School of Religion (Quaker) and Bethany Theological Seminary (Church of the Brethren)
- Richmond High School includes the Richmond Art Museum and Civic Hall Performing Arts Center and the Tiernan Center, the 5th-largest high school gym in the United States.
- Seton Catholic High School (founded 2002), a junior and senior high school, is a religious high school. It is based in the former home of St. Andrew High School (1899–1936) and, more recently, St. Andrew Elementary School, adjacent to St. Andrew Church of the Richmond Catholic Community.
Richmond Municipal Airport is a public-use airport five nautical miles (6 mi, 9 km) southeast of Richmond's central business district. It is owned by the Richmond Board of Aviation Commissioners. It is also an exclave of Richmond.
Richmond's closest airport with commercial service is Dayton International Airport, just under an hour's drive to the east. To the west is Indianapolis International Airport, which is slightly farther away.
Into the late 1960s Richmond's Pennsylvania Railroad station was a hub for Pennsylvania Railroad, and later, Penn Central, trains bound for Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, Indianapolis, Cincinnati and New York City. The last train at the station was Amtrak's National Limited (Kansas City - New York City).
Full-power radio stations include WKBV, WFMG, WQLK, WHON, WKRT, and Earlham College's student-run public radio station WECI. Richmond is also served by WJYW which is repeated on 94.5 and 97.7. Area NPR radio stations include WBSH in Hagerstown, Indiana and WMUB in Oxford, OH.
Richmond is considered to be within the Dayton, Ohio, television market and has one full-power television station, WKOI, which is an Ion owned and operated station. The city also has one county-wide public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable television station, Whitewater Community Television.
Points of interestEdit
- Hayes Arboretum
- Wayne County Historical Museum
- Richmond Art Museum
- Indiana Football Hall of Fame
- Gaar Mansion (house museum)
- Joseph Moore Museum at Earlham College
- Glen Miller Park and Madonna of the Trail statue
- Richmond Downtown Historic District
- Old Richmond Historic District
- Starr Historic District
- Richmond Railroad Station Historic District
- Reeveston Place Historic District
- East Main Street-Glen Miller Park Historic District
- Don McBride Stadium baseball ballpark built in 1936
- Reid Memorial Presbyterian Church (Louis Comfort Tiffany-designed interior and windows, Hook and Hastings organ)
- Bethel AME Church (oldest AME church in Indiana: founded 1868)
- Old National Road Welcome Center (convention and tourism bureau)
- Whitewater Gorge Park and Gennett Walk of Fame
- Cardinal Greenway hiking trail
- Marceline Jones gravesite, Earlham Cemetery (Jim Jones's wife, who died in the Peoples Temple mass suicide)
- Richmond Civic Theatre (plays, classic movies, and children's theater)
- Madonna of the Trail statue at Glen Miller Park
- Gennett Records Walk of Fame
- J. Gayle Beck, clinical psychologist, Lillian and Morrie Moss Chair of Excellence and Professor at the University of Memphis
- Landrum Bolling, president of Earlham College, humanitarian, diplomat
- Mary Haas (1910 – 1996), linguist and professor at University of California-Berkeley
- Wendell Stanley, biochemist, virologist, Nobel Prize winner
- Timothy Brown (actor), professional football player, television/film actor and recording-artist
- Norman Foster, actor, director
- Sarah Purcell, actress
- Elizabeth Reller, old-time radio actress
Artists and designers
- Micajah C. Henley, businessman, roller skate pioneer
- Charles Francis Jenkins, pioneer of early cinema and one of the inventors of television
- Addison H. Nordyke, industrialist and co-founder of Nordyke Marmon & Company.
- Daniel G. Reid, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist, early in his career he manufactured tin plate with, The American Tin Plate Company and later US Steel.
- Burton J. Westcott, businessman, automobile manufacturer of Westcott Motor Car Company
- May Aufderheide, ragtime composer
- George Duning, musician and composer
- Harry "Singin' Sam" Frankel, radio star, minstrel
- Baby Huey (singer), rock and soul vocalist
- Jeff Hamilton, jazz drummer
- Harold Jones (drummer), has performed with many notables, including Tony Bennett and Count Basie
- Melvyn "Deacon" Jones, blues organist
- Rich Mullins, singer/musician
- Ned Rorem, composer and Putlizer Prize winner
- The Will-O-Bees, pop music trio in the 1960s
Politicians, activists, and civic leaders
- Bill W. Balthis (1939 – 2016), Illinois state representative and businessman
- Thomas W. Bennett (territorial governor), Richmond mayor, Governor, congressional delegate of Idaho territory.
