Richard Whately (1 February 1787 – 8 October 1863) was an English rhetorician, logician, economist, academic and theologian who also served as a reforming Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin. He was a leading Broad Churchman, a prolific and combative author over a wide range of topics, a flamboyant character, and one of the first reviewers to recognise the talents of Jane Austen.
|Archbishop of Dublin|
Bishop of Glendalough
Primate of Ireland
|Church||Church of Ireland|
|Diocese||Dublin and Glendalough|
|Appointed||23 October 1831|
|Successor||Richard Chenevix Trench|
|Consecration||23 October 1831|
by Richard Laurence
|Born||1 February 1787|
Cavendish Square, London, England
|Died||8 October 1863 (aged 76)|
Dublin, County Dublin, Ireland
|Buried||St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin|
|Alma mater||Oriel College, Oxford|
Life and timesEdit
He was born in London, the son of the Rev. Dr. Joseph Whately (1730–1797). He was educated at a private school near Bristol, and at Oriel College, Oxford from 1805. He obtained a B.A. in 1808, with double second-class honours, and the prize for the English essay in 1810; in 1811 he was elected Fellow of Oriel, and in 1814 took holy orders. After graduation he acted as a private tutor, in particular to Nassau William Senior who became a close friend, and to Samuel Hinds.
Early married lifeEdit
After his marriage in 1821, Whately lived in Oxford. He had had to give up his college fellowship, which could not be held by married men, and at this period lived by tutoring and his pen. An uncle, William Plumer, presented him with a living, Halesworth in Suffolk; in August 1822 Whately moved there. In 1825, he was appointed principal of St. Alban Hall, a position obtained for him by his mentor Edward Copleston, who wanted to raise the notoriously low academic standards at the Hall, which was also a target for expansion by Oriel. Whately returned to Oxford, though giving up only in 1831 the Suffolk living, where he had seen the social effects of unemployment.
A reformer, Whately was initially on friendly terms with John Henry Newman. They fell out over Robert Peel's candidacy for the Oxford University seat in Parliament. Newman later spoke of his Catholic University as continuing in Dublin the struggle against Whately which he had begun at Oxford.
In 1829 Whately was elected as Drummond Professor of Political Economy at Oxford in succession to Nassau William Senior. His tenure of office was cut short by his appointment to the archbishopric of Dublin in 1831. He published only one course of Introductory Lectures in two editions (1831 & 1832).
Archbishop of DublinEdit
Whately's appointment by Lord Grey to the see of Dublin came as a political surprise. The aged Henry Bathurst had turned the post down. The new Whig administration found Whately, well known at Holland House and effective in a parliamentary committee appearance speaking on tithes, an acceptable option. Behind the scenes Thomas Hyde Villiers had lobbied Denis Le Marchant on his behalf, with the Brougham Whigs. The appointment was challenged in the House of Lords, but without success.
In Ireland, Whately's bluntness and his lack of a conciliatory manner caused opposition from his own clergy, and from the beginning he gave offence by supporting state endowment of the Catholic clergy. He enforced strict discipline in his diocese; and he published a statement of his views on Sabbath (Thoughts on the Sabbath, 1832). He lived in Redesdale House in Kilmacud, just outside Dublin, where he could garden. He was concerned to reform the Church of Ireland and the Irish Poor Laws. He considered tithe commutation essential for the Church.
Irish national education 1831 to 1853Edit
In 1831 Whately attempted to establish a national and non-sectarian system of education in Ireland, on the basis of common instruction for Protestants and Catholics alike in literary and moral subjects, religious instruction being taken apart. In 1841 Catholic archbishops William Crolly and John MacHale debated whether to continue the system, with Crolly who supported Whately gaining papal permission to go on, given some safeguards. In 1852 the scheme broke down, on the opposition of the new Catholic archbishop of Dublin, Paul Cullen. Whately felt himself constrained to withdraw from the Education Board the following year.
During the famine years of 1846 and 1847 the archbishop and his family tried to alleviate the miseries of the people. On 27 March 1848, Whately became a member of the Canterbury Association. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1855.
Whately was a prolific writer, a successful expositor and Protestant apologist in works that ran to many editions and translations. His Elements of Logic (1826) was drawn from an article "Logic" in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. The companion article on "Rhetoric" provided Elements of Rhetoric (1828).
