Richard Burke, 4th Earl of Clanricarde

Richard Burke, 4th Earl of Clanricarde (also Richard de Burgh) (English: /dˈbɜːr/; d'-BER; English: /klænˈrɪkɑːrd/; klan-RIK-ard; 1572 – 12 November 1635) was an Irish nobleman and politician.

Richard Burke (Richard de Burgh)
Earl of Clanricarde
Burke (Clanricarde).png
Arms of de Burgh/Burke of Clanricarde:
Or, a cross gules in the first quarter a lion rampant sable[1]
Tenure1601–1635
PredecessorUlick Burke, 3rd Earl of Clanricarde
SuccessorUlick Burke, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde
Born1572
Died12 November 1635
Spouse(s)
(m. 1603; died 1633)
Issue
Detail
Ulick Burke, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde, & others
FatherUlick Burke, 3rd Earl of Clanricarde
MotherHonora Burke

He was the son of Ulick Burke, 3rd Earl of Clanricarde and Honora Burke. Knighted in 1602 for his exploits as leader of the English cavalry during the Battle of Kinsale, he would later serve as Governor of Connaught from 1604 to 1616, and as a member of the Privy Council of Ireland. Having established himself as the largest and most influential landowner in Connacht, his later life was characterized by animosity between him and an increasingly hostile and acquisitive Dublin government.

Birth and originsEdit

Richard was born in 1572, the second but first surviving son of Ulick Burke[2] and his wife Honora Burke. His father was the 3rd Earl of Clanricarde.

His father's family was Old English and descended from William de Burgh (d.1206) who arrived into Ireland during the reign of King Henry II, and was the founder of the House of Burgh in Ireland.[3]

His mother was a daughter of John Burke of Clogheroka and Tullyra, County Galway.

Early lifeEdit

Family tree
Richard Burke with wife, parents, and selected relatives.[a]
Richard
2nd Earl

d. 1582
Margaret
O'Brien
Ulick
3rd Earl

d. 1601
Honora
Burke

b. c. 1535
Richard
4th Earl
1572–1635
William
Burke

d. 1626
Joan
O'Shaugh-
nessy
Donough
1st Earl
Clancarty

1594–1665
Ulick
1st Marquess

1604–1657
Richard
6th Earl

d. 1666
Lettice
Shirley

c. 1617 – 1655
William
7th Earl
d. 1687
Helen
MacCarty

d. 1722
Richard
8th Earl

d. aft. 1708
John
9th Earl

1642–1722
Mary
Talbot

d. 1711
Ulick
1st Viscount
Galway

1670–1691
Michael
10th Earl

1686–1726
Anne
Smith

d. 1733
Legend
XXXSubject of
the article
XXXEarls & Marquesses
of Clanricarde
XXXEarls of
of Clancarty

He actively served Queen Elizabeth I against the rebel Irish lordships and their Spanish allies during the Nine Years' War.

He was appointed governor of Connaught, member of the privy council in Ireland, and, in 1624, created Viscount Tunbridge and Baron of Somerhill, a manor which he owned in Kent. The titles of Viscount Galway and Earl of St Albans were conferred on him in 1628.

In 1601 he succeeded his father as the 4th Earl of Clanricarde.

Marriage and childrenEdit

In 1603, Lord Clanricarde married Frances Walsingham, the widow of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.

Richard and Frances had one son:

  1. Ulick, his successor

—and two daughters:

  1. Honora, married John Paulet, 5th Marquis of Winchester
  2. Mary, married Edward Butler of Ballinahinch

Later lifeEdit

By 1633 he was not only one of the principal landowners in Ireland, but virtually all powerful in County Galway.

This aroused the resentment of the Dublin Government, which decided to use the method of empanelling juries to "find" defective titles, in order to recover the lands in question for the English Crown.

DeathEdit

 
Portumna Castle was commissioned by Richard Burke and completed in 1617.

The treatment that Lord Clanricarde experienced from the Lord Deputy of Ireland, Thomas Wentworth, was said to have accelerated his death in November 1635.[4]

Wentworth however pointed to the Earl's advancing years as the obvious cause, and asked sarcastically if he was to blame for a man being over sixty.

The feud, which was continued by Clanricarde's son and heir, was in the long run very damaging to Strafford, who apparently did not reflect on the close connections that Clanricarde, through his wife, had with just that faction of the English nobility, the Rich-Devereux clan, who were most hostile to Strafford.[5]

Notes, citations, and sourcesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also see the lists of siblings and children in the text.

CitationEdit

  1. ^ Burke, John; Burke, Bernard (1844). Encyclopædia of Heraldry: Or General Armory of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Comprising a Registry of All Armorial Bearings from the Earliest to the Present Time, Including the Late Grants by the College of Arms. H. G. Bohn.
  2. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 230: "... 2nd but 1st surviv. s. [surviving son] and h. [heir] "
  3. ^ Burke & Burke 1909, p. 409, right column: "William FitzAdelme was sent by Henry II, with Hugh de Lacie, into Ireland to receive the submission of Roderick O'Conor, King of Connaught."
  4. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 231, line 13: "He [the 4th Earl] d. 12 Nov. 1635 and was bur. there [Tunbridge] aged about 63."
  5. ^ "Burke, Richard | Dictionary of Irish Biography". dib.ie. Retrieved 21 December 2021.

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

Government offices
Preceded by
Unknown
Lord President of Connaught
1604–1616
Succeeded by
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by Earl of Clanricarde
1601–1635
Succeeded by
Peerage of England
New creation Earl of St Albans
1628–1635
Succeeded by
Viscount Tunbridge
1624–1635