- Levi Coffin, underground railroad organizer, and director of a local Richmond bank
- David W. Dennis, U.S. Congressman
- Ida Finney Mackrille (1867 – 1960) suffragist and a women's political leader in the State of California.
- Dan Mitrione, Richmond police chief from 1956 to 1960, and U.S. adviser in Uruguay
- Oliver P. Morton, Indiana's Civil War governor
- John Wilbur Chapman, Presbyterian evangelist
- Jim Jones, founder-leader of Peoples Temple
- William Paul Quinn, an African Methodist Episcopal Bishop
- D. Elton Trueblood, Quaker theologian
- Weeb Ewbank, coach of 1958 and 1959 NFL champion Baltimore Colts and the Super Bowl III champion New York Jets
- Vagas Ferguson, NFL running back
- Paul Flatley, NFL wide receiver (Minnesota Vikings)
- Desmond Bane, NBA, Selected 30th overall by the Memphis Grizzlies in the 2020 NBA Draft
- Del Harris, professional basketball coach
- Daniel Kinsey, hurdler, Olympic gold medalist
- Lamar Lundy, football player, one of the L.A. Rams' "Fearsome Foursome"
- Bo Van Pelt, professional golfer
Writers and journalists
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- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Starr-Gennett Foundation Homepage". Starr-gennett.org. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- Domenica Bongiovanni (July 27, 2020). "How a quirky Indiana studio was the first to record many of America's famous musicians". indystar.com. Gannett Co., Inc. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- "Historical Timeline". WayNet. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
- "Bicentennial Timeline 1795 to 1849". Morrison Reeves Library. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- Millicent Martin Emery (September 12, 2015). "RCS teacher hopes for a musical resurrection". pal-item.com. Palladium-Item. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
- Rebecca Gross (September 8, 2015). "In Step with Interlochen Center for the Arts". arts.gov. National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
- Giants in Their Time: Representative Americans from the Jazz Age to the Cold War, p. 13. Norman K. Risjord, ISBN 0742527859. 2005
- "Starr-Gennett Foundation Walk of Fame". Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Charlie Dahan (April 8, 2014). "April 8th in Gennett History, 1924: Vaughan Quartet Recorded "Wake Up America Kluck Kluck Kluck"". gennett.wordpress.com. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- Charlie Dahan (August 2, 2015). "August 2nd in Gennett History, 1924: W. R. Rhinehart Recorded "Klucker And The Rain" and "Long Klucker"". Gennett Records Discography. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- "Home". Richmond Art Museum. June 20, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 5, 2005. Retrieved May 30, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved May 30, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Madonna of the Trail – Richmond, Indiana". Waynet.org. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Joseph Moore Museum – Earlham College". Waynet.org. October 16, 2001. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "Davis D-1-W". Airventuremuseum.org. November 22, 1933. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "Davis Monoplane". Davis Monoplane. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "The Wayne Works Story Part II". CoachBuilt. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- "Shut Up About the Rose Festival". IshMom.com. August 30, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
-  Archived January 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "北米の補習授業校一覧（平成25年4月15日現在）：文部科学省". March 30, 2014. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "ページの本文に移動する". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- "Indiana public library directory" (PDF). Indiana State Library. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- PDF. Federal Aviation Administration. Effective May 31, 2012.
- "Roseview Transit". City of Richmond. October 21, 2007. Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- "Pennsylvania Railroad, Tables 4, 5, 47, 49, 52". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 100 (5). October 1967.
- "WCTV | Whitewater Community Television". Wctv.info. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "Tiffany Windows – Reid Memorial Presbyterian Church – Wayne County, Indiana". Waynet.org. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "Wendell M. Stanley – Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- 'Illinois Blue Book 1995-1996,' Biographical Sketch of Bill W. Balthis, pg. 105
- "Obituary, Vineyardist Dies At 92". The Los Angeles Times. June 5, 1960. p. 62. Retrieved January 6, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Oliver P. Morton Biography Page". Civilwarhome.com. March 24, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "D. Elton Trueblood, 1900 to 1994". Waynet.org. December 20, 1994. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "Dr. Charles A. Hufnagel". Astro4.ast.vill.edu. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
- "Weeb Ewbank | Pro Football Hall of Fame Official Site". Profootballhof.com. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
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