In 1825 Whately published a series of Essays on Some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion, followed in 1828 by a second series On some of the Difficulties in the Writings of St Paul, and in 1830 by a third On the Errors of Romanism traced to their Origin in Human Nature. In 1837 he wrote his handbook of Christian Evidences, which was translated during his lifetime into more than a dozen languages. In the Irish context, the Christian Evidences was adapted to a form acceptable to Catholic beliefs, with the help of James Carlile.
Whately's works included:
- 1819 Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Buonaparte, a jeu d'ésprit directed against excessive scepticism as applied to the Gospel history
- 1822 On the Use and Abuse of Party Spirit in Matters of Religion (Bampton Lectures)
- 1825 Essays on Some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion
- 1826 Elements of Logic
- 1828 Elements of Rhetoric
- 1828 On some of the Difficulties in the Writings of St Paul
- 1830 On the Errors of Romanism traced to their Origin in Human Nature
- 1831 Introductory Lectures on Political Economy, 1st ed. (London: B. Fellowes). Eight lectures.
- 1832 Introductory Lectures on Political Economy, 2nd ed. (London: B. Fellowes). Nine lectures and appendix.
- 1832 A view of the Scripture revelations concerning a future state: lectures advancing belief in Christian mortalism.
- 1832 Thoughts on the Sabbath
- 1836 Charges and Tracts
- 1837 Christian Evidences
- 1839 Essays on Some of the Dangers to Christian Faith
- 1841 The Kingdom of Christ
- 1845 onwards "Easy Lessons": on Reasoning, On Morals, On Mind, and on the British Constitution
Humphrey Lloyd told Caroline Fox that Whately's eccentric behaviour and body language was exacerbated in Dublin by a sycophantic circle of friends. He was a great talker, a wit, and loved punning. In Oxford his white hat, rough white coat, and huge white dog earned for him the sobriquet of the White Bear, and he exhibited the exploits of his climbing dog in Christ Church Meadow.
A member of the loose group called the Oriel Noetics, Whately supported religious liberty, civil rights, and freedom of speech for dissenters, Roman Catholics, Jews, and even atheists. He took the line that the civil disabilities imposed on non-Anglicans made the state only nominally Christian, and supported disestablishment. He was a follower of Edward Copleston, regarded as the founder of the Noetics taken as apologists for the orthodoxy of the Church of England. A devout Christian, Whately took a practical view of Christianity. He disagreed with the Evangelical party and generally favoured a more intellectual approach to religion. He also disagreed with the later Tractarian emphasis on ritual and church authority. Instead, he emphasised careful reading and understanding of the Bible.
Whately took a view of political economy as an essentially logical subject. It proved influential in Oxford. The Noetics were reformers but largely centrist in politics, rather than strong Whigs or Tories. One of Whately's initial acts on going to Dublin was to endow a chair of political economy in Trinity College. Its first holder was Mountifort Longfield. Later, in 1846, he founded the Dublin Statistical Society with William Neilson Hancock.
Whately's view of political economy, and that common to the early holders of the Trinity college professorship, addressed it as a type of natural theology. He belonged to the group of supporters of Thomas Malthus that included Thomas Chalmers, some others of the Noetics, Richard Jones and William Whewell from Cambridge. He saw no inconsistency between science and Christian belief, differing in that way from some Christian critics of Malthus. He differed also from Jones and Whewell, expressing the view that the inductive method was of less use for political economy than the deductive method, properly applied.
In periodicals Whately discussed other public questions. He addressed, for example, the subject of transportation and the "secondary punishments" on those who had been transported; his pamphlet on this topic influenced the politicians Lord John Russell and Henry George Grey.
Whately was an important figure in the revival of Aristotelian logic in the early nineteenth century. The Elements of Logic gave an impetus to the study of logic in Britain, and in the United States of America, logician Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) wrote that his lifelong fascination with logic began when he read Whately's Elements as a 12-year-old boy.
Whately's view of rhetoric as essentially a method for persuasion became an orthodoxy, challenged in mid-century by Henry Noble Day. Elements of Rhetoric is still cited, for thought about presumption, burden of proof, and testimony.
In 1864 Jane Whately, his daughter, published Miscellaneous Remains from his commonplace book and in 1866 his Life and Correspondence in two volumes. The Anecdotal Memoirs of Archbishop Whately, by William John Fitzpatrick, was published in 1864.
Whately married Elizabeth Pope (third daughter of William Pope, born 7 October and baptised 22 December 1795 at Hillingdon, Middlesex) at Cheltenham on 3 July 1821. She later authored some Christian literature herself, dying 25 April 1860. Her younger sister Charlotte married Baden Powell in 1837.
They had four daughters and a son, including:
- (Elizabeth) Jane Whately (1822–1893), a religious author;
- Edward William Whately, a cleric;
- Mary Louisa Whately (1824–1889), a medical missionary in Egypt;
- Henrietta, who married in 1848 Charles Brent Wale, a barrister, son of Sir Charles Wale;
- The youngest daughter Blanche, friend of Mary Rosse, married George Wale R.N., brother of Charles Brent Wale, in 1859, and died in March 1860.
- Gary L. Colledge (1 June 2012). God and Charles Dickens: Recovering the Christian Voice of a Classic Author. Baker Books. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-4412-3778-1.
- John Cornwell (15 September 2011). Newman's Unquiet Grave: The Reluctant Saint. A&C Black. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4411-7323-2.
- Brent, Richard. "Whately, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29176.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Deane, Phyllis. "Senior, Nassau William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25090.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- The London Quarterly Review. Epworth Press. 1867. p. 477.
- Richard Whately; Elizabeth Jane Whately (1866). Life and Correspondence of Richard Whately, D.D.: Late Archbishop of Dublin. Longmans, Green. p. 44.
- Stefan Collini; Richard Whatmore; Brian Young (22 May 2000). Economy, Polity, and Society: British Intellectual History 1750-1950. Cambridge University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-521-63978-1.
- "Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey by Henry Parry Liddon, D.D. London: Longmans, 1894 volume one Chapter X". Retrieved 25 March 2016.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- David de Giustino, "Finding an Archbishop: The Whigs and Richard Whately in 1831", Church History, Vol. 64, No. 2 (June., 1995), pp. 218–236. Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Society of Church History
- Stefan Collini; Richard Whatmore; Brian Young (22 May 2000). Economy, Polity, and Society: British Intellectual History 1750-1950. Cambridge University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-521-63978-1.
- Larkin, Emmet. "Crolly, William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17528.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Blain, Michael (2007). "Reverend" (PDF). The Canterbury Association (1848–1852): A Study of Its Members' Connections. p. 87. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter W" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- Webb, Alfred (1878). . A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son – via Wikisource.
- Casey, Christine (2005). The Buildings of Ireland: Dublin. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 621. ISBN 978-0-300-10923-8.
- Whately, Richard, Elements of Logic, p.vii, Longman, Greens and Co. (9th Edition, London, 1875)
- Donald H. Akenson (1985). Being Had: Historians, Evidence, and the Irish in North America. P. D. Meany. pp. 183–4. ISBN 978-0-88835-014-5.
- The Living Age. Littell, Son and Company. 1866. p. 388.
- Caroline Fox (1972). The Journals of Caroline Fox 1835-1871: A Selection. Elek Books. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-236-15447-0.
- David de Giustino, Finding an Archbishop: The Whigs and Richard Whately in 1831, Church History Vol. 64, No. 2 (Jun., 1995), pp. 218–236, at p, 220. Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Society of Church History. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3167906
- Marilyn D. Button; Jessica A. Sheetz-Nguyen (4 November 2013). Victorians and the Case for Charity: Essays on Responses to English Poverty by the State, the Church and the Literati. McFarland. pp. 90 note 17. ISBN 978-0-7864-7032-7.
- Nigel F. B. Allington; Noel W. Thompson (2010). English, Irish and Subversives Among the Dismal Scientists. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-85724-061-3.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1893). . Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Thomas Boylan; Renee Prendergast; John Turner (1 March 2013). A History of Irish Economic Thought. Chief Research Scientist John Turner. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-136-93349-3.
- Donald Winch (26 January 1996). Riches and Poverty: An Intellectual History of Political Economy in Britain, 1750–1834. Cambridge University Press. pp. 371–2. ISBN 978-0-521-55920-1.
- Winch, Donald (2009). Wealth and Life: Essays on the Intellectual History of Political Economy in Britain, 1848–1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780521715393.
- James P. Henderson (1996). Early Mathematical Economics: William Whewell and the British Case. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8476-8201-0.
- Norval Morris (1998). The Oxford History of the Prison: The Practice of Punishment in Western Society. Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-19-511814-8.
- Fisch, Max, "Introduction", W 1:xvii, find phrase "One episode".
- Robert Connors (5 June 1997). Composition-Rhetoric: Backgrounds, Theory, and Pedagogy. University of Pittsburgh Pre. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-8229-7182-5.
- Nicholas Rescher (19 June 2006). Presumption and the Practices of Tentative Cognition. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-139-45718-7.
- Robert Crookall (1 November 1987). Intimations of Immortality: Seeing that Leads to Believing. James Clarke & Co. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-0-227-67662-2.
- Hugh James Rose; Samuel Roffey Maitland (1837). The British Magazine and Monthly Register of Religious and Ecclesiastical Information, Parochial History, and Documents Respecting the State of the Poor, Progress of Education, Etc. J. Petheram. p. 589.
- Corsi, Pietro. "Powell, Baden". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22642.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Lauer, L. E. "Whately, (Elizabeth)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/59106.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- John Nichols (1849). The Gentleman's Magazine. E. Cave. p. 313.
- Laura Lynn Windsor (2002). Women in Medicine: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-57607-392-6.
- "Wale, Charles Brent (WL836CB)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
- Elizabeth Jane Whately (1866). Life and Correspondence of Richard Whately, D.D.: Late Archbishop of Dublin. Longmans, Green, and Company. p. 472.
- Elizabeth Jane Whately (1866). Life and Correspondence of Richard Whately, D.D.: Late Archbishop of Dublin. 2. Longmans, Green, and Company. p. 381.
- R. Charles Mollan (17 July 2014). William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse: Astronomy and the Castle in Nineteenth-Century Ireland. Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7190-9144-5.
- "Kevin Whately Episode Guide, Who Do You Think You Are Magazine". Retrieved 22 March 2016.
A modern biography is Richard Whately: A Man for All Seasons by Craig Parton ISBN 1-896363-07-5. See also Donald Harman Akenson A Protestant in Purgatory: Richard Whately, Archbishop of Dublin (South Bend, Indiana 1981)
- Einhorn, Lois J. "Consistency in Richard Whately: The Scope of His Rhetoric." Philosophy & Rhetoric 14 (Spring 1981): 89–99.
- Einhorn, Lois J. "Richard Whately's Public Persuasion: The Relationship between His Rhetorical Theory and His Rhetorical Practice." Rhetorica 4 (Winter 1986): 47–65.
- Einhorn, Lois J. "Did Napoleon Live? Presumption and Burden of Proof in Richard Whately's Historic Doubts Relative to Napoleon Boneparte." Rhetoric Society Quarterly 16 (1986): 285–97.
- Giustino, David de. "Finding an archbishop: the Whigs and Richard Whately in 1831." Church History 64 (1995): 218–36.
- McKerrow, Ray E. "Richard Whately: Religious Controversialist of the Nineteenth Century." Prose Studies: 1800–1900 2 (1979): 160–87.
- McKerrow, Ray E. "Archbishop Whately: Human Nature and Christian Assistance." Church History 50.2 (1981): 166–189.
- McKerrow, Ray E. "Richard Whately on the Nature of Human Knowledge in Relation to the Ideas of his Contemporaries." Journal of the History of Ideas 42.3 (1981): 439–455.
- McKerrow, Ray E. "Richard Whately's Theory of Rhetoric." In Explorations in Rhetoric. ed. R. McKerrow. Glenview IL: Scott, Firesman, & Co., 1982.
- McKerrow, Ray E. "Richard Whately and the Revival of Logic in Nineteenth-Century England." Rhetorica 5 (Spring 1987): 163–85.
- McKerrow, Ray E. "Whately's Philosophy of Language." The Southern Speech Communication Journal 53 (1988): 211–226.
- Poster, Carol. "Richard Whately and the Didactic Sermon." The History of the Sermon: The Nineteenth Century. Ed. Robert Ellison. Leiden: Brill, 2010: 59–113.
- Poster, Carol. "An Organon for Theology: Whately's Rhetoric and Logic in Religious Context". Rhetorica 24:1 (2006): 37–77.
- Sweet, William. "Paley, Whately, and 'enlightenment evidentialism'". International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 45 (1999):143-166.
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- Works by Richard Whately at Project Gutenberg
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- Introductory Lectures on Political Economy
- New School: Richard Whately
| Drummond Professor of Political Economy at Oxford
William Forster Lloyd
|Church of Ireland titles|
| Archbishop of Dublin
Richard Chenevix Trench